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0iford jfrencb Series 


General Editor: RAYMOND i^'EEES, PhJ>. 

or aoaiAXCB laxouagbs axd UTSKATinua. Columbia uNivm arrr 








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n 1933 I. 

Copyright, 1913 
BY Oxford University Press 


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The path of any one undertaking to furnish a guide to 
French pronunciation is a thorny one. Nevertheless, 
despite this fact and the thanklessness of the task, the 
subject receives, in a variety of- forms, some attention 
annually. Most of this attention is of the obligatory 
kind and is found in the opening chapter of almost every 
French grammar that appears. Such treatment, while 
necessarily concise and brief and generally well adapted 
to the purpose in view, of introducing the student to the 
subject, hardly ever goes beyond that goal. Besides the 
grammars, there are quite a few manuals, or treatises, on 
pronunciation that appear from time to time, and in their 
way are helpful to the serious student of the subject, no 
matter how objectionable he may consider many features 
in such works. Lastly there are the recent dictionaries, 
N in most of which the most cursory examination reveals an 
- amount of attention given to the subject of pronuncia- 
tion proportionate to the very considerable interest there- 
in manifested of late years. 

During this period the above sources have been quite 

fully drawn upon by the writer in giving the course on 

French pronunciation to the students of advanced courses 

d in French in Boston University and in the course on pho- 

^ netics given among the courses for teachers at the same 

S institution. The need, however, of something more tan- 

V* • • • 

4. lU 



gible, particularly in the way of drill exercises illustrating 
the principles involved, has yearly made itself more sen- 
sibly felt. The present treatise is an attempt to supply 
this want. The system of indicating pronunciation of the 
International Phonetic Association has been adopted be- 
cause it is the system now most universally in use for in- 
dicating pronunciation in dictionaries and standard works 
of reference. For that reason it is better known than any 
other system. Moreover, it is well adapted for indicating 
the sounds of French, and in itself may be made to do ex- 
cellent service in introducing the student to the subject 
of general phonetics, a most valuable asset in the study 
of language. 

Quite a nimiber and variety of books of reference, more 
or less "authoritative," have been in use constantly dur- 
ing the preparation of this treatise. From many of them, 
simply a word, a sentence, an idea, a suggestion has been 
taken. Others have served continually as a vade-mecum^ 
particularly in noting pronunciation. The difference of 
opinion among educated French people as regards the pro- 
nunciation of some words is, in many instances, consider- 
able. In view of this lack of agreement, the writer's aim, 
in justice to all concerned, has been simply to record what 
he believes from printed data to be the facts. The stu- 
dent may be absolutely certain that, barring mistakes, 
every indicated pronunciation in the treatise has more 
or less endorsement as vouched for in the French sources 
of information. This testimony serves as an affidavit to 
which any one can turn at any time. The opinion of the 
educated Frenchman or of the experienced teacher is un- 
doubtedly most helpful in such cases. It has the disad- 


vantage, howover, of being verbatim testimony, as over 
against written statement, and for that reason its weight 
is less enduring. Investigation of the records will very 
rarely result in other than additional proof verifying the 
correctness of any one particular pronunciation noted. 

Undoubtedly many a scholar will condemn roundly a 
number of the books of reference cited in the appended 
list. The subject is many-sided. What appeals to one 
will shock another. It will be remembered, however, that 
it is hardly possible to produce a work of any kind what- 
ever on the subject that may not in some way contain at 
least a suggestion, if not more, that may be of practical 
use to somebody. Therefore, such as it is, and containing 
most of the publications consulted in the preparation of 
the present treatise, the list is herewith offered as a bib- 
liographical guide to others working up the subject of 
French pronunciation. 

The brief portion of the treatise following that on the 
"spoken word" has been suggested by the many ques- 
tions of teachers in regard to the "written word": "Is a 
hyphen used between the parts of such and such a word? " 
"Do you abbreviate the first part?" "Is it written with 
a capital?" "What corresponds to 'Sincerely Yours'?" 
etc. The answers to such questions are not readily found 
in the ordinary granmiar and composition book, although 
it is possible to locate them in a very few of such works. 
Therefore it is hoped that the treatment here of this part 
of the subject embraced in the Summary will help to make 
more complete and accessible the information already 

It only remains for the writer to thank his friend Pro- 


f essor Weeks, the editor of the series, for reading the manu- 
script and for making a nimiber of valuable suggestions 
which have been carefully carried out. 

James Geddes, Jr. 

Boston Uniyersitt, May 1, 1913. 




I Introduction 1 

Key to pronunciation 1 

Symbols to be noted 1 

Table of French sounds 3 

Vowel differences 4 

Consonant differences 5 

Stress 6 

Quantity 7 

French alphabet 9 

Orthographic marks 11 

Division of syllables 13 

Double consonants 16 

Written and spoken forms 17 


II Oral vowels 19 

a = [a] 19 i = [i] 36 

a = [a] 21 o = [o] 37 

e = [a] 25 o = [o] 40 

e silent 26 eu = [0] 43 

6 = [e] 30 eu = [oe] 44 

d = [e] ..:.... 33 ou = [u] 45 

e without accent . . 36 u = [y] 46 

ni Vowel combinations 47 

ai, ei, au, eu, ou, etc 47, 123 

IV Nasal vowels 49 

an, am, en, em ... 50 on, cm 54 

in, im, etc 52 un, um 55 




V Semi-vowels 57 

i + vowel = (il . 57 u + vowel = [q] . . . 62 

o + vowel = [wj 60 Semi-vowels + nasals . 64 

VI Consonants 65 

Distinctions between French and English consonants. 65 

General principles 65 

b, c 68 m,n 93,95 

ch, sch 71 P, q, qu 96, 98 

d, f 73 r, s 101, 104 

g, gn 76 sc, sch 108 

gn = [jil . . . . 78 t,th 109 

h,j 81,85 ti+ vowel 112 

k, 1 86 V, w 118 

Imouill^ .... 87 wh, X, z 119,122 

Vn Review. R£sum£ of vowel combinations 123 

vm Review. CJonsonant cjombinations 125 

rX Liaison 126 

b, c, f, k, 1 . . . 128 z 133 

p, q, r, t . . . . 130 d, g, s, X 134 

t in -cct, etc. . . 131 m, n 138 

Special cases, exceptions, etc 140 

X Elision 142 


Xn Punctuation 154 

Xni Conventional forms used in letter-writinq . . . 157 

XIV Abbreviations . 161 

Index 165 


Altergnat, v. The modem class-book of French pronunciation, 
containing all the rules with their exceptions which govern the 
pronunciation of the French language. Boston (Schoenhof), 
1891. (Particularly useful and suggestive as regards the syllabir 
cation of the written and spoken forms of many difficult words.) 

Beabley, H. R. Sure steps to intelligent French, London (Swan, 
Sonnenschein & Co.), 1905. (An elementary treatise employ- 
ing the system of the International Phonetic Association to in- 
dicate the pronunciation.) 

Bernard, C. H. L. N., and L^n E. Bernard. Visible French 
pronunciation. Boston, 1899. (The authors employ a phonetic 
transcription of their own, silent letters appearing in red.) 

Bernard, Victor F. Les fautes de langage ou le frangais comme on 
le parte. New York (Jenkins), 1900. (Pp. 59-69 contain a list 
of common words likely to be mispronounced.) 

Bescherelle ain^. Uart de conjugv^r. Paris (Fouraut et fils), s. d. 
(Few more handy works of the kind have ever been devised 
in order to locate at once a peculiar verb-form than this "old 

Bevier, Louis, Jr. A French grammar^ with exercises by Thomas 
Logic. New York (Holt), 1896. (The Phonology (pp. 9-46) is 
unusually complete.) 

Beyer, Franz. Franzosische Phonetik, 2d ed. Cothen (Schulze), 
1908. (Pp. 136-153 contain instructive Textproben. A few 
characters indicating sounds differ from those now used by the 
I. P. A.) 

. Idem, Dritte Auflage im Auftrage des Verfassers, neu be- 

arbeitet von H. Klinghardt. Cothen (Schulze), 1908. (Of inter- 
est as compared with the first edition because of the progress 
made in the subject of phonetics during the twenty years be- 
tween the two editions and the additions to its Literatur, pp. 224- 




Beter und Passt. Das gesprochene Franzosisch. Cothen (Schulze), 
1893. (GrammcUik: pp. 77-170; Specimens of pronunciation: 
pp. 1-76; Useful phonetic glossary: pp. 174-218.) 

B6cher's Otto's French grammar. New York (Holt), 1884. (Pro- 
nunciation: pp. 13-27.) 

BoNAME, L. Study arid practice of French, Philadelphia (1930 Chest- 
nut St.). Part I, 1899; Part II, 1908; Part III, 1899. (Con- 
siderable attention is paid, particularly in Parts, I and II, which 
are of an elementary character, to the subject of pronunciation. 
Useful simple examples abound.) 

. Idem, A handbook of pronunciation. Ibidem, 1900. (Par- 
ticularly useful for those who do not care for phonetic transcrip- 
tions and desire the subject stated along ordinary lines in the 
simplest and most direct form.) 

Brachet and Toynbee. A historical grammar of the French lan- 
guage, Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1896. (Good common ex- 
amples and very clear statements.) 

Brittain, Margaret. Historical primer of French phoneticSf with 
introductory note by Paget Tojmbee. Oxford (Clarendon 
Press), 1900. (One of the few books of the kind in English 
showing up-to-date scholarship.) 

Brunot, F. Prids de grammaire historique de la langue frangaise. 
Paris (Masson), 1887. (A standard work.) 

Cameron, J. H. The elements of French composition. New York 
(Holt), 1901. (Useful hints to students on capitals, punctu- 
ation, etc.: pp. 103-116.) 

Cauvet, Alfred. La prononcicUion frangaise et la diction, k Tusage 
des 6coles, de gens du monde et des strangers. Dixitoe Edition 
accompagn^e de lettres adress^es k Tauteur par MM. Delaunay, 
Got et Massenet. Paris (Ollendorff), 1889. (Offers many useful 
suggestions passim throughout.) 

Chardenal's Complete French course, revised by Maro Brooks. 
Boston (Alljm & Bacon), 1907. (Pronunciation: pp. 1-16.) 

Churchman, P. H. An introduction to the pronunciation of French. 
Cambridge, Mass., 1907. 

. Exercises on French sounds. New York (Jenkins), 1911. 

(A revised edition of the preceding Introduction, etc. Both of 


these manuals are among the best of the kind published in the 
United States.) 

Cl^dat, L. Grammaire 4Umentaire de la vieiUe langue frangaise. 
Paris (Gamier fr^res), 1887. (A standard work,) 

. Grammaire raisonrUe de la langiie frangaise, Paris (Soudier), 

1894. (A standard work.) 

Colin and S^rapon. Practical lessons in French grammar. Boston 
(Sanborn), 1910. (Pronunciation: pp. xxix-xxxv.) 

Delahaye, Victor. Dictionnaire de la prononciation modeme de la 
langiie frangaise. Montreal (Beauchemin), 1901. Seul ouvrage 
portatif donnant la prononciation figure de tous les mots de la 
langue frangaise. Pr6c^^ d'une lettre k Fauteur de Louis Fre- 
chette. (A simple system of indicating pronunciation is em- 
ployed. The syllabication of every word receives more thorough 
treatment than can perhaps be found in any other similar work.) 

DuMAis, Joseph. Parhns frangais. Montreal, 1905. (Particularly 
adapted to the needs of the French-speaking inhabitants of 

Eve and de Baudier. The WeUingion College French grammar. 
16th edition. London (David Nutt), 1904. (One of the best 
grammars of the kind published in England. Hints on pro- 
nunciation: pp. 324-339; phonetic transcription: pp. 363-365.) 

Fraber and Squair. A French grammar for schools and coUeges. 
Boston (Heath), 1908. (Many editions; widely used in Canada 
and the United States. Phonetic introduction: pp. 1-12.) 

Grandgent, C. H. a short French grammar. Boston (Heath), 1894. 
(Pronimciation and spelling: pp. 1-11.) 

. The essentials of French grammar. Ibidem, 1900. (The first 

fifteen chapters (pp. 1-44) are devoted to a detailed study and 
analysis of the essential features of French pronunciation. 
Both this work and the preceding, because of the marked ori- 
ginality of treatment of the entire subject of French grammar, 
are highly suggestive.) 

Selections for French composition. IMdem. (Pp. v-vi and 

53-54 et seq. contain the most complete guidance for the con- 
ventional usage in letter-writing that has yet appeared.) 
Hatzfeld, Darmesteter et Thomas. Dictionnaire gin6ral de la 


langue frangaise du commencement du xvii si^cle jusqu'4 no3 
jours. Paris, s. d. [Public en fascicules en 1893-4-5]. (A stand- 
ard work very generally considered the most authoritative work 
of the kind.) * 
Jespersen, Otto. Lehrhuch der PhonetiJc. Autorisierte Ubersetzung 
von Hermann Davidsen. Leipzig imd Berlin, 1904. (This 
author's works are among the most authoritative of the kind.) 
Knowles-Favard. Perfect French possible. Boston (Heath), 1910. 
(French sentences expressed in English words.) I 

KoscHWiTZ, Edward. Les parlers parisiens. Paris (Welter), 1896. 
("Anthologie phon^tique" made up of records taken of the 
speech of a number of well-known educated Frenchmen and 
transcribed according to the system of the I. P. A.) 
KuHN, Maurice N. Elements of spoken French. New York (Ameri- 
can Book Co.), 1900. (Twenty lessons, French on one side of 
the page, English on the other, studying the individual sounds, 
with exercises on them and a good many examples.) 
y^ Lesaint, M. a. Traits complet de la prononciation frangaise dans la 
.^'^ seconde moiti^ du xix® si^cle. 3® M. Halle (Gesenius), 1890. 
^ ^ (One of the best and most useful works of the kind ever pub- 

lished. It has been reprinted several times but not revised; or 
if any revision has been made, it has been very slight.) 
LiET, Albert. TraitS de pronondation frangaise. Thdorie et pra- 
tique. Paris, 1900. (Very useful in indicating both syllable 
division and pronunciation.) 
Lakousse, Pierre. Grand dictionnaire universel du XIX« siecle. 
Paris, 1865. (The fifteen-volume work with the two supple- 
ments, as an encyclopedia, is even to-day unsurpassed, except, 
of course, in matter that is modem and made possible since the 
publication of the Larousse.) 
LiTTR^, E. Dictionnaire de la langue frangaise. Paris (Hachette), 
1889. (The four volumes and the supplement, Uke the preceding 
work, in its way is even to-day a most valuable work. The small 
Larousse and Littr6 dictionaries generally furnish pronunciation 
only in particular cases where without it the difficulty is appar- 
ent at once.) 
Maitre phonStique, organe de ^Association phon^tique internatio- 


nale. Bourg-la-Reine, Seine. (A monthly review devoted to 
sounds and their expression according to the I. P. A. system.) 

Matzke, J. E. A primer of French pronuncicUion. 3d edition. New 
York (Holt), 1906. (An excellent brief and concise treatise of 
the subject, emplojdng the I. P. A. system throughout.) 

Michaelis-Passy. Dictionnaire phonitique de la langue franQaise. 
Hanovre, 1897. (A unique work and perhaps the only one of 
the kind. Many "popular" pronunciations not considered 
''standard " by scholars are given. That they are heard cannot 
be doubted. This in itself gives a peculiar value to the diction- 
/^MtJLLER, August. AUgemeiv^ Worterhuch der Aussprache atisldndi- 
scher Eigennamen, 7th edition, in collaboration with G. A. Saal- 
feld and H. Michaelis. Leipzig (Haberland), 1903. (The diffi- 
culty of finding the pronunciation indicated of proper names is 
very real. This work, as a book of reference, may at times prove 

Nicholson, G. G. A practical irUrodiiction to French phonetics. 
London (Macmillan), 1909. (A scholarly exposition of the sub- 
ject up to date and along modem lines.) 

Passy, Paul. Chmx de lectures frangaises phonitiques. Cothen 
(Schulze), s. d. (Specimens of the "popular" pronunciation of 
children. The French rendering is not given on the opposite 
page. Many teachers prefer it should not be given. Well adap- 
ted for class-room use, provided the teacher explains the differ- 
ence between "popular" and "standard.") 

. Stude sur les changemenls phonitiques et leurs caractbres gin4- 

raux. Paris (Firmin-Didot), 1890. (A most useful work to 
students interested in sound-change and general phonetics.) 

. Le frangais parU. 2® 6d. Heilbronn (Henninger fr^res), 

1889. (Specimens of spoken French.) 

. Petite phonitique comparie des principales langvss euro- 

peennes. Leipsic et Berlin (Teubner), 1906. (Of particular 
value to students of phonetics and linguistics.) 

■ . Lectures varied raises en transcription phon6tique. 2® 6d. 

Paris, 1910. (Specimens of spoken French (without the French 
rendering; cf. what is said above under the author's Choix de 


lectures, etc.). The language is not of quite as "popular" a 
character as that found in the Chmx,) 

. Les sons dufrangais, 6* 6d. Paris, ld06. (This well-known, 

clear and simple exposS of the subject furnishes as good an intro- 
duction as is available.) 

The sounds of the French langtuige, translated by D. L. Sa- 

vory and D. Jones. Oxford (Clarendon Press), 1907. (This is a 
translation of the above with useful notes and suggestions, 
making it thoroughly desirable.) 

Passt-Hempl. International French-English and English-French 
dictionary. New York (Hinds, Noble and Eldridge), 1904. (A 
useful work and unique of the kind, giving the pronunciation in 
both parts, French and English, according to the I. P. A. sys- 
tem. Moreover, the pronunciation of a niunber of proper names 
is indicated.) 

Passy-Jones. Exposi des prindpes de V Association phon4tigrue in- 
temationale. Bourg-la-Reine, 1908. (A pamphlet of 20 pages 
containing, besides the Expos6 of the principles of the organiza- 
tion, specimen selections.) 

. The principles of the irUemaiional phonetic association. Bourg- 

la^Reine (Seine) and University College, London, 1912. (New, 
revised, and enlarged edition in English of the Exposi. It con- 
tains 40 pages including quite a complete Bibliography of the 
entire subject.) 

Passt, Jean, et Adolf Rambeau. Chrestomathie frangaise. 2® 6d. 
New York (Holt) and Paris (Soudier), 1901. (One of the best 
books of the kind and the most complete both as regards expo- 
sition of the principles of sound-change and the selections. 
The French rendering of the phonetical transcriptions is found 
throughout the work on the opposite page. Pp. xlvii-li con- 
tain a good bibliography of the subject.) 

RippMANN, Walter. Elements of phonetics. English, French and 
German, translated and adapted by Walter Rippmann from 
Professor Victor's Kleine Phonetik. London (Dent), 1907. (For 
the student of phonetics, one of the best books published.) 

RiVARD, Adjutor. Manual de la parole. Traits de prononciation. 
Qu6bec, 1901. (An excellent work of the kind, giving briefly 


and clearly the many peculiarities of pronunciation of Canadian 
French children and thereby proving most helpful linguistically 
and phonetically.) 

KocHELLE, Phili|)pe de la. Guide to French pronunciation and praC' 
tical phonetics. Philadelphia (Fuller Building), 1909. (The 
ordinary difficulties explained more from the popular than the 
scientific standpoint.) 

RoussELOT et Laclotte. Precis de prononciation frangaise, Paris 
and Leipzig, 1902. (A well-known useful work of reference.) 

Saillenb and Holme. First principles of French pronunciation. 
London (Blackie & Son), 1909. (One of the few up-to-date scien- 
tific contributions that are beginning to appear in English.) ^ 

Simonben, Elna. Franske Lydskrifttekster, Copenhagen (Gylden- 
dalske Boghandel), 1908. (Selections well adapted for class- 
room use.) 

Snow, Wm. B. Fundamentals of French grammar. New York 
(Holt), 1912. ("Letters and their Sounds": pp. 1-12. Pho- 
netic transcriptions at the bottom of the pages.) 

Storm, J. Englische Philologie, 2 vols. Leipzig (Reisland), 1892. 
(See vol. I, AUgemeine Phonetik and the portion dealing with 
P. Passyipp. 158-188.) 

Sweet, Henry. A handbook of phonetics, Oxford (Clarendon Press), 
1890. (A standard work.) 

Tassis, S. a. Guide du correcteur et du compositeur, Paris (Firmin- 
Didot), 1856. (Despite the age of this little guide, in-16 (90 
pages), "donnant la solution des principales difficult^s pour 
Vemploi des lettres majuscules et minuscules dans F^criture et 
I'impression," nothing has been found by the compiler of this 
list to equal it in its way. It is sui generis unique.) 

Tesson, Louis. Le frangais fonetique. Revue trimestrielle. Paris 
(Ch. Amat), 1909-'10-'ll. 

. Le verhe frangais raisonrU. Ibidem, 1909. 

. Le livre de lecture fonetico-ortografique. Ibidem, 1909. (In 

each of these three publications, the author uses a simple 
method of indicating pronunciation which has the advantage 
that it can be printed by the ordinary printing-press.) 

Thieme and Effinger. A French grammar. New York (Macmil- 


Ian Co.)i 1908. (The I. P. A. transcription is used throughout, 
and very effectively as far as appearance on the page is con- 

Thurwangeb, Camille. Musical diction. Boston, s. d. [1911]. 
New England Conservatory of Music. (Although written for 
students of singing, it contains many good points for others as 
well as most useful examples.) 

. Phonetically annotated songs in foreign languages, enaUing 

any one to sing correctly in French, Italian, and German. 
Ibidem, 1912. (An effective exemplification of the practical 
utility of phonetic notation according to the system of the 
I. P. A. 

TncKERMAN, Julius. SimpUciti. A reader of French pronunciation. 
New York (American Book Co.), 1908. (Pedagogically this man- 
ual in its first edition far surpassed its scientific worth. The later 
editions, however, have made amends in the latter respect.) 

VifiroR, Wilhelm. Elemente der Phonetik und Orthoepie des 
Deutschen, Englischen und Franzosischen, 5. Auflage. Leipzig, 
1904. (A standard work.) 

. KJeine Phonetik. 8. Auflage. Leipzig, 1912. (A simple and 

practical condensation of the preceding Elemente, etc.) 

Vreeland and Koren. Lessons in French syntax and composition^ 
New York (Holt), 1907. (Pp. 98-102 useful hints in regard 
to conventional forms used in letter-writing.) 

Whitney, W. D. A practical French grammar. New York (Holt), 
1886. ("Pronunciation": pp. 1-26. Like the B6cher's Otto's 
granmiar mentioned above, the WTiitney holds well its own with 
the newcomers. The examples are numerous and well chosen.) 

Yersin, M. and J. The Yersin phono-rhythmic method of French pro- 
nuncicUion, accent, and diction. French-English. Philadelphia 
(Lippincott), 1897. (Contains the teaching experience of two 
teachers remarkably successful in imparting an exoellent pro- ] 
nunciation.) j 

ZtJND-BuRGUET, Adolphc. Mithode pratique, physiologique et com- j 
par^ de pronondation. Paris (Gymnase de la Voix), 1902. 
(Showing especially how sounds are produced, their position by 
means of the artificial palate, the mechanism of the subject.) 



1 Key to pronunciation. As the sounds of French and 
English are rarely identical, it is impossible to give exact 
equivalents takefi from both. Nevertheless so similar are 
in many cases the sounds respectively of either language 
that it is often possible to get quickly a more adequate 
idea of nearly corresponding sounds by comparison than 
in any other way. Spelling in French, although not so 
irregular and inconsistent as in English, offers many dif- 
ficulties. This must necessarily be so, for in French 
there are thirty-seven sounds, exclusive of minor distinc- 
tions, and only twenty-six letters to express them. The 
advantage, therefore, in a treatise on French pronuncia- 
tion, of having an alphabet in which one letter or symbol, 
and only one, shall represent each soimd, is at once ap- 
parent. Such an alphabet has for many years been used 
at home and abroad. It is known as the International 
Phonetic Alphabet. Twenty-four of the characters used 
to indicate pronunciation are those of the ordinary al- 
phabet and consequently are familiar to the student: [a], 
[a], [b], [d], [e], [f], [g], [h], [i], [j], [k], [1], [m], [n], [o], [p], 
[r], [s], [t], [u], [v], [w], [y], [z]. 

2 Symbols to be noted. Of the thirteen remaining 
symbols, which are unlike the characters of the alphabet, 
five represent oral vowel soimds: [a], [e], [o], [oe], [0]; four 



represent nasal vowel sounds: [a], [e|, [5], [ce]; one repre- 
sents a semi-vowel or semi-consonant sound: [q]; and 
three represent consonant sounds: [ji], [J], [3]. 

Of the symbols just noted, [a] and [q] are respectively 
inverted e and A; the open [e] is "the Greek epsilon^'; [o] 
is an open 0; [0], a Danish letter representing approxi- 
mately the vowel sound in English hurt; [oe], so written 
in French, is the union of the letters and e, about as in 
English pwp; [a], {e], [5], [oe] are simply the oral vowels 
[ci]> [e], [0], [ce] nasalized; [ji] is pictorial for the union of 
Q and n, a sound somewhat like that in English pimon; 
[S] is an old English s, used for the sA sound in English 
sAall; and [5] represents the corresponding voiced sound 
heard m EngUsh pleasure. 

3 Open and closedl In speaking of the vowels, 
the terms "open'' and "closed'' are frequently used. 
"Open" applied to the symbols [a], [e], [o], [oe], shows pic- « 
torially that these symbols, having a break or opening 
somewhere about their contour, are "open" compared 
respectively with their "closeli" correspondents [a], [e], . 
M> [0]y which are closed in. In pronouncing "open" and . 
"close>l" vowels, these terms may be the better fixed 
in the memory if it be remembered that "open" and , 
''closecl" applied to the sounds indicate, in a general 
way, that the mouth is to be opened wider when pro- . 
nouncing an "open" vowel than when pronouncing its 
"close^^' correspondent. 


4 Table of French sounds, with appipximate English 





• a 

• a 

• g 

• a 

• i- 

• ° 

potte, port 
pas, pdte 
eUf to/tte 

^lait, t#te 
yfh, teinte 
de, crever 
xu, pire 
^, c^e 
'robe, tort 













» oe 

9 OB 

• y 



(Grerman u) 



b &out, ro&e 

d cfent, Tude 

f forty neu/ 

g ^ant, dogue 

h Tionte, oho 

k car, coq 

1 /ong, seu/ 

m mot, dame 

n ni, Ane 

ji T^gnetj pelgne 

p ^as, ta^e 

r rare, drap 

s 5i, danse 

I cfuitj hacAe 

t tas, paffe 

V i;ent, rive 

z zdle, rose 

3 7ean, rou^e 

! sign of length 





fri(/ate ^ 















y^ blond, trompe don't* 
peu, creuse ht^rt' 
setd, peur 
un, humble 
tout, tour 
pu, pur 


yevoLf bien year 
huile, nuoge sii;eet 
oui,jioAe'^ ii?ell 

1 Approximately as in the New England pronunciation of wan, want; not 
irith the vowel in law which is more widely in use elsewhere. More accurately the 
sound is a in mar, nasalised. 

' For those who pronounce haunt and all similar words (cf. note 1) with a 
nasal vowel (as in law somewhat nasalised), that sound would be nearer. The 
New England vowel of want, haunt, daunt, etc., enjoys a very limited use in the 
United States. 

* The vowel soimd meant in hurt is that of the standard English of England 
and that of New England. West of the Hudson, and generally in New York 
City, one hears the "cerebral r." It may be said as regards parallelism of 
sound between 4> And the vowel in hurt, and between ce and the vowel in pup, 
hut, cup, that in the speech of thone who pronounce no r in hurt, a parallel 
exists between the vowel in this word as compared with that of hut, and the 
French vowels ^ and cb. ^ is sensibly more tense than oe. 


5 Vowel differences in English and French. The 
vowels in English frequently begin with one sound and 
end with an entirely different one. If the first letter of 
the English alphabet a be pronounced, and the sound 
prolonged, and then allowed gradually to die away, it will 
be foimd that the vowel begins with the letter a and ends 
with English e. If the letter i be pronounced in the same 
manner, it will be found that the vowel begins with an 
English ah sound and ends with the sound of English c. 
If o in a like manner be pronounced, the vowel will be 
found to begin with o and end with the sound of oo in 
English hoo. The approximate French sounds correspond- 
ing to the English first letter of the alphabet a and to the 
letter o are e and 6 respectively. If these French vowels 
be properly pronounced, no such sliding scale of transi- 
tion as occurs in English will appear. The beginning, 
middle and end of the French sound will be identical. 

6 The respective differences of these two English 
vowels and their corresponding French approximates e 
and 6 may be graphically shown thus: 

English vowel sounds a, o French approximates e, 6 


Therefore in the above Table the vowel sound in 
English fate incorrectly represents the vowel sound in 
6t6, because the former sound is a diphthong, while the 
latter is a pure vowel. The same is true of pot, cote. 



The vowel sound in English note is a diphthong, while 
the sound in French pot and cote is a simple, uniformly 
even utterance throughout. It is of the utmost impor- 
tance at the start to reaUze and to observe this vocalic 
diflference between the two languages. 

7 Consonant differences in English and French. 
Nearly every English consonant is more or less unlike its 
French approximate. In general the transition in Eng- 
Ush from consonant to vowel is slower than in French. 
Such words in English as pear, coaly touTj when forcibly 
pronoimced, suggest something like an h sound inserted 
between the stopped consonants p, c, t, and the following 
vowel. The French words pere, cote, tour, though similar 
to English pear, coat, tour, lack any such suggestion, nor 
have they that hardness which is apt to be noticeable in 
a beginner's pronunciation. The transition from p, c, t 
to the following vowel is abrupt, short and quick. If the 
two consonants d in English donH and d in French don 
be compared, something similar as regards sound effect is 
noticeable. The French d, being pronounced farther for- 
ward in the mouth than the English d and nearer the, 
English th position, is softer and pleasanter than the Eng- 
lish d, which, as at times in the word donH, may be very 

8 In the above Table it will be noticed that the key- 
words given to illustrate approximately the correspond- 
ing French consonants p, b, t, d, k, g are piper, harbor, 
entry, needy, rocket, rugged. In each case, the consonant 
in question occurs as medial. In this position these con- 


sonants lack a certain kind of explosiveness that they have 
when initial. When medial they are a nearer approxima- 
tion to the respective French correspondents. For anal- 
ogous reasons, jolly, steamer, many, error are selected to 
illustrate the Uquids I, m, n, r. It is essential to avoid 
coming down too hard upon the French consonants, the 
effect of which is un-French. Consonant differences, to be 
discerned by observation as here suggested, are no less 
important to observe and reaUze than are the fimdamen- 
tal vowel differences pointed out above. 

9 Stress. A third important general difference is that 
of stress in the two languages. Stress, in the sense of 
emphasis upon one syllable rather than on any other, a 
characteristic of English pronunciation, is in the same 
sense non-existent in French. The syllables of a French 
word receive, one about as much emphasis as the other, 
all being very evenly pronounced. It is true that when 
slightly more stress can be observed upon one syllable 
rather than upon another, that that syllable is usually 
the last, not counting a final e mute syllable. 

10 French words are largely of Latin origin; Latin 
words have the stress, as a rule, on the penult, which in 
French usually became the last syllable: L. a-ma'-re = Fr. 
ai-mer; L. 6o-m-to'-<em = Fr. bon-t6; L. ca-mi'-nwm = Fr. 
che-min. It is convenient in French to apply the term 
** stressed" or "accented" syllable to the last, care being 
taken to avoid stressing or accenting the syllable forcibly 
as in English. It should be remembered that written ac- 
cents have nothing to do with stress, which applies merely 


to the force with which one syllable is pronounced com- 
pared with another syllable in the word. 

11 Quantity. By quantity is meant the length of a 
vowel or syllable as regards the time taken in pronoimc- 
ing it. As it is possible to dwell more or less time on any 
vowel soimd, there may be many degrees of quantity. 
But for practical purposes it is sufficient to distinguish , 
two degrees of length, long and short. 

12 Long vowels occur only in the stressed, or last 
pronoimced, syllable: ar-ri-ve [a-riiv] arrives; fou-ge-re 
[fu-38ir] fern; fro-ma-ge [fro-mais] cheese; tra-vail-le 
[tra-vaij] works, 

13 Any vowel in the stressed syllable before the soimds 
D]> [vl, [z], [5] and [r] final (or followed by silent conso- 
ilants) is regularly long: seu-il [soeij] threshold; tra-va-il 
[tra-vaij] work; a-che-ve [a-Jeiv] finishes; ca-ve [kaiv] 
cellar; gaz [gaiz] gas; ro-se [roiz] rose; pla-ge [plais] 
beach; pha-re [fair] lighthouse ;<7ei [veir] worm; ci-re [siir] 
wax; port [poir] yort; dur [dyir] hard. 

14 The vowel sounds [a] [o] [0] and the nasal vowels in 
the stressed syllable when followed by a pronounced con- 
sonant are long: es-pa-ce [es-pais] space; flam-me [flaim] 
flame; mi-ra-cle [mi-raikl] miracle; i-dio-me [i-djoim] 
idiom; to-me [toim] volume; zo-ne [zom] zone; creu-se 
[kr0iz] hollow; gueu-se [g0iz] beggar-woman; meu-te [m0it] 
pack (of hounds); tan-te Itait] aunt; pen-te [pa it] incline; 
sem-ble [saibl] seems; min-ce [me is] thin; crain-dre 


[krgidr] to fear; fein-te [feit] feint; poin-te [pweit] point; 
fon-te [foit] fount; lon-gue [loig] long; son-ge [sois] 
dream; de-fun-te [de-fdeit] deceased; em-prun-te [d-prdeit] 
borrows; hum-ble [deibl] humble, 

15 Vowels with a circumflex accent in the stressed syl- 
lable, except vpus etes [vuz et] you are, and the preterit 
-i-mes [am], -1-mes [im], -ii-mes [ym] 
-a-tes [at], -1-tes [it], -ii-tes [yt] 
usually long: tS-che [taij] task; ble-me [bleim] wan; 
a-bi-me [a-biim] abyss; pole [poil] pole. 



16 Short vowels, occurring both in stressed and un- 
stressed syllables, predominate in French, as long vowels 
occur only in the final or stressed syllable. All vowels 
in unstressed syllables are short: de-vi-ner [da-vi-ne] to 
guess; me-na-cer [ma-na-se] to threaten; mi-li-tai-re [mi- 
li-teir] military; mor-ta-li-tS [mor-ta-li-te] mortality; u-ni- 
ver-si-t6 [y-ni-ver-si-te] university. 

17 Vowel and nasal sounds when final are regularly 
short: pas [pa] not; ete [e-te] been; fait [fe] done; de [da] of; 
ni [ni] neither; pot {po] pot; peu [p0] little; tout [tu] all; tu 
[ty] thou; en [a] in; vin [ve] wine; blond [bl5] bUmd; tin [de] 

18 Vowels followed by a double consonant are regu- 
larly short: pat-te [pat] paw; det-te [det] debt; lis-se [lis] 
smooth; don-ne [don] gives; mous-se [mus] moss; lut-te 
[lyt] struggle. 



19 Vowels that are long in final syllables are, as a 
* rule, half as long in the penult: 

p&-le [pail] pale p4-Ieur [pa-loeir] paleness 

rou-ge [ruis] red rou-geur [ru-3oeir] redness 

part [pair] part paf-tir [par-tiir] to leave 

tH-che [taij] task t4-cher [ta-Je] to try 

fi-nir [fi-niir] to finish fi-ni-rons [fi-ni-ro] (we) shall 


30 The vowel [e] is the only vowel that may be either 
long or short before the same consonant: rei-ne [rem] 
queen; ren-ne [ren] reindeer; Sei-ne [sem] Seine (river); 
te-te [teit] head; tet-te [tet] teat. In these cases the length 
.alone of the vowel serves to diflFerentiate the words. 

21 Exercise I on the sounds. In the Table it will 
be noticed that two examples are given to exemplify 
the sound of the vowel. In each case (excepting [e] and 
[a], the two vowels which are always short) the quantity 
varies, being short in the first example and long in the 
second. The quality of the sixteen French vowels remains 
unchanged. A useful exercise to acquire quality and 
quantity distinctions will be to write the thirty-two 
examples, illustrating the sounds of the sixteen French 
vowels, using the key alphabet, and to pronounce each 
word aloud, trying to account for differences. 

2^ The French alphabet has the same letters as the 
English; but k and w are used only in words taken from 



other languages: ki-lo-me-tre [ki-lo-metr]; wa-gon [wa-g5]. 
The older and more common names of the letters are: 




■•VTA \^ 




J vr.M. 





















[yl ' ■ 

















double V 

[dubl ve] 



































33 In this enumeration the letters f , h, 1, m, n, r are 
generally of the feminine gender, the remaining letters 
being masculine. When a letter is named by itself, it is 
given as above indicated, with whatever orthographic 
sign it may have. The French word re-com-pen-se may 
be spelled: erre-^ accent aigu=re; c6-o-enmie = com, re- 
com; p6-6-enne=pen, re-com-pen; esse-e = se, re-com- 

34 But in reading and spelhng, it is now common in 
many French schools to name each consonant by its own 
soimd, followed by the so-called mute e [a]. The new 
names then are: 













ke s% 
















w dmtble v 

[dubl va] 




ze gze 

[ksa] [gza] 

gue je 

[»<»] [3»1 

















Tt& In this enumeration, all of the letters are of the 
niasculine gender. The French word in-com-prfi-hen-si- 
bi-li-te would be spelled: i-ne=in; ke-o-me = com, in-com; 
pe-re-€=pre, in-com-prfi; he-e-ne=hen, in-com-prg-hen; 
se-i = si, in-com-pre-hen-si; be-i=bi, in-com-pr6-hen-si- 
bi; Ie-i=li, in-com-pr^hen-si-bi-li; te-^=te, in-com-pre- 

26 Orthographic marks. There are three orthographic 
marks which constitute a necessary part of the written 
form of French words. These marks are called accents. 
They are the aciile (^), the groxe (^), and the circumflex 


27 The acute accent, ac-cent ai-gu [ak-sait e-gy], as in 
6-t§ [e-te] beeUf is used only over the vowel e, which then 
has the sound heard in English /ate, but without the van- 
ish or glide described in 6: de-si-re [de-zi-re] desired; 
6-cla-te [e-kla-te] burst. 

^ ■■ 

28 The grave accent, ac-cent gra-ve [ak-sa graiv], as 

in fre-re [freir] brother, is used mostly over e which then 
has nearly the sound heard in English met, there: me-ne 
[men] leads; pe-re [peir] father; re-pe-te [re-pet] repeats. 
It is also used sometimes over a and u to distinguish 
words otherwise spelt alike: a [a] has and k [a] to; gi [sa] 
there and ga [sa] that; des [de] since and des [de] (also 
[de]) of the; ofi [u] where and ou [u] or; also over the a in 
dS-ja [de-3a] already and j& [3a] (rarely used now) already. 

29 The circumflex accent, ac-cent cir-con-fle-xe [ak-sa 
sir-k5-fleks], may occur over any vowel, which is usually 


then long: 4-ge [0:3] age; te-te [teit] head; di-me [di(i)ml; 
c6-te [koit] coast; stir [syir] sure. In most cases it indi- 
cates the loss of an s written formerly after the vowd 
now circmnflexed, as in old French teste for modern tete; 
maistre for mai-tre [meitr] master. Such an s sometimes 
still remains in the English word taken originally from 
the old French, as in English forest, modern French fo- 
ret [fo-re] ; English isle, modem French i-le [i(i)l]. In other 
cases it shows contraction has taken place: i-ge instead 
of older aa-ge) stir instead of older setir. It also serves 
to distinguish such words as dii [dy] owed from du [dy] 0/ 
ihe;m&t [myir] ripe from mtir [myir] wall; siiir [syir] sun 
from stir [syr] wpon; although in point of fact dii, mtir and 
stir are examples of contraction of the corresponding old 
French forms deii, metir, setir. 

30 When the vowels are written with a capital letter, 
it is not customary to put on the accents, except on the 
letter e: les theatres =les the-i-tres [le te-aitr]. These 
so-called "accents" have nothing whatever to do with 
stress; in general they serve to distinguish the vowel 
sounds. It is quite as much a fault to omit the accent, 
or to use it wrongly, as to spell the word incorrectly. 

31 Other orthographic marks are I'a-pos-tro-phe [1 a- 

pos-trof] (') to indicate the omission of a final vowel be- 
fore a word beginning with a vowel (or silent h) (383): 
"la A-me" becomes I'4-me [1 aim] the soul; " je ai'' becomes 
j'ai [3 e] / haA)e; "si iP' becomes s'il [s il] if he. The voWel 
elided is almost always e; a is elided only in the article or 
pronoun la [la] the, her, it; i is elided only in si [si] if, be- 


fore il [il] he, it, or ils [il]^ftey. No elision takes place be- 
fore on-ze [5zz] eleven; on-ziS-ine [5-zjem] eleventh; oui 
[wi] yes; huit [xp(t)] eight; hui-tie-me [qi-tjem] eighth (382 
et seq.), 

32 The cedilla, la ce-dfl-le [la se-dizj] C) is placed under 
c to give it the sound of s before a, o, u: fa-^a-de [fa-sad] 
front; gar-^on [gar-s5] boy; re-^u [ra-sy] received. 

33 The dieresis, le tre-ma [lo tre-ma] (") is placed over 
the second of two vowels to show that it does not unite 
with the first vowel but, on the contrary, begins a new 
syllable: ha-ir [a-iir] to haJte; na-if [na-if] artless; Noel 
[no-el] Christmas. It is also put over final mute e to show 
that the gu preceding is a syllable by itself and that the 
u is not merely the sign of "hard" g (196) : ai-gu-e [e-gy] 
sharp; the last e being completely mute; without the 
dieresis, the word would be pronoimced [eg]; cf. fi-gue 

[fig] fig- 
Si The hyphen, le trait d'u-nion [lo tre-d y-nj5] (-), is 
used between the parts of a compound word; arc-en-ciel 
[ar ka sjel] rainbow; beau-frere [bo freir] brother-in-law; 
and to join words that are closely connected: a/\rez-vous 
[a-ve vu] have you? Oftes-vous [et vu] are you? 

35 Division of syllables. When divided into syllables 
for the purpose of spelling and pronouncing, and quite 
generally also for writing and printing (but not invaria- 
bly, see 38-44) the syllables in the body of a French 
word most frequently end with a vowel and begia wltlv 


a consonant: 6-ga-li-t6 [e-ga-li-te] equality; e-le-ver [el-ve] 
to raise; mo-ra-li-te [mo-ra-li-te] morality; po-pu-la-ri-t6 
[po-py-la-ri-te] popularity. It is essential in pronouncing 
these words not to divide them according to English cus- 
tom: e-qvM'i'ty, mo-ral-i'ty, pop-u-lar-i-ty. In pronounc- 
ing it is necessary carefully to avoid such divisions of 
syllables as in the EngUsh tab4eau, trip-le, 

36 A vowel in the body of a word sometimes begins 
a syllable, in which case the vowel is always preceded 
by another vowel which ends the preceding syllable: 
a-e-rer [a-e-re] to ventilaie; a-e-ros-tat [a-e-ros-ta] air- 
balloon; e-blou-ir [e-blu-iir] to dazzle; jou-ir [3wiir] to 
enjoy; Na-po-le-on [na-po-le-5]; o-a-sis [o-a-zi(i)s]; o-b£- 
is-san-ce [o-be-i-sdis] obedience. 

37 If a single consonant is followed by 1 or r (except 
rl, as in par-lait), both are united with the following 
vowel: mai-grir [me-griir] to grow thin; of-frir [o-friir] to 
offer; ou-vrier [u-vri-je] workman; per-dront [per-dro] 
(they) will lose; ta-bleau [ta-blo]; tri-ple [tripl]; vain-cre 
[veikr] to conquer; vi-tre [vitr] pane of glass. 

38 Other groups of two or more consonants, when 
pronounced, are generally so divided that the first goes 
with the preceding syllable, the second and third with the 
following: ad-mi-rer [ad-mi-re] to admire; cer-cler [ser- 
kle] to circle; con-somp-tion [k5-s5p-sj5] consumption; es- 
ca-lier [es-ka-lje] stairway; es-pe-ran-ce [es-pe-rdis] hope; 
in-stant [gs-ta]. In the last example, as shown, the two 
consonants s and t are, as usual, divided in the middle, 



the s going over and being pronounced with the nasal 
vowel in=[g], and the t with the nasal vowel an=[a]. 
The wriMen syllable division in-stant is simply etymolog- 
ical; in-stru-ment [es-try-ma]; mar-t3rr [mar-tiir]; par- 
fum [par-fee] perfume; per-drons [pcr-dr5] (we) shall lose; 
pol-tron [pol-tr5] coward; res-pec-ter [rrs-pck-te] to re- 
spect; res-pi-rer [res-pi-re] to breathe; res-ter [rcs-te] to 
remain; sug-ge-rer [syg-3e-re] to suggest, 

39 A silent h is not recogmzed in the pronunciation 
of a French word, yet when written the h apparently 
begins a syllable. The following words when written 
are divided thus: bon-heur, in-ha-bi-le, in-ha-bi-ta-ble, 
in-hos-pi-ta-ble, in-hu-main, mal-heur, but when pro- 
nounced, the principle which obtains, throughout the 
prommciation of French words is carried out, that is, of 
ending the syllable with a vowel and beginning it with 
a consonant. These words therefore are pronounced: 
[b»-noeir], [i-na-bil], [i-na-bi-tabl], [i-nos-pi-ta-bl], [i-ny-mg], 

40 A group of two consonants, but forming one sound 
only, is treated as a single consonant. Such combina- 
tions are ch, ph, th, gn: a-che-ver [aS-ve] to finish; a-the- 
nien [a-te-njg] Athenian; di-gni-te [di-jii-te]; in-co-gni-to 
[g-k»-jii-to]; pho-no-gra-phe [fa-no-grafl. 

41 X, which is equivalent to gz before vowels, ks be- 
fore consonants, is treated in pronouncing like gz and ks, 
but when written the x always goes with the first vowel: 

L-men [eg-za-me] examination; ex-em-ple [eg-zapl] 






example; ex-ac-te [eg-zakt]; ex-cel-4ent [ek-s^-Ia]; ex-prSs 
[eks-pre] on purpose; efrpri-mer [eks-pri-me] to express; 
ex-tra-or-di-nai-re [eks^tra-or-di-neir] extraordinary. In 
the three last cases four consonants come together k, s, 
p or t, -r. As usual in combinations of sp, st, the s goes 
with the first syllable both in written and spoken forms. 

43 Double consonants (146, 148, 166, 168) when uorU- 
ten, are divided between the two, but are pronounced 
■ , like single consonants. Therefore when between vowels 

they begin the second syllable like a single consonant. 
This applies especially to the older and conmioner words: 
al-ler [a-le] to go; as-sez [a-se] enough; dom-mage [do-maisJ 
injury; don-ner [do-ne] to give; bb, pp, tt, dd are rarely, if 
ever, doubled in pronoimcing a French word: ab-be [a-be] 
dbhot; rap-port [ra-poir] report; bat-tu [ba-ty] beaten; ad- 
di-tio-nel [a-di-sjo-nel] additional. 

\ ■ 43 In newer and less popular words, showing generally 

obvious Latin derivation, double consonants are pro- 
nounced rather longer than single consonants. This ap- 
plies particularly to 1, m,- n, r. This lengthening is 
generally noted, in indicating pronimciation, by retaining 
the two consonants instead of only one: il-let-tre [il-le-trejj 
illiterate; il-li-si-ble [il-li-zibl]; im-me-diat [im-me-dja]; 
im-mon-de [im-moid] unclean; in-ne [in-ne] inborn; in- 
nom-bra-ble [in-no-brabl] innumerable; ir-ri-ta-ble [ir-ri- 
tabl]; ir-ri-te [ir-ri-te] irritated. ^ ".\.y 

f. 44 In the imifen language, obvious composition of the 

word nullifies in many cases, the principle of word divi- 
sion, that is, of ending syllables, whenever possible, with a 


vowel and beginning them with a consonant; but in the 
actual pronunciation this basic principle remains intact. 
The written division of the following words together with 
the figured division and pronunciation as actually uttered 
will illustrate the written and spoken usage: at-mo- 
sphe-re [at-mos-feir]; bon-heur [ba-noeir] happiness; con- 
spi-rer [k5s-pi-re] to conspire^ in-e-gal [i-ne-gal] unequal; 
in-ex-act [i-neg-zakt]; in-no-cen-ce [i-no-sais]; in-nom- 
bra-ble [i-n5-brabl] innumerable; in-spi-rer [es-pi-re]; in- 
stant [es-ta]; in-strui-re [es-trqiir]; in-u-ti-le [i-ny-til]; 
mal-heur [ma-loeir] iU luck; sub-or-don-ner [sy-bor-do-ne], 

45 Nasal vowels, being merely oral vowels followed by 
m or n in the same syllable, are treated like ordinary 
vowel sounds in the division of syllables, the following 
consonant beginning the next syllable: an-cien [a-sjc]; 
doinp«ter [do-te] to master; en-chan-ter [a-Ja-te]; im-po- 
sant [e-po-za]; in-con-stant [e-kos-ta]; pen-dant [pa-da] 
during; tins-siez [te-sje] (you) might hold; vins-sions 
[ve-sj5] (we) might come. 

46 The written and spoken forms vary particularly, 1 ** 
When e mute occurs at the end of a word or of a syllable 
in a word: bel-le [bd] fine; fa-ble [fa-bl]; fon-te [fort] melt- 
ing; on-cle [oikl] uncle; pat-te [pat] paw; pen-te [pa it] in- 
dine; pour-pre [purpr] purple; pron^Hte [pro it]; qua-tre 
[k&tr] four; ro-be[ro(i)b] dress; TO~che[rd^]rock; tan-te[tait] 
aunt. 2** When e mute occurs at the end of a syllable in 
a word. By the dropping of e mute, a new combination 
of consonants is formed which are divided in the way 
consonants usually are: ap-pe-ler [ap-le] to call; ca-le- 



goD, [kal-s5] pair of drawers; cha-pe-lier Ra-^Jje] hatter; 
cha-pe-ron [Sa-pron] hood; ci-me-tiere [sim-tjeir] cemetery; 
6-le-ver [el-ve] to raise; lai-te-rie [le-tri] dairy; ma-de- 
moi-selle [mad-mwa-zcl]; re-ve-nir [rov-niir] to come hack; 
sou-ve-nir [suv-niir]; sou-ve-rain [suv-re] sovereign; tel- 
le-ment [tel-md]. 3** When y=[j], or ill = [j]: cray-on 
[krc-j5] pencil; pay-er [pe-je] to pay; roy-al [rwa-jal]; 
tuy-au [ty-jo] tvbe; ba-tail-Ie [ba-taij] haUle; fa-mil-Ie 
[fariniij] /am%; tra-vail-le [tra-vaij] works. 

47 The principle of syllable division of French words, 
of beginning the syllable, whenever possible, with a con- 
sonant and ending it with a vowel, is equally applicable to 
phrases, which are divided up in the same way into stress 
groups: bon k rien [bS-na-rje] good-for-nothing; bout i 
bout [bu-ta-bu] end to end; de haut en bas [do-o-a-ba] 
from top to bottom; de temps en temps [do-td-za-ta] from 
time to time; mot k mot [mo-ta-mo] literally; nuit et jour 
[nqi-te-suir] night and day; pas a pas [pa-za-pa] step by 
step; pe-tit k pe-tit [p^ti-ta-po-ti] little by little; pot k 
I'eau [po-ta-lo] water-pitcher; six ou sept [si-su-sct] six or 
seven; tdt ou tard [to-tu-tair] sooner or later. 

48 The principle of syllable division, which is that also 
of phrase division, namely, that a single consonant be- 
tween vowels belongs to the following syllable, is of 
fundamental importance. It is the basis upon which ac- 
quiring a reasonably good pronunciation of French de- 

Exercise II. Write the following words, dividing them into syl- 
lables, and pronounce them aloud: agncau, ananas, aimer, animal, 
attaque, Canada, canal, camaraderie, capital, cataracte, classe, era- 


vate, 6cole, fid6lit^, gargon, g6ographie, grise, mandat, marcher, 
morceau, Panaiha, paragraphe, passage, partir, podte, rcgardez, 
salade, sallej simple, union. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, dividing into syllables as 
heard ordinarily in spoken French, these same words, using the key 
alphabet, thus comparing the spoken and written forms. 



49 a=[a] a ouvert, or open a, written a, i and excep- 
tionally in verb-endings 4; approximately like the a in 
English cat, fat, pat, but pronounced with the mouth 
wider open so that the sound is between the a in car and 
the a in bat. This vowel, the commoner of the two va- 
rieties of French a, is generally short as in & [a] to; la 
[la] the; ma-da-me [ma-dam], pat-te [pat] paw, but may al- 
so be long as in: ca-ge [kais]; ra-re [rair]. It may easily 
be recognized at once in the few cases where it occurs 
with a written accent. 

50 As final with the grave accent: a [a] to; ja [sa] here; 
de-^ [da-sa] on this side; de-j& [de-3a] already; ho-la [o-la] 
ho there!; 14 [la] there; voi-14 [vwa-la] see there, 

61 In the verbal endings -Sm-es, -at-es, -at of the 
fiirst conjugation where the a has the circumflex accent: 
nous ai-m4-mes [nuz e-mam] we loved; vous ai-ma-tes 
[vuz e-mat] you loved; qu'il ai-mat [k il e-ma] that he might 
love; nous par-l&-mes [nu par-lam] we spoke; vous par- 
Ittes [vu par-lat] you spoke; qu'il par-lSt [k il par-la] that 
he might speak. 



63 [a] occurs regularly when final, at the end of a 
word, or of a syllable in a word, when the next syllable 
does not begin with an s or z sound: ac-ca-pa-ra [a-ka- 
pa-ra] to seize upon; ac-cla-ma [a-kla-ma] acclaimed; 
a-mal-ga-ma [a-mal-ga-ma] amalgamated; ag-gra-va [a- [ 
gra-va] aggravated; a-mar-ra [a-ma-ra] moored; afta-quaA'' 
[a-ta-ka] attacked; ba-var-da [ba-var-da] gossiped, 

53 When preceding any final silent consonant, except 
s or z: a-chat [a-Ja] purchase; al-ma-nach [al-ma-na]; drap 
[dra] cloth; es^to-mac [es-to-ma] stomach; plat [pla] flat; rat 
[ra]; sol-dat [sol-da] soldier; ta-bac [ta-ba] tobacco, 

54 Before any pronotmced consonant other than s or 
z at the end of a word: Am-ster-dam [am-ster-dam]; bac 
[bak] ferry-boat; cap [kap] cape; car [ka(i)r] for; che-val 
[So-val]* Aorse; fat [fat] /op; Is-lam [is-lam]; lacs [lak] lakes; 
snares; ma-ca-dam [ma-ca-:dam]; mal [mal] evil; paf [pai] 
hang!; or at the end of a syllable in the body of a word: 
al-ma-nach [al-ma-na]; An-na [an-na]; cal-me [kalm]; 
gar-^on [gar-s5] hoy; can-ne [kan] cane; gam-me [gam] 
scale; nap-pe [nap] cloth, tablecloth; pat-te [pat] paw, 

55 Special cases. The sound [a] is heard in the French 
adverb ending -enunent [a-ma] -ly; ar-dem-ment [ar- 
da-ma] ardently;* pru-dem-ment [pry-da-md] prudently; . 
and in the following words: cou-en-ne [kwan] rind; ecu- 
en-neux [kwa-n0] pertaining to rind; fem-me [fam] woman; 
fem-me-lette [fam-let] silly woman; hen-nir [a-niir] to 
neigh; in-dem-ni-ser [e-dam-ni-ze] to make good; in-dem- 
ni-te [e-dam-ni-te] compensation; nen-ni [na-ni] no; so- 
len-nel [so-la-nel] solemn. 


66 [a] is the sound usually heard in the common end- 
ings -oir [wair], -oi-re [wair]: mi-roir [mi-rwair] mirror; 
soir [swair] evening; boi-re [bwair] to drink; poi-re [pwair] 
pear; vic-toi-re [vik-twair] victory; in a number of com- 
mon words ending in oi (or oi+ silent consonant) not pre- 
ceded by r (see 62) : bolt [bwa] drinks; doi^ [dwa] finger; 
fois [fwa] time; loi [Iwa] law; moi [mwa] me; soi [svfo] one- 
self ; soie [swa but also swa] silk; toi [twa] thee; and gen- 
erally iA words written with oy: Fon-te-noy [f5t-nwa]; 
foy-er [fwa-je] hearth; loy-er [Iwa-je] rent; loy-al [Iwa-jal]. 

67 The letter a is usually silent in aoiit [u] August, 
but may also be pronounced: [au]; the final t is sounded 

,j by many: [ut] [aut]; a is silent in Caen [ka]; Cu-ra-gao 
/7;-^ky-ra-so]; Sa6-ne [som] (103); taon [ta] (old [t5] 103) 
■J gadfly; toast [tost]. 

ExEBCiSE III on [a]. Write and pronounce aloud the following 

. I^ords, dividing those of two or more syllables as usually divided in 

" " writing and printing: baba, barbe, battre, boite, chat, dame, declare, 

donn&t, droite, femme, gage, hennir, la, lac, lave, loi, ma, madame, 

Malaga, manage, moi, noir, papa, parla, patte, poison, prudemment, 

rat, r^cemment, soi, syllabe, ta, valse. 

Suppi:4EMENTARY ExERciSE. Write and pronounce aloud these 
same words using the key alphabet and dividing them as ordinarily 
heard in spoken French. 

^68 a=[a] a fenne or closed a; written a, S; about as 
in English palm; pronounced with the mouth quite wide 
open. This sound is easily recognized whenever the a 
has the circumflex accent (except in the endings -Smes, 
-4tes, -4t (noted under 51): bSt [ba] saddle; bla-me 
[blaim]; gr&-ce [grais]; mat [ma] mast; pa-le [pail]; pa-te 
[pait] dough; pla-tre [plaitr] plaster; td-che [taiS] ta^k. 


59 a = [a] whenever before a silent final s (except in 
bras [bra] arm, and in -as verb endings: don-nas [do-na] 
gave)] bas [ba] hw; cas [ka] case; cou-te-las [kutla] cut-') 
la^s; da-mas [da-ma] damask; fra-cas [fra-ka] crash; las/ 
[la] tired; ma-te-las [mat-la] mattress; pas [pa] step; ta&z" 
[ta] pile; ver-glas [ver-gla] glazed frost. Derivatives of ^ 
such words usually retain the a quality when passing 
from the stressed to an unstressed syllable: da-inas-ser\ 
[da-ma-se]; las-ser [la-se]; pas-ser [pa-se]; tas-ser [ta-se].y 
In proper names the rule of a = [a] before a silent final s 

is equally regular: Co-las [ko-la]; Du-gas [dy-ga]; Du-mas 
[dy-ma]; Ju-das [3y-da]; Lu-cas [ly-ka]; Ni-co-las [ni-ko- 
la]; Pri-vas [pri-va] ; Tho-mas [to-ma]; Vau-ge-las [vos-la]: 

60 a= [a] before a final pronounced s as in as [ais] ace; 
at-las [at-la(i)s]; he-las [elais] alas I; before a final pro- 
nounced z as in gaz [gaiz] gas; and frequently before the 
sounds of s and z in the endings -as-se [as], -as-sion 
[a-sjs], -a-tion [a-sj5], -a-se [az], -a-sion [a-zj5], -a-zon 
[a-z5]. -as-se [a is] in the words bas-se [bais] low; cas-se ^ 
[kais] breaks; bms-se [kjoj^ class; gras-se [grais]/a/; pas-se * 
[pais] passes, -as-sibn* [a-sjo] ^n pas-sion [pti-sj5] and,^ 
derivative com-pas-sion [k5-p6-sj5]; -a-tion [a-sj5] in a ^ 
numerous group of words Uke for-ma-tion [for-ma-sj5]; 
na-tion [na-sj5], sta-tion [sta-sjo]. Nevertheless, the usage / 
varies in regard to this ending -a-tion and the authorities 
differ, -a-se [aiz] in ba-se [baiz]; ca-se [kaiz] house; 
ga-ze [gaiz] gauze; ja-se [3aiz] prates; va-se [vaiz]. -a-sion 
[azj5] in e-va-sion [e-va-zj5]; in-va-sion [e-va-zjo]; oc-ca- 
sion [o-ka-zjo]. Here again, hpweyer^.^ in the words in 
-a-tion, usage and the authorities differ, -a-zon [a-z5] 



in bla-zon [bla-z5] coat of arms; &-cra-8ons [e-kra-z5] let lis 
crush; but here written -a-sons= spoken [a-zo]; ga-zon 
[ga-z5] turf. 

61 a=[a] frequently in the termination -ail-le [aij] in 

i a number of jwords: ba-tail-le [ba-tdij] battle; e-cail-le 

[e-kaij]^jmfe,-^li-mail-le [li-mdij] filings; mail-le [maijj 

me^frr fliain-geail-le [ma-siij] eatables; mi-trail-le [mi- 

i trSij] grape-shot; pail-le [p9ij] straw; tail-le [tc^ij] shape; 

I trou-vail-le [tru-v3 1 j ] finding ; Ver-sail-les [ ver-sp i j ] . Here 

again must be noted that in nearly all, if not all, of these 

cases, usage varies a nd the authorities differ. It may be 

•convenient to regard as exceptions to the list of words in 

-ail-le just given: fail-le [faij] be necessary; me-dail-le 

[me-daij] medal; tra-vail-le [tra-vaij] works; vail-le [vaij] 

be worth, and words ending in -ail [aij] as in be-tail [be- 

-^aij] cattle; de-tail [de-taij]; gou-ver-nail [gu-ver-naij] 

helm; tra-vail [tra-vaij] work. 

9H a=[a] in the ending -oi (or -oi+ silent consonant) 
in a few common words (156): bois [bwa] wood; mois 
[mwa] month; noix [nwa] nut; poe-le [pwail] stove; pois 
[pwa] pea; poids [pwa] weight. Frequently, when r pre- 
cedes oi, the sound heard is [a]: croi-re [krwair] to believe; 
xroix [krwa] cross; e-troi-te [e-trwat] narrow; froid [frwa] 
cold; roi [rwa] king; but here again, in these cases, usage 
varies. )o 

63 a = [a], ,^ite generally, in the following words: ac- 
ca-bler [a-ka-ble] to overwhelm; ah [ai]; ca-dre [kaidr] 
frame; dam-ner [da-ne] to condemn; fa-ble [fu-bl] ; flam-me 
[flaim] flams; ga-gner [ga-jie] to earn; grail-Ion [gra-j5] 



scraps; hail-Ion [a-j5] rag; na-vrer [na-vre} to wound; ra- 
cier [ra-kle] to scrape; rail-le [vai'}] rails; raU-le-rie [raj-ri] 
bantering. YJ^ 

64 a=[a] frequently in the following rather common , 
words, although usage and the authorities differ: bail-le 
[baij] gives; boi-se [bwa-ze] wooded J^ ca-da-vre [ka-da-vr]. 
dead body; cli-mat [kli-ma] V climate; de-cla-mer [de- . 
kla-me]Yo declaim; de-la-brer [de-Ia-brefto decay; dia-ble ' 
[dja-bl] devil; en-flam-mer [a-fla-me] to inflame; es-cla-ve 
[es-klaiv] slave; es-pa^ce [es-pais] space; ja-dis^ [3a-di(s)] 
already; la-cet [la-se] uwing; ma-gon [ma-s5] ^mason; ma- 
su-re [ma-zyir] rwi/i^/uni-ra-cle [mi-ra-kl]*^nas-se [nais] 
net; noi-set-te ^[nwa-zet] filbert, nut; o-ra-cle - [o-ra-kl] ; 
pou-lail-ler [pu-la-je] pouUry-yard; pro-cla-mer' [pro-kla- , 
me] to proclaim; sa-ble ^saibl] sand; sa-bre [sa-br] saber; 
sole [swa] silk; tail-leur [ta-joeir]; to-pa-ze [to-paiz]; voie 
[vwa] way, 

65 Stimmary. The variety in usage, as furnished by 
the examples, shows the division line between [a] and [a] 
to be loosely drawn. Under identical or similar condi- 
tions, either variety of a may be heard. In the following 
pairs: ta-ble and fa-ble; tra-vaU-le and trou-vail-le; pla-ce 
and es-pa-ce; chas-se and clas-se; pas-sif and pas-ser; ^^ 
mas-se and tas-se, the same authority gives the a of the , 
first word in each pair as [a] and of the second as [a]. In ^J 
general, from what precedes, it may be said that in. Paris'^ 
[a] is apt to be heard before silent s and before the T 
sounds of s and z (except in verb-endings), and that '^ 
under other conditions [a] is the sound usually heard. t 



- Exercise IV on [a]. Write and pronounce aloud, dividing into 
syllables as usual in writing and spelling, the following words: &me, 
bataille, bl&me, c4ble, classe, damner, d<Sg&t, diable, ^eraser, enflam- 
mer, fable, flamme, fracas, gaz, gaze, gazon, g^n^ration, haillon, 
hdte, Mlas, magon, matelas, nation, pas, pdte, paiUc, po^lc, raillerie, 
roiy sable, tas, tasse, tdtons, Thomas. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide these same words 
as spoken, using the key alphabet and pronouncing them aloud when 

66 e = [d] e muet, or so-called e mute, written e as in 
de, crever; about as in English villa, occurring 1° as final 
in monosyllables. In this position it sounds much like e 
in English the when spoken quickly as in the maUj the 
womaUj the child; ce [sa] this; de [da] of; je [30] /; le [la] 
the, him, it; me [ma] me; ne [na] not; que [ka] that; se [sa] 
oneself; te [ta] thee. 

. 67 2^ e = [a] as final in the first syllable of a word of 
two or more syllables: cre-ver [kra-ve] to }^urst ;.d^m,oi~ 
seHe [da-mwa-zel] young lady; de-ve-nir [dov-niir] to be- 
came; fe-ra [fa-ra] mil do; fre-don-ner [fra-do-ne] to hum; 
le:^ver [la-ve] to raise; me-ner [ma-ne] to lead; re-ve-nir 
[rav-hiir] to come hack; te-na-ci-te [ta-na-si-te] tenacity; te- 
nir [ta-niir] to hold. When preceded by two consonants 
as in cre-ver and fre-don-ner, the [a] is rather more dis- 
tinctly pronounced than in other cases (392). ._ 

68 3° e = [a] exceptionally in des-sous [d(a)-su] below; 
des-sus [d(a)-sy] above; fai-sait [fa-ze] was making; and in 
derivatives of fai-re [feir] to make, as in re-fai-sant [ra- 
fa-za] remaking; mon-sieur [ma-sj0] sir; res-sem-bler [ra- 


sa-ble] to resemble; res-sen-tir [ra-sa-tiir] to experience; 
res-sor-tir [ra-sor-tiir] to go ovi again. 

69 e silent elsewhere, as: 1** When final at the end of a 
word, either after a vowel or consonant: ai-je [ei 3] have If; 
4-iie [am] ass; ar-bre [ar-br] tree; bar-be [barb] beard; 
ca-ma-ra-de [ka-ma-ra(i)d] comrade; clas-se [klais] class; 
fa-ci-le [fa-sil] easy; faus-se [fois] false; mal-le [mal] 
trunk; pa-trie [pa-tri] fatherland; rue [ry] street; suis-je 
[sqii 3] am If; ta-ble [ta-bl]; vie [vi] life. However, in 
many cases Uke the above, for various reasons, as for ver- 
sification or for singing, the e mute is distinctly sounded, 
fyfrequently after b d g v it may be heard slightly: bar-be 
[bar-ba], whereas after p, t, k, f it is silent e-ta-pe [e-tap] 
stage. Also it may be heard slightly when final and pre- 
ceded by two consonants as in ar-bre [ar-bro]; lors-que 
[lors-kd] when; pres-que [pres-ka] nearly; puis-que [pqis-ka] 
since; ta-ble [ta-bb]. 

r 70 2« e is silent at the end of a syllable preceding the 
• stressed or final syllable: a-che-ter [aj-te] to buy; al-le- 
mand [al-ma] German; ap-pe-ler [ap-le] to call; bon-ne- 
ment [bon-ma] simply; bul-le-tin [byl-te]; cau-se-rie 
[koz-ri] talk; ci-se-lu-re [siz-lyir] carving; con-ve-na-ble 
[kov-nabl] seemly; de-ve-nir [da-vniir] to become; e-le-ver 
[el-ve] to bring up; em-pe-reur [ap-roeir] emperor; ma-de- 
moi-sel-le [mad-mwa-zel]; ma-te-lot [mat-lo] sailor; na- 
ive-te [na-iv-te] simplicity; ra-me-ner [ram-ne] to bring 
back; re-je-ter [r83-te] to reject; sa-le-te [sal-te] dirt; sa- 
me-di [sam-di] Saturday; sou-te-nir [sut-niir] to sustain; 
sou-ve-rain [suv-re] sovereign. 


.71 e = [8]. It will be noticed in the above examples 
just given, in all of which the e mute is not heard, that 
the group of consonants brought together by the omis- 
sion of the e, is easy to pronounce. But when, by omit- 
ting the e mute, a group of consonants is brought together 
forming a combination harsh to the ear and difficult to 
pronounce, then, to avoid such a result, the e mute is 

i. heard as in the following cases: An-gle-ter-re [a-gla-teir] 
England; a-que-duc [a-kandyk] aqueduct; a-pre-te [a-pra- 
te] a^sperity; ar-que-bu-se [ar-ka-byiz] arquebus; a-te-lier 
[a-ta-lje] studio; au-tre-fois [o-tra-fwa] formerly; au-tre- 
ment [o-tra-ma] otherwise; ba-te-lier [ba-ta-lje] boatman; 
chan-ce-lier [Ja-sa-lje] chancellor; cou-te-lier [ku-ta-lje 
cutler; cha-me-lier [Ja-ma-lje] camelrdriver ; cha-pe-lier 
[Sa-pa-lje] hatter; Char-le-ma-gne [Sar-la-maji]; Charles- 
Quint [Sar-laf^ke] Charles the Fifth (of Spain and Germany) ; 
chas-te-te 4Sas-t9-te] chastity; com-pre-nons [ko-pra-no] 
let us understand; con-si-de-ra-ble-ment [ko-si-de-ra-bla- 
ma] considerably; ex-ac-te-ment [eg-zak-to-ma] exactly; 
par-ve-nu [par-va-ny] upstart; qua-tre-temps [ka-tra-ta] 
Emberdays; ri-te-lier [ra-ta^lje] rack; Ri-che-lieu [ri-Ja^ 
l}0]; sif-fle-ra [si-fla-ra] wiU whistle; Six-te-Quint [siks- 
%-ke] Sixtus the Fifth, 

lit e silent, e is not pronounced when followed only 
by the silent s of the plural noun, or of verb-endings, or 
by the -nt of the third person plural of verbs: ai-mes [eim] 
(thou) hvest; ai-ment [eim] (they) love; don-nent [don] 
(they) give; don-nes [don] (thou) givest; fa-ces [fas] fa^s; 
fre-res [freir] brothers; ma-la-des [ma-la(i)d] patients; par- 
ies [pari] (thou) speakesL But the e before the nt of parts 


of speech other than verbs is sounded: con-tent [k3-ta] 
content; ex-cel-lent [ek-se-la] excellent; the verb-forms of 
these two words, of which the spelling is identical with 
the adjective forms, are: con-tent [koit] (they) relate ;exr 
cel-lent [ek-sel] (they) excel. 

73 e silent. In general e is dropped whenever it is 
possible to do so to facilitate rapid utterance. This hap- 
pens when the preceding consonant can be pronounced 
with the vowel before it, as in je le don-ne [39 1 don] / 
give itj or with one that comes after it in the next sylla- 
ble or word, as in no-ble ar-deur [no-bl ar-doeir] noble ar- 
dor. The syllable containing [a], bearing no stress itself, 
is pronounced as though forming a part of the preceding 
or following stressed syllable, according to the conditions; 
thus the e mute in the examples that follow is silent; 
what immediately precedes it is pronounced as one syl- 
lable: beau-coup de mon-de [bo-kud moid] lots of people; 
je le crois [39 1 krwa] / believe it; je le don-ne [3a 1 don] / 
give it; nous le sa-vons [nu 1 sa-vo] we know it; tout le 
mon-de [tu 1 moid] everybody; voi-la le fac-teur [vwa-la 1 
fak-toeir] there^s the postman; vous le di-tes [vuldit] you 
say so; and in the following examples, what immediately 
comes after the e mute is pronounced as one syllable with 
the consonants just preceding the e mute: un et-re ac-tif 
[den e-tr ak-tif] an active being; qua-tre en-ne-mis [ka- 
tren-mi] four enemies; no-ble a-ni-ma-tion [no-bl a-ni- 
ma-sjo]; pau-vre a-ni-mal [po-vr a-ni-mal] poor animal; 
a vo-tre ai-se [a vo-treiz] at your ease; no-tre on-de 
[no-tr o-kl] our unde. 



74 e silent and e = [d]. In a word beginning with a 
syllable ending in a so-called mute e, like pe-tit, the e is 
not sounded if it is preceded by a pronounced syllable, \ 
but is sounded if preceded by a syllable ending with e 
mute: mon pe-tit [mo pti] little fellow; but u-ne pe-ti-te 
[yn pa-tit] a little (girl); mon-sieur Le-blanc [mo-sj0 
1-bla], but ma-da-me Le-blanc [ma-dam lo-bla] (393, 394). 

76 When several e mutes follow each other in succes- 
sion, it is usual to omit the soun^ [a] in every alternate 
syllable, the first, third, fifth anS ko on, being sounded: 
de ce qu^ j^ ne te le d^man-de pas [dos k95 not bd 
maid pa] because I do not ask you; or the second, fourth, 
sixth: par-ce que je ne me le de-mande pas [pars k95 
nam lad maid pa] because I do not propose it to myself. 
The syllable que is the one most frequently distinctly 
pronounced. As to whether an e mute is sounded or not 
depends upon so many circumstances, including often the 

J good taste of the speaker, that the rules are simply very 

*! general guides to current usage. 

76 e final. The chief value of the e final at the end of 
a word after a consonant is to make the otherwise silent 
consonant sounded: fort [foir], but for-te [fort] strong; 
laid [le], but lai-de [leid] homely; mau-vais [mo-ve], but 
mau-vai-se [mo-veiz] bad; pe-tit [pa-ti], but pe-tite [pa-tit] 
little; port [poir] port, but por-te [port] door; pris [pri], but 
pri-se [priiz] taken. 

77 e silent and merely used as a sign is written before 
a, o, u, when preceded by g, to show that the g has the 
sound regularly heard before e and i [3], instead of that 



heard before a, o, u, [g]: ga-geu-re [gSL-^yir] wager; geai 
fee] and [38] jay; Geof-froy [sof-frwa]; ge6-lier [30-ljel 
jailer; Geor-ges [sors]; nous man-geons [nu ma-35].toe 
eai; nous man-geft-mes [nu md-3am] we aie; pi-geon [pi-35]. 

78 e is silent in Jean [5a] and in Jean-ne [sain] and 
throughout the forms of the verb a-voir [a-vwair] to ham: 
eu [y] had; ed-mes [y(i)m] (we) had (116). 

Exercise V on e mute = [a]. Write, dividing into syllables and 
pronouncing aloud the following words, in all of which the e mute 
is soimded: ameublement, Angleterre, atelier, autrefois, bedeau^ 
chanceUer, chapeher, chargera, Charlemagne, comprenons, creveri 
dessous, dessus, exactement, faisait, fleur de lis, fredonner, guenille, 
grenuoille, lever, lorsque, menu, menuisier, parvenu, peser, pres- 
que, puisque, regrets, relieur, ressemble, Richelieu, serions. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide these words as 
spoken, pronouncing them aloud, and using the key alphabet. 

Exercise VI on silent e. Write and divide into syllables, as 
written and printed, the following words, in all of which the e mute 
is silent, and pronounce them aloud : acheter, achever, appeler, bul- 
letin, causerie, ciselure, devenir, elles aiment, 6tape, forte, George, 
lis content, ils excellent, Jean, Jeanne, je louerai, je paierai, laide, 
Lamennais, malle, m^res, naivete, pdte, patte, p^res, petite, porte, 
prise, ramener, rejeter, samedi, souverain, tu donnes, tu paries. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables as 
spoken, these same words, using the key alphabet and pronouncing 
them aloud. 

79 6 = [e] written e, e^ ai; 6 ferme, or closed e, as in 
6-te [e-te] heen, de-ja [de-3a] already; about as in Eng- 
lish fate, late. Care must be taken not to make a diph- 
thong of the vowel as in English day [de*], fate [fe^t], laie 
[le^t], and like English sound correspondents, e is never 



long,. occurs mostly as final at the end of a word or syl- 
lable. It is the only vowel over which the acute accent 
is written, enabling the sound to be then easily recog- 
nized: c6-le-br6 [se-le-bre] celebrated; de-ce-de [de-se-de] 
deceased; d6-ge-ne-re [de-36^ne-re] degenerate; pre-f6-r6 
[pi^f6-re] preferred; r6-gne [re-jie] reigned; re-pe-te [re- 
pute] repeated. 

80 e without written accent =[e] occurs usually before 


the final silent consonants d, f, r, z; or, stated more gen--^ 
•erally, before silent final consonant except t: as-sez [a-se] 
enough; ca-hier [ka-je] copy-book; chez [Je] at the house of; 
clef [kle] key; fer-mez [fer-me] shut; je m'as-sieds [3a 
m a-sje] / sit down; nez [ne] nose; pied [pje] foot; rez [re] 
^ ori a level. The sound remains the same when silent s of 
. the plural is added, as in ca-hiers, clefs, pieds, or in cases 
like tu t'as-sieds. It occurs exceptionally in the con- 
junction qj [e] and, and is heard in a few foreign words: 
' te de-um [te de-om]; re-qui-em [re*kqi-jem]; r^Vol-ver 
[re7Vol-veir]; ve-to [ve-to]. 


'81 e without written accent = [e] in the prefixes des+s, \ 
' ef +f, es+s. 1° des+s: des-sai-sir (except dessus, etc., 
^see 68) [de-se-ziir] to let go; des-sel-ler [de-se-le] to un- 
saddle; des-se-cher [dfe-se-Je] to dry up; des-sein [de-se] de- 
'^^ sign; des-ser-rer [de-se-re] to unfasten; des-sert [de-se ir]; 
' " des-ser-vir [de-ser-viir] to clear away; des-sil-ler [de- 
f\ si-je] to open; des-sou-der [de-su-de] to unsolder. 2° ef +f : 
ef-fa-re [e-fa-re] troubled; ef-fe-mi-ne [e-fe-mi-ne] effemi- 
nate; ef-fet [e^fe] effect; ef-fleu-re [e-floe-re] grazed; 
ef-fi-ca-ce [e-fi-tas] efficacious; etAort [e-foir]; ef-fra-yer 


[e-fre-je] frightened; ef-fre-ne [e-fre-ne] unbridled; ef-frcd 
[e-frwa] fright; ef-fron-te-iie [e-fr5-tri] shamelessness. 
3** es+s: es-sai [e-se] trial; es-sor [e-soir] flight; es-souf- 
fle [e-su-fle] out of breath; es-suie-main [e-sqi-me] towd; 
es-suie-plu-me [e-sqi-plym] pen-wiper; es-su-yer [ensqi-je] 
to wipe, 

82 [e], written ai, is the sound regularly heard in flie 
verb-ending -ai: j'ai [5e] / have; j'al-lai [3a-le] / wevd; 
j'au-rai [3 a-re] / shall have; ie man-geai [39 mci-se] I ate; 
je vien-drai [39 vje-dre] / shall come; je ver-rai [30 vcr-re] 
/ shall see; (not in words like vrai [vre] true). Also in the 
verb-forms je sais, tu sals, 11 salt [39 se, ty se, il se]'/ 
knoWf you know, he knows; and in the words gal [ge] gaff; 
geal [se] jay; qual [ke] quay (124); although in all of these 
words, save gal, authority for the ai=[8] may l)e fonQd* 

83 [e] is the sound heard in a few words derived from 
"Xrreek or Latin, and written oe. Some of the commoner 

examples are: oe-cu-me-nl-que [e-ky-me-nik] ecumenical;' 
CE-dl-pe [e-dip] (Edipus; oe-so-pha-ge [e-zo-fai3] esopha" 
gus; foe-tus [fe-tys]; Phoe-be [fe-be]. 

Exercise VII on [e]. Write, dividing into syllables and pro- 
nouncing aloud, the following words: assez, assicds, cahiers, chez, 
clef, desseller, dessert, desservir, dessin, effet, effroi, essai, eesor, 
essuyer, essuie-main, essuie-plume, ^ternit6, foetus, gai, il salt, je 
donnerai, je parlerai, je sais, nez, Phoebe, pied, pr6fer6, r^p^t^, re- 
volver, te deum, tu sais. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and pronounce aloud these 
same words, dividing them into syllables as they are spoken, using 
the key alphabet. 


84 e = [e;] written e, e, e, ei, ey, ai, ai, ay; e ouvert, or • 
(ypen e, as in fait, [fe] done; te-te [teit] head; about as in 
-English met, ebb, and varying in openness to the sound of 
e heard in English therey where, as pronounced in England 
ajid. generally in New England. When occurring just be- 
fore a final syllable ending in a mute e, it is long and quite 

^ 85 The sound may easily be recognized when the e has^ 
over it a circumflex accent: ap-pre-te [a-preit] gets ready; 
be-le [beil] bleats; bfe-te [be it] animal; ca-re-me [ka- 
reim] lent; fe-ne-tre [fa-neitr] window; fe-te [feit] festival; 
gre-le [greil] hail; gue-pe [geip] wa^p; he-tre [eitr] beech- 
tree; me-le [meil] mingles; me-me [meim] sam^; pre-te 
Ipreit] lends; pre-tre [preitr] 'priest; re-ve [reiv] dream; 
ve-te [veit] dresses. 

86 When occurring before a final syllable that is not 
mute, the e is about half as long as in the preceding cases: 
ap-pre-ter [a-pre-te] to get ready; be-ler [be-le] to bleat; 
em-be-ter [a-be-te] to bother; fe-ter [fe-te] to entertain; 
gre-ler [gre-le] to hail; me-ler [me-le] to mingle; pre-ter 
[pre-te] to lend; re-ver [re-ve] to dream; ve-tir [ve-tiir] to 

87 The sound [e] may also be easily recognized when 
noted by 6 (with a grave accent). This occurs before 
final mute syllables, precisely as it does in the cases above 
when having the circumflex accent: a-che-te [a-Jet] buys; 
ce-de [seid] yields; ce-le [sel] hides; che-vre [Jeivr] goat; 
co-le-re [ko-leir] anger; col-le-ge [ko-lei5]; ge-le [3e(i)l] 


freezes; le-ve [leiv] rises; lie-ge [Ijeis] cork; me-ne [m8(i)n] 
leads; me-re [meir] mother; pe-re [peir] father; pie-ce 
[pjes]; re-me-de [ra-me(i)d] remedy; sys-te-me [sis-teim] 

88 When occurring in the body of a word the e is usu- 
ally shorter than when before a final mute e: a-che-te-rai 
[a-Se-tre] (I) shall buy; c6j de-rai [se-dre] (I) shall yield; 
ce-le-rai [sel-re] (I) shall conceal; e-le-ve-rais [e-lev-re] 
(I) should raise; ge-le-rais [3el-re] (I) should freeze; mS- 
ne-rez [men-re] (you) will lead; mo-de-le-rai [mo-del-re] 
(I) shall model; a-me-ne-rions [a-men-rjo] (we) shall lead; 
pos-se-de-ra [po-se-dra] (he) will possess. It will be 
noticed that ce-de-rai and pos-se-de-ra, although con- 
ventionally written with an e acute before the mute syl- 
lable, nevertheless have that e pronounced like almost all 
other e's before a final mute syllable, that is [e]. So with 
don-ne-je [do-nei 3] do I give? 

r 89 Exceptions. To the important rule that e has reg- 
ularly the sound [e] before a syllable ending in a mute e, 
there are a few apparent exceptions: e-cre-vis-se [e-kra- 
vis] shrimp; e-le-ver [el-ve] to raise; e-gre-ner [e-gra-ne] 
to shell; e-pe-ron [e-pro] spur; e-ve-ne-ment [e-ven-ma] 
event; de-ve-lop-per [dev-lo-pe] to develop; me-de-dn 
[met-se] and [met-se] doctor; me-de-ci-ne [met-sin] and 
[met-sin] medicine. Even among these apparent excep- 
tions, the forms [e-ven-ma] [met-se] [met-sin] indicate 
well the tendency of the genius of the language which is 
for [e] in closed syllables, that is syllables ending in a 
consonant, in which position [e] is out of place and regu- 
larly does not belong. Cases like the following also 00- 


cur: ai-mee [e-me] loved; creee [kre-e] created; n6e [ne] 
bom; rap-pe-lee [ra-ple] recalled. 

- 90 The sound [e] besides being written e and h is also 
written ai (except in verbs, 82) ai, aie, ay, ei, ey. air 
ba-lai [ba-le] feroom ; flia i fmel May; vrai [vre] true, at: 
fal-te [feit] summit; trai-ne [trein] sled; trai-neau [tre-no] 
sleigh, aie: bale [be] herry; craie [kre] chalk; que j'aie 
]k8 3 e] that I may have, ay: cray-on [krc-j5] pencil; pay-er 
[pe-je] to pay; ray-on [re-j5] shelf; Douay [due], ei: nei-ge 
[neis] snow; sei-gle [se-gl] rye; vei-ne [vein] vein, ey: as- 
se-yez [a-se-je] he seated; gras-se-yer [gra-se-je] to speak 
in the throai; Ney [ne] (125 and 159). The most usual 
endings in which ai appears are -ais, -ait: don-nais 
[do-ne] wa^ giving; ja-mais [sa-me] never; par-lait [par-le] 
wa^ speaking. Words in ai-gu- have [e] and [e] : ai-guil-le 
[e-gqiij] and [e-gipij] needle. 

91 e without written accent =[8] occurs at the end of 
a word or syllable, before a final pronounced consonant; 
generally c, f , 1 or r. 1** At the end of a word: a-vec^ 
[a-vek] with; bel [bel] fine; bee [bek] beak; chef [Jef] chief; 
cher [Seir] dear; ciel [sjel] sky; mer [meir] sea; net [net] 
dean. 2^ At the end of a syllable: bel-le [bel] fine; ber- 
ger [ber-3e] shepherd; cel-le [sel] that one; det-te [det] 
debt; es-pe-rer [es-pe-re] to hope; her-be [erb] grass; 
mer-Ie [merl] blackbird; mes-se [mes] mass; per-te [pert] 
loss; res-ter [res-te] to remain; ver-te [vert] green, 
3** Before the semi-vowel [j] written -il, -ill: con-seil [ko- * 
seij] council; som-meil [so-meij] sleep; a-beil-le [a-beij] 
bee; veil-leu-se [ve-j0iz] night-lamp. 


92 e without accent =[e] in the final endings -et, -ect 
^(and their plurals in s) in which the t is silent: as-pect 

[as-^pe]; ba-quets [ba-ke] buckets; de-cret [de-kre] decree; 
gi-let [si-le] waistcoat; pa-quets [pa-ke] parcels; pro-jet 
[pro-38] project; res-pect [re-spe]; som-mets [so-me] sumr 
mils. The conjunction et [e] and, forms an exception to 
the above; the verb-form est = is, is pronounced [e] and 
the noun e^t=east [est], 

' - S 

93 e without accent = [e] in the monosyllables ending 
/^"ifAih silent s: ces [se] these; des [de] of the, some; las [le] 

the, them; ses [se] his, hers; tes [te] thy. Nevertheless, 
there is usage and authority sanctioning [e] in all of these 

Exercise VIII on [e]. Write and divide into syllables as ordinari- 
ly written, pronouncing aloud, the following words : achate, ach^terai, 
ai-je, asseyez-vous, avec, car^me, chalne, chantait, cMne, ciel, colore, 
dette, 6l^ve, esp^rer, 6veil, falte, f^te, f^ter, fen^tre, grasseyer, herbe, 
jamais, mer, module, mod^erai, Ney, objet, pr^tre, pr^trise, r6ve, 
r^ver, rev^tir, reine, r^ne, renne, respect, sc^ne, Seine, soleil, som- 
meiller, t^te, tette, veilleuse, verte, vrai. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, pronouncing aloud as you 
write, and dividing into syllables as spoken, these same words, using 
the key alphabet. 

94 i=[i]; written i, t, y; as in ni [ni] neither; pi-re [piir] 
worse, about as in English police, keen. Care should be 
taken to keep [i] tense and uniform throughout, avoiding 
the sound heard in English httle, it, finny, [i] occurs as 
either long or short, under the usual quantity conditions 
(see 11); before r it is frequently quite long. Long i is 
heard in che-ti-ve [Se-tiiv] wretched; cri-se [kriiz] crisis; 


di-re [diir] to say; fBi-le [fiij] girl; mi-re [miir] aim; pi-re 
[piir] worse; ri-ve [riiv] bank; ti-ge [tiis] stem. Short i in 
li-tre [litr]; pis-te [pist] trace; si [si] if; tris-te [trist] sad; 
vie [vi] fo/e; vif [vif] ZiveZy. 

95 i=[i] as in a-bi-me [a-biim] abyss; ci-git [si-si] Acre 
lies; di-me [di(i)m] <en<A par<; gi-te [3i(i)t] lair; i-le [i(i)l] 
isle; nous di-mes [nu di(i)m] we said; qu'il fii^t [k il fi-ni] 
that he might finish; qu'il fit [k il fi] that he might do; qu'il 
pu-nit [k il py-ni] thai he might punish. 

96 y=[i] in hy-po-cri-te [i-po-krit] hypocrite; ly-re [liir]; 
mys-te-re [mis-teir] mystery; phy-si-que [fi-sik]; sty-le 
[stil]; syl-la-be [si-la(i)b] or [sil-la(i)b] pliable. 

Exercise IX on [ij. Write and divide into syllables as usually 
divided in writing, pronouncing aloud the syllables as you write 
them, the following words: abtme, cirque, demi, difficile, dime, dis- 
cipline, filigrane, fini, grise, ici, illisible, imit^, initiative, limites, 
midi, milice, miUtaire, mille, ministre, minuit, Paris, primitif, pyra- 
mide, sire, timidity, tirelire, tranquille, Venise, ville, vitrine. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, dividing into syllables, as 
heard in spoken French, pronoimcing aloud the syllables as you 
write them, these same words, using the key alphabet. 

97 o=[o], written o, 6, eau, au; o ferme or closed o as* 
in pot [po], c6-te [koit] coast'; about as in English note, but 
avoiding the vanish or glide which suggests a diphthong. 
o ferme is easily recognized when written 6, and is then 
almost always long: chd-me [Soim] (he is) oiU of work; 
c6-te [koit] coast; di-pld-me [di-ploim] diploma; le no-tre 
[id noitr] ours; le v6-tre [h voitr] yours; 6-te [oit] takes 


away; tr6-ne [troin] throne; ro-le [roil]. Exceptions to 
6 = [o] are the three words h6-pi-tal [o-pi-tal], h6-tel [o-tel], 
1 r6-ti [ro-ti] roast, in all of which 6=[o]. 

98 Half length. As with & and e, when occurring just 
before the stressed syllable of a French word, so d in a 
like position is half as long as when stressed: cho-mer 
[Jo-me] to be out of work; c6-te-le [kot-le] ribbed; di-pld- 
mer [di-plo-me] to certificate; en-ro-ler [a-ro-le] to enroll; 
6-ter [o-te] to take away; tro-ner [tro-ne] to bear sway. 

I 99 o without accent mark=[o] when final or before 
'silent final consonants: bra-vo [bra-vo]; du-o [dy-o]; ca- 
chet [ka-So] dungeon; e-cho [e-ko]; in-di-go [e-di-go]; mots 
[mo] words; pia-no [pja-no]; ze-ro [ze-ro]. The word trop 
too much is pronounced [tro] and [tro]. 


100 o without accent mark = [o] when before the sound 
of s in a few cases: dos-sier [do-sje] brief, and derivatives 
of dos (en-dos-ser [d-do-se] to put on) ; e-mo-tion [e-mo- 
sjo]; fos-se [fois] grave; derivatives of fosse have both [o] 
and o] (fos-set-te [fo-set] and [fo-set] dimple)] gros-sier 

. [gro-sje] coarse, and derivatives of gros excepting gros-se 
which has both [o] and [o] [grois] and [gros] large; lo-tion 
[lo-sj5]; po-tion [po-sj5]. But the tendency, particularly 
in the unstressed syllable, is to pronounce [o] rather than 
[o] before the sound of s. Both varieties of o are sanc- 
tioned by usage and authority in the following: corn-mo- 
tion, d6-vo-tion, fos-set-te, gros-se, mo-tion, no-tion. 

101 o without accent mark = [o] regularly before the 
sound of z (represented usually by s between vowels): 


cho-se [Soiz] thing; com-po-se [ko-poiz] composes; glo-se 
[gloiz] glosses; ho-san-na [o-za-na]; o-ser [o-ze] to dare; 
o-seil-*le [o-zeij] sorrel; po-se [poiz] places; po-si-tion |po- 
zi-sj5]; pro-se [proiz]; ro-se [roiz]; ro-sier [ro-zje] roseAmsh. 
Such a pronunciation as [ro-zje] shows the continual ten- 
dency of the closed o in the stressed syllable to become 
open in the unstressed. 

103 o ferme [o], written au and eau, occurs frequently, 
more especially in stressed syllables: au-be [oib] dawn; 
au-tel [o-tel] altar; aux [o] to the; cau-tion [ko-sj5]; e-me- 
rau-de. [em-roid] emerald; e-pau-les [e-poil] shoulders; 
pau-vre [poivr] poor; sau-ce [so is]; sau-cis-se [so-sis] sau- 
sa>ge; sau-cis-son [so-si-s5] a large sausage; saus-saie [so-se] 
willow plot; sau-ter [so-te] to jump, eau: beau [bo] fine; 
eau [o] » water; gi-teau [ga-to] cake; mar-teau [mar-to] 
hammer; peau [po] skin; veau [vo] veal. 

103 is silent in faon [fa] fawn; Laon [la] ; paon [pa] pea- 
cock; taon [ta] (old [to]; 57) horse-fly. The name of the 
river Sadne is pronounced [som] (57). 

Exercise X on [o]. Write and divide into syllables, as usually 
done in writing, pronouncing aloud each syllable when written, the 
following words: autel, bravo, chevaux, chose, compose, c6te, cy- 
clone, dipl6me, dos, dossier, duo, eau, Amotion, flot, fosse> n6tre, 
oser, 6ter, pauvre, pose, positif, position, potion, r61e, rose, Sa6ne, 
sauce, sceau, saut, tableau, t6t, veau, zone. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables, as 
ordinarily pronounced in spoken French, these same words, pronoun- 
cing aloud the syllables and words as you write them and using the 
key alphabet. 


104 o = [o], o ouvert or oj>en o, written o, au; as in 
ro-be [ro(i)b]; tort [toir] wrong; about as in English nor, 
the New England pronunciation of ''short o" as dis- 
tinguished from the vowel in law. It occurs more fre- 
quently than ferme. It is not as open as the English 
open in the noun object, as can be perceived by com- 
paring EngUsh o'hject and French objet. 

106 o = [o] occurs regularly before final sounded con- 
sonants (except s = [z]), especially r: a-bord [a-boir] land- 
ing; a-lors [a-loir] then; bloc [blok] block; dot [dot] dowry; 
ef-fort [e-foir]; es-sor [e-soir] flight; fol [fol] crazy; pore 
[poir] jyig; roc [rok] rock, 

106 o = [o] occurs regularly before consonants (other 
than s = [z]) followed by final e mute (but final -ome and 
-one are treated together, 111): e-co-Ie [e-kol] school; 
e-po-que [e-pok]; for-te [fort] strong; lo-ge [I013] theater 
box; no-ble [no-bl]; no-ce [nos] wedding; no-tre [no-tr] 
our; por-te[port] door; pos-te [post] posi-q^ce;ro-be[ro(i)b] 
dress; vo-tre [vo-tr] your, 

107 o = [o] before double consonants (excepting some 
cases of o+ss, 100): bon-ne [bon] good; bros-se [bros] 
brush; e-tof-fe [e-tof] stuff; fol-le [fol] crazy; gos-se [gos] 
youngster; pom-me [pom] apple; sot-te [sot] foolish, 

108 = [0] at the beginning or in the body of a word, 
within a syllable: oc-to-bre [ok-to-br] October; hos-ti-le 
[os-til]; om-ni-po-tent [om-ni-po-ta]; or-fe-vre [or-feivr] 


109 o = [o] in the body of a word at the end of a sylla- 
ble: a-bii-co-tier [a-bri-ko-tje] apricotrtree; au-to-mo-bi-le 
[o-to-mo-bil], also [o-to-mo-bil] (112); bon-heur [bo-noeir] 
happiness; ga-lo-per [ga-lo-pe] to gallop; po-teau [po-to] 
post; ro-man-ce [ro-mais]; to-tal [to-tal]. 

110 = [o] before the sound of s (written s, c, ti), quite 
frequently in imstressed syllables. Such cases of [o] be- 
ginning the word, within or at the end of syllables not 
final of a word, are among the most frequent (see, how- 
ever, some identical [o] cases together with [o] (100) : o-ce- 
an [o-se-a]; hos-pi-ce [os-pis] refuge; mos-quee [mos-ke]; 
nos-tal-gie [nos-tal-si] homesickness; pos-ti-che [pos-tij] 
artificial; quo-tient [ko-sja]; ros-si-gnol [ro-si-jiol] nightin- 
gale; so-dal [sD-sjal]; so-cie-t6 [so-sje-te]; tos-te [tost] 

111 -ome, -one. In regard to the pronunciation of 
the o in the endings -ome, -one, usage varies, the ten- 
dency being rather towards open o than towards closed o. 
The four words a-ro-me [a-rbim] aroma, cy-cld-ne [si- 
klom]; i-dio-me [i-djoim] idiom; zo-ne [zom] have closed 
o, as indicated. The two words e-co-no-me [e-ko-nom] 
economical; mo-no-to-ne [mo-no-ton] monotonous, have 
open o, as do foreign words: Ba-by-lo-ne [ba-bi-lon]; Her- 
mi-one [er-mjon]; Ro-me [rom]. The following words, 
although here noted with the open o, are also pronounced 
yyith . cloged ^ ; A-ma-zo-ne [a-ma-zon]; a-to-me [a-tom]; 
a-to-ne [a-tohj; au-m6-ne [o-m^n] alms; car-bo-ne [kar- 
bon]; hex-a-go-ne [e-gza-gon] and [e-gza-gon]; hip-po- 
dro-me [i-po-drom]; ma-jor-do-me [ma-3or-dom]; o-zo-ne 



[o-zon] and [o-zon]; t6-le-pho-ne [te-le-fon]; to-me [torn] 
volume. In newly formed words from foreign sources 
the tendency towards [o] is plain, as shown by the 

113 au = [o] regularly before r, and in a few isolated 
cases as the following examples will show: Auch [oj]; au- 
ral [o-re] (I) shall have; au-rais [o-re] (I) should have; (the 
closed o is also heard in these two verb-forms): au-re-o-le 
[anre-^ and [o-re-ol]; au-gus-te [o-gyst] also [o^gyst];.au- 
to-ri-te (9-to-rr-te] and [o-to-ri-te]; Au-xer-re [D-seir];^c,en- 
tau-re [sa-toir]; Lau-re [bir]; lau-rier [lo-T'ie]' laurel; 
Fau-re [foir]; Mau-re [moir] Moor; mau-vais [ma-ve] and 
[mo-ve] biad; Paul [pol]; res-tau-rant [res-to-ra]; sau-rai 
[so-re] / shall know; sau-rais [so-re] / should know. Both 
of these verb-forms parallel to au-rai and au-rais have 
also the closed o. The tendency to replace the b fermS by 
o ouvert is seen in such popular words as aurai, aurais, 
saurai, saurais, mauvais, restaurant (126); all words be- 
ginning with au-to have the open rather than the closed 
. o: au-to-mo-bi-le [6-to-mo-bil] (109). Particularly in un- 
stressed syllables au tends generally to become open o. 

113 o ouvert [o] is the sound regularly heard in the 
ending of a few common foreign words mostly froin the 
Latin: al-bum [al-bom]; a-lu-mi-nium [a-ly-mi-njom]; 
a-qua-rium [a-kwa-rjom]; er-ra-tum [er-ra-tom]; ge-ra- 
nium [se-ra-njom]; lau-da-num [lo-da-nom]; max-i-mum 
[mak-si-mom]; me-dium [me-djom]; mi-ni-mum [mi-ni- 
mom]; mu-s6-um [my-ze-om]; pen-sum [pe-som] ta^k; 
rhtun [rom] rum. 


Exercise XI on [o]. Write and divide into syllables as ordi- 
narily done in writing and printing the following words, pronounc- 
ing aloud the syllables and the entire words as you write them: 
album, aurai, aurais; aur^le, automobile, bloc, bonne,* bord, brosse: 
comme, dot, essor, Faure, force, geranium, golfe, h6pital, hospice, 
hostile, h6tel, ignorant, Laure, loge, majordome, maximum, mauvais, 
minimum, objet, oc^an, octobre, omnipotent, orgue, quotient, restau- 
rant, robe, roc, Rome, r6ti, saurai, saurai^, sort, sotte, t^Mphone. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables ac- 
cording to the spoken usage, these same words, pronoimcing aloud 
the syllables and words as you write them and using the key alpha- 

114 eu=[0], written eu, eHi, oeu (of. 127); eu fermS as 
in peti [p0] litUej creu-se [kr0iz] hollow; no very exact 
equivalent in English, but somewhat like the vowel sound 
in English hurt (cf. 4, note 3). eu = [0] occurs, I'' regu- 
larly as final, or before silent final consonants: bleu [bl0] 
blue; dieu [dj0] god; feu [f0] fire; lieu [lj0] place; queue 
[k0] tail; final in the first part of a compound word: bleu- 
&-tre [bl0-aitr] bluish; bleu-et [bl0-e] cornflower; jeu-di 
[30di] Thursday; lieu-te-nant [lj0t-na]; Neu(f)-cha-tel 
[n0-Sa-tel] ; -before silent final consonants: ceux [s0] those; 
creux [kr0] hollow; dieux [dj0] gods; heu-reux [ce-r0] happy; 
pieux*[pi0] pious; yeux [j0] eyes; written oeu and efl: 
boeufs [b0] oxen; oeufs [0] eggs; vceux [y0] vows; je<i-ne 
[50in] fasting ; jed-ner [30-ne] to fast; the sound [0] is heard 
in meu-nier [m0-nje] miller, and also 906' infrequently in 

, de-jeu-ner [d^30-ne] to breakfast (118). 

115 2*> in ttie endings -eu-se [0iz], -eu-te [0t], -eu-tre 



[0itr]: dan-seu-se [da-s0iz] dancer; glo-rieu-se [gb-rj0iz] 

glori-ous; heu-reu-se [oe-r0iz] happy; meu-te [7n0it] pack 
(of hoimds) ; feu-tre [f0-tr] felt; neu-tre [n0-tr] neutral. 


116 Special cases. eu = the French u sound [y] is 
heard in the forms of the verb a-voir [a-vwair] to have, 
wherever eu or eii is written: eue [y] had; nous eii-mes 
[nuz y(i)m] we had; qu'ils eus-sent [k ilz ys] that they might 
have. For cases Uke ga-geu-re [ga-syir] and eu [y], 
eii-mes [y(i)m], cf. 77-78. Eu-ge-ne and Eu-g6-nie are. 
pronounced [0-3ein]/orJfy-5einJ, [0-3e-ni] or [y-3e-nil. Vj'^V 

Exercise XII oh [0]? Write, dividing into syllables, when pos- 
sible, as ordinarily written, the following words pronouncing aloud 
each syllable when written : berceuse, brodcuse, calf eutre ceux, 
cieux, creux, danseuse, dieu, feu, feutre, feux, gueuse, heureuse, 
heureux, hideuse, jeu, jeudi, jeunesse, lieu, lieue, lieux, merveilleuse, 
meimerie, meunier, meuni^re, Meuse, meute, neutre, neuvi^me, 
noeud, ceufs, peureux, pieux, pr^cieuse, queue, veux, vieux, voeu. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, pronouncing aloud each syl- 
lable when written and dividing intp syllables as spoken, these same 
words, using the key alphabet. 


117 eu = [oe], written eu, oeu, ue (cf. 127); open eu as 
in seul [soel] alone; peur [poeir] fear; no very exact equiva- 
lent in English, but somewhat like the vowel sound heard 
in English hut or sir (cf. 4, note 3). When distinctly 
pronounced, eu ouvert differs perceptibly from eu fenn6 
in being more open. 


118 eu ouvert =[oe] occurs regularly before pronounced 
consonants (other than s ( = z) and t), particularly before 
r, 11, ill: beur-re [boeir] butter; de-jeu-ner [de-so^ne] breaJc- 
fast (cf. 114); deuil [doeij] mourning; feuil-le [foeij] leaf; 
fleu-ve [floeiv] river; jeu-ne [soenj young; meu-bles 
[moebl] furniture; neuf [noef] nine; Netiil-ly [noe-ji]; peu- 
ple [poepl] people; seuil [soe(i)j] threshold; sieur [sjoeir] Mr., 


the said. OBU=[oe]: bceuf [beef] ox; cceur [koeir] heart; 
m<Burs [mo&i^ customs; ceuf [oef] egg; ceu-vre [<Bivr] work; 
soeur [soeir] sister. ue = [oe]: ac-cueil [a-koej] reception; 
'or-guea\[or-goe(i)j] jrride; re-cueU [r9-koe(i)j] collection. 

Exercise XlII fen [oe]. Write, dividing into syllables when pos- 
sible, as ordinarily done in writing and printing, the following 
words, pronouncing aloud the syllables as you write them: ai- 
greur, accueil, aveugle, bonheur, chcevu*, cceur, couleuvre, deuil, 
^cueil, farcevu", fleurs, fleuve, grosseiu*, heure, hautevu*, heurter, 
jeune, largeiu*, leur, malheur, (il) meurt, meiu'tre, neuf, odeur, ceil, 
oeillet, ceuf, ceuvre, orgueil, p^cheur, peuple, peuplier, peur, plaideur, 
preuve, servitevu*, seuil, scevu*, veuve. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them into syllables as spoken, pronoimcing the syllables aloud as 
you write them, using the key alphabet. 

119 ou = [u] written ou, oA (and oi in the word o& = 
where) (128); as in tout [tu] all; tour [tuir] tmjoer; about 
as in English food, keeping the sound uniformly close 
throughout, ou occurs as long usually under the ordi- 
nary conditions, that is, before the voiced fricatives [j], 
[v], [z], [3] and [r] (13): a-mour [a-muir] love; en-tou-re 
[a-tuir] surrounds; e-pou-se [e-puiz] vrife; jour [suir] day; 
lou-^ve [luiv] she-wolf; rou-ge [ruis] red. ou elsewhere is 
usually short: bouc [buk] buck; bou-che [buj] mouth; goAt 
[gu] ta^te; loup [\u] wolf; pou-ce [pus] thumb; tous-se [tus] 

• Exercise XIV on [u]. Write and divide when possible into syl- 
lables, as ordinarily done in writing and printing, the following 
words, pronouncing aloud the syllables as you write them : amour, 
aodt, bijou, blouse, chou, coup, courez, (il) coAte, convert, d^gotit, 
doux, douze, 6poux, Spouse, fou, foulard, froufrou, houx, jaloux, 
jalou9e,- joujou, jour, laboureur, loup, lourd, Lourdes, louve, mou, 


nxHiaBe, nouveau, ou, oil, pouls, roux, sou, soill, sourd, aourde, tout 
au bout, tousy (il) touase, toute, toux, trou. 

ScppLEMENTART ExERCiSE. Write these same words and divide 
them into syllables as heard in spoken Frendi, pronouncing aloud 
the syllables as you write them, using the key alphabet. 

130 u=[y], written u and fi, as in pu [py] been abk; 
mOi [myir] ripe; pur [pyir] pure; has no Knglish equiva- 
lent; about like the German tr. An approach to the 
French sound may be got by trying to pronounce i=[i] 
with the Ups rounded out in a position for whistling. 

121 u or fl = [y] occurs as long usually before [j], [v], [z],g| 
[3] and [r]; elsewhere usually as short, or shorter than be- 5 
fore the voiced fricatives and r: a-mu-se [a-myiz]; ctiil-'^ 
le-re [ky-jeir] spoon; cu-ve [kyiv] tub; ju-ge [syis] judge; 
mur-mu-re [myr-my:r] murmurs; but [by] aim; fflt [fy] 
cask; ru-de [ryd]; turc [tyrk] Turk; u-ne [yn] one. 

Exercise XV on u = [y]. Write the following words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usual in writing and printing, 
and pronoimce aloud the syllables as you write them: allure, azur, 
calcul, culbute, (j')eus, (qu'il) eAt; figure, futur, gageure, juste, lec- 
ture, lu, lime, menu, md, multitude, miir, murmure, piqtire, {Mxme, 
revenu, rupture, su, succursale, sucre, supputer, sur, sAre, tube, tu- 
bulaire, tulle, tumulte, Ursule, utile, vu. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them into syllables as usually pronounced in spoken French, using 
the key alphabet. 



12i Vowel combinations representing simple soimds: 
ai (ay, ai), ei (ey, et), au (eau), eu (oeu, oe, ue), ou (ofl, 
ou). As the sounds themselves which these vowel com- 
binations respectively represent, namely: [e] or [e], [e], [o] 
or [o], [0] or [oe] and [u] have received detailed treatment, 
it only remains here briefly to smnmarize the subject for 
convenience of reference. These combinations are known 
as digraphs and trigraphs. 

--^ f 133 ai (ay), except as noted immediately below in 124, 
are pronoimced [e]. The sound occurs especially in the 
combinations: aie, air, aire, ais, aise, aisse, aix, as in 
craie [kre] chalk; chair [Jeir] flesh; tai-re [teir] to be 
silent; chan-tais Ra-te] was singing; chai-se [Jeiz] chair; 
grais-se [greis] fat; paiz [pe] peace (84). 




134 ai is pronoimced [e] in the auxiliary form j'ai [3 e] 
I have; in the imperative forms a-yez [e-je] have, anda-yons 
[e-j5] let us ham; whenever final, as in the verb-endings: 
je chan-tai [39 Sd-te] / was singing; in the forms of the 
Jil^t verb savoir4 je sais [39 se] / know; tu sais [ty se] thou 
\ knowest; ii sait [il se] he knows; in a few words ending in 
ai:^ai [ge] gay; geai fee]; quai [ke] quay (82). Else- 
^ where the combination ai is pronounced [e] as indicated 
L in the preceding section. 

138 ei (ey, el) are regularly pronounced [e] wherever 
they occur; and y between vowels =i+i: as-sey-er="as- 


sei-ier" [a-se-je] to sit down; gras-sey-er="gras-sei-ier" 
[gra-se-je] to pronounce r mth the uvulae a throat r (cf . 159) ; 
ba-lei-ne [ba-le( i)n] whale; nei-ge [neis] snow; pa-reil-le [pa- 
re(i)j] equal; pei-ne [pe(i)n] trouble; rei-tre [reitr] German 
horse-soldier; Sei-ne [sein]; sei-ze [seiz] sixteen (90). 

126 au (eau) are regularly pronounced o : au [o] to the; 
aus-si [o-si] also; beau [bo] fine; ca-deau [ka-do] gift; eau 
[o] water; nou-veau [nu-vo] new (cf. 102). Before r, au is 
regularly pronounced as open o [o]: Lau-re [bir]; lau-rier 
[b-rje] laurel; Mau-re [moir] Moor; res-tau-rant [res-to- 
ra]; also in the proper name Paul [pol]. In the future and. 
conditional forms of avoir, j'aurai and j'aurais^ usage tiif- 
fers: [3 ore], [3 ore], and [3 ore], [3 ore] (112). 

127 eu (eii, oe, ceu, ue after c, q and g) simply repre- 
sent the closed sound of eu=[0] (cf. 114), or the open 
sound of eu=[oe] (cf. 117). eu has regularly the closed 
sound when written eii, as in je<i-ne [30m] fasting; when 
final or followed by final consonants; also, usually, before 
s [ = z] or t within the syllable of a word; dan-seu-se [dfi- 
s0iz] dancer; feu-tre [f0itr] felt; heu-reux [oe-r0] happy; 
lieux [lj0] places; neu-tre [n0-tr] neuter; noeud [n0] knot; 
peu [p0] little; pre-cieu-se [pre-sj0iz] precious; voeux [v0] 
vows. Elsewhere, as before pronounced final consonants, 
and before il or ille = [j], the sound is that of open eu= [ce], 
which is less frequent than the closed eu=[0]: ac-cueil 
[a-koD(i)j] welcome; a-veu-gle [a-vce-gl] blind; boeuf [boef] 
ox; jeu-ne[^n] young; meu-ble [mce-bl] furniture; neuf 
[ncef] new; ceil [oe(i)j] eye; oe-il-let [oe-je] pink; or-gueil [or- 
goe(i)j] pride; peu-ple [pce-pl] people; veu-ve [voeiv] widow. 


128 ou (o<i) = [u] regularly (119): bout [bu] end; 
e-cou-tez [e-ku-te] listen; goQt [gu] taste; jou-jou [5U-3U] 
plaything; loup [lu] wolf; Lour-des [lurd]; tous-se [tus] 

Exercise XVI on vowel combinations {digraphs and irigraphs) 
representing simple sounds. Arrange the following words in groups, 
each group illustrating by its examples one of the sounds [ej, [e], [o], 
[s>]> Mt [oe], [u]: abb%e, (j*)^ angl&, artichaut, asseyez, ailrai, 
aArttes, dfu-ore, aveugle, banlieu, BeaumarchaLs, Ix^gayer, brouter, 
cadeau, chaine, choeur, clouer, coeur, (je) conduirai, cotiter, cueillir, 
d^blayer, d^faut, d6goi^t, d^sormais, enjeux, enseigne, filleul, fran- 
gais, frayeur, gai, grasseyer, gueuse, gueux, haleine, honneur, (j')irai, 
jeudi, jeiiner, jetineur, jetineuse, jouter, Laure, manoeuvre, marais, 
Meaux, meuble, moeurs, nceud, oeil, orgueilleux, Paul, peuple, queue, 
Rabelais, restaurant, rettre, rougeaud, (il) sait, traine, trou, vaux. 

Exercise XVII. Write and divide into syllables, whenever 
possible, as usually done in writing and printing, the above words, 
pronouncing aloud each syllable or word as you write it. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write and divide into syllables as 
ordinarily pronoimced in spoken French, the above words, pronoun- 
cing aloud the syllables and words as you write them, and using the 
key alphabet. 

IV NASAL VOWELS [a], [g], [5], [&] 

. 129 When m or n occur as final they lose their value 
as consonants, and form a nasal sound with the preceding 
vowel. Likewise when ending a syllable, and before a con- 
sonant other than m or n, they are not pronounced, but 
serve simply to nasalize the preceding vowel. In these 
nasal sounds neither m nor n should be heard. 


130 There are four nasal aoundo in French, each of 
which is represented by several combinations of letters. 
The symbols for each of the nasals are [a], [e], [5], [ce]. 
As may be inferred from these symbols, the nasals are 
simply the oral vowels [a], [e], [o], [oe] nasaUzed; that is, 
the breath, instead of passing entirely through the mouth, 
is partly turned aside through the nose passage. This 
produces a nasal intonation. 

131 [a], written an, am, en, em, as in en [a] in, tan-te 
[tait] aunt; about as in English want (but see 4, note 1), 
an: an-cien [a-sje] ancient; banc [ba] bench; en-fant 
[a-fa] child; es-pe-ran-ce [es-pe-rais] hope; franc [fra] 
frank; Fran-ce [fra is]; man-chet-te [ma-Jet] cuff; quan- 
ti-te [ka-ti-te]; sang [sa] blood, am: am-bu-lan-ce [a-by- 
Idis]; am-ple [a-pl]; cam-pe-ment [kap-ma] camping; 
cham-bre [Sa-br] chamber; cham-pa-gne [Sa-paji]; flam-ber 
[fla-be] to blaze; jam-be [^aib] leg; lam-pe [laip] lamp; 
ram-pant [ra-pa] crawling, en: en-crier [a-kri-je] ink- 
well; en-sem-ble [a-sa-bl] together; en-trer [a-tre] to enter; 
gran-de-ment [grad-ma] greatly; pa-rent [pa-ra]; pr6- 
sen-ce [pre-zais]; ten-tu-re [ta-tyir] hangings; vefi-dre-di 
[va-dra-di] Friday; vio-len-ce [vjo-lais]. em: em-pe-cher ^ 
[a-pe-Se] to hinder; em-pi-re [a-piir]; en-sem-ble [a-sa-bl] v^ 
together; rem-plir [ra-plisr] to fill; sem-blant [sa-bla] ap- ^ 
pearance; sep-tem-bre [sep-taib] September; tem-pe-te j 
[ta-peit] tempest; temps [ta] time; trem-per [trd-pe] to dijf>. 

132 Special cases, -am, usually final, in most foreign !j 
names (235) is not nasal: A-bra-ham [a-bra-am] (but" 
A-dam [a-da]); A-gram [a-gram]; Am-ster-dam [am-ster- 
dam] ; Pri-am [pri-am] ; Rot-ter-dam [ro-ter-dam] ; Wagram 



[va-gram]. am in dam-ner, to condemn, and derivatives, 
is not nasal: [da-ne]. am, in other words before n, is 
pronounced [am] as in am-nis-tie [am-nis-ti] amnesty. 

133 en final in some foreign words (240) is not nasal: 
Bee^o-ven [be-to-ven]; hy-men [i-nien]; spe-ci-men [spe- 
si-mfe]. en in the following words is nasal, although the 
n (ornn) precedes a vowel: en-i-vrer [d-ni-vre] tointoxi' 
cate; en-no-blir [a-no-bliir] to ennoble; en-nui [a-nqi] te- 
dumsness; en-or-gueil-lir [a-nor-goe-jiir] to mxike proTid. 

134 em final in foreign words (235) is not nasal: i-dem 
[i-dem]; Je-ru-sa-lem [se-ry-za-lem], emm, initial, is 
pronounced [am]: em-me-ner [dm-ne] to lead away; em- 
ma-ga-si-ner [a-ma-ga-zi-ne] to store, emm and enn, in a 
few words, are pronounced [am] and [an] respectively: 
fem-me [fam] womxin; hen-nir [a-niir] to neigh; nen-ni 
[na-ni] by no means; so-len-nel [so-la-nel] solemn. Ad- 
verbs ending in -em-ment are likewise pronounced with 
the sound [am]: ar-dem-ment [ar-da-ma] ardently; pru- 
dem-ment [pry-da^md] prudently; re-cem-ment [re-sa-md] 

Exercise XVIII on an, am, en, em = [a]. Write the following 
words, dividing them, when possible, into syllables as usual in writ- 
ing and printing, pronoimcing aloud the syllables as you write them : 
Adam, blanc, blanche, camp, cancan, centre, champ, changeant, 
chanter, dans, dansant, dent, empire, emploi, en, enfant, entendant, 
entrant, flambeau, franc, gendre, grande, Jean, lampe, lente, man- 
geant, membre, patience, plante, prendre, quand, rampe, sang, as- 
semblant, s'en, sens, temple. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usually pronoimced in spoken 
French^ using the key alphabet. 


135 [z], written in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim; and 
en, when final, or followed by s of the plural after i or 
y, Ukewise in forms from tenir and venir, as in vin [vg] 
vrine; tein-te [teit] color; about as in English anger, 
avoiding the g sound, in: in-stinct [es-te]; lu-trin [ly-tre] 
reading-desk; re-din-go-te [ra-de-got] frock coat, im: im- 
be-ci-le [e-be-sil]; lim-bes [leib] lirnbo; sim-ple [seipl]. jn: 
la-rynx [la-re iks]; sfyn-ta-xe [se-taks]; syn-the-se [se-teiz] 
synthesis, ym: nym-phe [neif]; sym-pa-thie [se-pa-ti] 
sympathy; thym [te] thyme, ain: main-te-nant [met-na] 
now; pain [p§] bread; vain-crez [ve-kre] (you) wiU conquer. 
aim: daim [de] deer; es-saim [e-se] swarm; faim [fe] huTv- 
ger. ein: cein-tu-re [se-tyir] belt; des-sein [de-se] dravy- 
ing; pein-tu-re [pe-tyir] painting, eim: R(h)eims [re is], 
en, when final, or followed by s of the plural, after i or y : 
chiens [Jje] dogs, lien [Ije] bond; rien [rje] nothing; Tro-yen 
[trwa-je] Trojan, en in forms from tenir and venir: tient 
[tje] (he) holds; viens [vje] come. 

Note, ien when not final, and not occurring in the forms of tenir 
and venir, has in many cases the soimd [ja], as in cli-ent [kli-ja]; 
con-sci-ence [ko-sjais]; o-be-dience [o-be-djais]; o-rient [j>-rja]; pa- 
tience [pa-6ja:s]; science [sja:s]. 

136 Special cases. The soimd [e] is heard: in the sec- 
ond part of the diphthongs een (ien and yen, as just 
stated above under en, when final, etc.), oin, uin. een: 
eu-ro-pe-en [oe-ro-pf-e] European; ly-ce-en [h-s|;€] stur 
dent at a lycee; ven-de-en [vd-df-e] of the department of the 
Vendee, oin: coin [kwe] comer; join-dre [sweidr] to join; 
poin-tu-re [pwe-tyir] size, uin: juin [sqe] June; quin-tu- 
pie [ke-ty-pl] fivefold; suin-ter [sqg-te] to ooze, sweat. 


137 [e], written en, is the sound heard in a number of 
foreign words: A-ben-ce-ra-ge [a-be-se-rais]; a-gen-da 
[a-3e-da] memoranduwrbook; ap-p%n-di-ce [a-pe-dis] ap- 
pendix; Ben-gale [be-gal]; ben-ga-li [be-ga-li] of Bengal; 
Ben-ja-min [be-sa-me]; ben-zi-ne [be-zin]; com-pen-dium 
[ko-pe-djom]; ex-a-men [eg-za-me] examinaiion; ex-ten-so 
[eks-te-so] (in) extenso; Ma-g^-ta [ma-3e-ta]; Ma-ren-go 
[ma-re-go]; Mem-phis [me-fiis]; pen-sum [pe^om] task; 
Peim-syl-va-nie [pe-sil-va-ni] (270) ; rho-do-den-dron [ro- 
do-de-dro]; Ru-bens [ry-beis], 

138 Initial in, inn, im, imm, before a vowel (or silent 
h) is not nasal, in: in-a-per-ju [i-na-per-sy] unperceived; 
in-er-te [i-nert] inert; in-ha-bi-le [i-na-bil] incapable, inn: 
in-ne [in-ne] inborn; in-no-cent [i-no-sa]; in-nom-bra-ble 
[i-no-brabl] innumerable, im: i-ma-ge [i-mai3]; i-mi-ta-ble 
[i-mi-ta-bl]; and when not initial, also, as in li-mon [U-m5] 
shaft, imm: im-ma-cu-le [i-ma-ky-le] immaculate; im- 
men-se [i-mais]; im-mi-gra-tion [i-mi-gra-sj5]. 

139 im or imm final in foreign words is not nasal: 
E-phra-im [e-fra-im]; Grimm [grim]; Se-lim [se-lim]. 

140 ymn is pronounced [imn]: g3rm-na-se [sim-naiz] 
gymnasium; hym-ne [imn] hymn; Po-lym-nie [po-lim-ni]. 

Exercise XIX on in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim and en final 
after i or y, all equivalent to the sound [e]. Write the following 
words, dividing them, when possible, into syllables as usual in writ- 
ing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables or words when writ- 
ten: ainsi, am^ricain, ancien, bien, chien, coquin, crin, daim, faim, 
feindre, fin, foin, frein, index, joindre, juin, lin, limpide, loin, lynxy 
mainte, maintien, marin, Martin, moins, moyen, nymphe, Olympe, 


pain, peinture, pin, rein, R(h)eim8, Rhin, soin, sain, sein, simple, 
tient, viens. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usuaUy pronounced in spOf 
ken French, using the key alphabet. 

141 [5], written on, om, as in blon-de [bl5!d] bland; 
trom-pe [troip] horn; about as in EngUsh song, avoiding 
the g sound. The sound [5] should be pronounced with 
the lips nearly closed, on: an-non-ce [a-n5is] announce- 
ment; ac-tion [ak-sj5]; cir-con-stan-ce [sir-k5s-tais] dr- 
cumstance; chan-son [Sd-s5] song; con-te [koit] story; 
on-cle [5-kl] unde, om: comp-te [k5it] account; comp- 
tons [ko-to] let v^ count; plomb [pl5] lead; sur-npm [syr-no] 
surname; tom-be [t5ib] tomb; trom-per [tr5-pe] to deceive. 

143 Special cases. [5] is the sound heard in foreign 
words which are written with un, as in Bruns-wick [bros- 
vik]; de pro-fun-dis [de pro-f5-dis]; Dtmncan [da-ka]; > 
Qun-^e^q^^ [d5-kerk]; Gun-ther [go-teir]; punch [p5iS]; 
se=cim-dols9-g5-do]; and in foreign words written with 
um (not final, see 235) as in lum-ba-go [l5-ba-go]; Hum- 
bert [o-beir]; re-sump-tion [re-z5p-sj5]. ^'^■^ ^ 

"^=[0] in mqn-sieur [mo-sj0] sir. . 

143 om is not nasal (234, 237) when followed by n: au- 
tom-nal [o-tom^nal] autumnal (but in au-tom-ne the m is 
silent [o-ton] auiumn); ca-lom-nie [ka-lom-ni] calumny; 
om-ni-bus [om-ni-bys]; om-ni-po-tent [om-ni-po-ta] ; om- 
ni-science [om-ni-sjais]; om-ni-vo-re [om-ni-voir] omn 
nivorous; som-nam-bu-le [som-na-byl] somnambulist; 
som-no-lent [som-no-la]. 


Exercise XX on on, oitf=[5]. Write the following words, di- 
viding them, when possible, into syllables as usual in writing and 
printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables or words when written: 
bont^, Ch&lons, Colomb, comble, comptons, cong6, conte, d^mon, 
dompter, Domremy, F^nelon, fonction, fond, font, legon, Londres, 
longue, monte, ombrelle, ombre, oncle, onction, onze, plonger, 
pompe, promptitude, pronom, prononciation, rompre, il rompt, 
ronde, savon, sumom, tombeau. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usually pronounced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet. 

144 [oe], written un, um, eun, as in chacun, humble, k 
jeun; about as in English sung, avoiding the g sound. 
un: au-ctm [o-koe] no one; brun [brce] brown; com-mtm 
[ko-mce] common; de-funt [de-fde] deceased; em-prun-te 
[a-prceit] loan, um: hum-ble-ment [de-bla-ma] humbly; 
par-fum [par-foe] perfume, eun: k jeun [a 3ce] fasting; 
Meung [mde]. For un and um in foreign words =[5], 
see 142. 

146 In a few words, mostly Latin, and in quite general 
use in French (235), final um is pronounced cm with- 
out nasality, that is [om]: ad li-bi-tum [ad li-bi-tom]; al- 
bum [al-bom]; com-pen-dium [ko-pe-djom]; de-co-rum 
[de-ko-rom]; maz-i-mum [mak-si-mom] ; mi-ni-mum [mi- 
ni-mom]; mu-se-um [my-ze-om]; pen-sum [pe-som] extra 
task (at school); post-scrip-tum [post-skrip-tom] ; o-pitun 
[o-pjom]; rhum [rom] rum; Te Deum [te de-om]; va-de- 
me-cum [va-de-me-kom]. 

Exercise XXI on un, um, eun. Write the following words, divid- 
ing them, when possible, into syllables as usual in writing and print- 


ing, pronouncing aloud the syllables or words as you write them: 
alun, Autun, brun, chacun, commun, d^funt, d'un, empnmt, em- 
prunter, les Huns, humble, humblement, importun, a jeun, Lauzun, 
Tun, lundi, Melun, Mehung, Meung, parfum, quelqu'un, qu'un. 

Supplementary Exercise A. Write these same words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as usually pronoimced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet, and pronoimcing aloud each syllable 
or word as you write it. 

Supplementary Exercise B, on the four nasals [a], [e], [5], [ce]. 
Pronounce aloud the following words or nasal soimds: anse, pince, 
onze, unze*;* ban, bain, bon, bun*; bande, binde, bonde, bunde*; 
camp, qu'in, qu'on, qu'im; campe, quinte, conte, qu'unze*; dent, 
daim, don, d'lm; en, in, on, im; fend, fin, fond, fun*; gant, gain, 
gond, gun*; Jean, geindre, jonc, jeun; Tan, Un, Ton, Tim; langue, 
linge, longe, leimge*; m'en, main, mon, Meung; Nantes, nain, non, 
mm*; pende, pain, pont, pim*; rang, rein, rond, run*; sang, sainte, 
sonde, sun*; tante, teinte, tondre, Autun; vende, vin, vont, vun*. 

Supplementary Exercise C. Write out these same words, in- 
dicating their pronunciation by means of the key alphabet, and pro- 
nouncing them aloud as you write them. 

146 Whenever an, in, on, un, or the combinations 
forming the nasal sounds, precede a vowel, or whenever 
the m or n is doubled, these combinations do not then pro- 
duce nasal sounds. In such cases the n or m goes with 
the following vowel to begin another syllable: an-nee 
[a-ne] year; bon-ne [bon] good; en-ne-mi [en-mi] enemy; 
e-tren-nes [e-tren] gifts; hon-ne-te-te [o-net-te] honesty; 
ho-no-ra-ble [o-no-ra(i)bl]; in-a-ni-m6 [i-na-ni-me] inani- 
mate; in-at-ten-tif [i-na-ta-tif] inattentive; in-no-cent 
[i-no-sa]; im-mi-gra-tion [i(m)-mi-gra-sj5]; pa-no-ra-ma 
[pa-no-ra-ma] ; pro-chai-ne [pro-Jen] next. 

1 The starred forms are not real words. 


147 To the above important principle, a few words 
form exception. Those most frequently heard are: em- 
ma-ga-si-ner [a-ma-ga-zi-ne] to store; en-i-vrer [a-ni-vre] 
to intoQcicate, and derivatives; en-or-gueil-lir [a-nor-goe-jiir] 
to make proud; en-nui [a-nip] tedumsness, and derivatives. 

148 Although such words as the examples given in 146 
are divided, when written and printed, as shown, neverthe- 
less, when pronounced, they are divided on the principle 
that, whenever possible, each syllable begins with a con- 
sonant and ends with a vowel; and that double conso- 
nants are, as a rule, the same as though single (35). 

Exercise XXII on words containing n or m, in which the n or 
m preserves its own sound and therefore does not unite with a pre- 
ceding vowel to form a nasal sound. Write the following words, di- 
viding tlxem into syllables as written and printed, pronouncing aloud 
the syllables and words as you write them : abound, ananas, Anna, 
annales, annoter, annuel, amateur, canne, Enuna, Enunanuel, euro- 
p6enne, honmie, image, imminent, immodeste, inn^, innocemment, 
innover, inodore, inoui, lunatique, mienne, monarque, moyenne, 
on^reux, sommit6, sonnette, unanime. 

SuppLEBiENTARY ExERCiBE. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet. 

V THE SEMI-VOWELS [j], [w], M 

149 When any one of the vowels i (y), o, u, or the group 
ou stands inmiediately before another vowel, the quality 
of these vowels, by coalescing with the following vowel, 
is slightly changed, and instead of a simple vowel sound, 



there results what is called a semi-vowel, known also by 
the terms semi-consonant and diphthong. 

150 The French sounds are not real diphthongs, such 
as are heard in the English words time, Icmd, noise. In 
all so-called French "diphthongs" (except vowel+il, ill = 
[j]) it is the second element that bears the stress; that 
is, the so-called French "diphthongs" are rising, unlike 
the genuine English diphthongs, as in the words just 
cited, which are falling. Semi-vo\7els, in the French 
sense of the term as here used, exist in English. The 
first element in EngUsh year is an example of a semi- 
vowel, being about halfway between vocaUc ear and con- 
sonantal jeer. 

151 The way in which the semi-vowels occur may be 
seen at a glance by citing examples illustrating the most 
usual combinations in which each of the French vowels 
i (y), o, u and group ou combine with a vowel immedi- 
ately following. In these combinations the voice rests 
upon the second element, the first being pronounced 
quick and short. 

152 The semi-vowel [j] is represented in French by i+ 
vowel in the combinations written: ia, iai, le, 16, ie, io, 
iau, ieu, iu and y before a vowel, as in the following ex- 
amples: ia, ya=[ja]: fia-cre [fja-kr] hack; hya-cin-the [ja- 
seit]; pia-no [pja-no]; so-cial [so-sjal]. iai=[je]: liai-son 
[Ij8-z5] linking; niais [nje] silly; re-mer-ciait [ra-mer-sje] 
thanked; ves-tiai-re [ves-tjeir] cloak-room, ie, ie = [je]: 
a-mi-tie [a-mi-tje] friendship; frui-tier [fnji-tje] fruHrseJr 


ler; lier [Ije] ^ bind; pied [pje] foot; pi-ti£ [pi-tje] pity. 
ie, ie=[je]: hier [jeir] yesterday; liS-vre [Ijeivr] hare; 
nie-ce [njes]. ieu=[j0]: dieu [dj0] god; lieu [lj0] place; 
mon-sieur [m8-sj0] sir. iau=[jo]: miau-ler [mjo-le] to 
mew; piau-ler [pjo-le] to whine. io = [jo]: i-dio-te [i-djot] 
idiot; myo-pe [mjop] near-sighted; vio-let-te [vjo-let] violet. 
iu = [jy]: re-liu-re [ra-ljyir] binding; sciu-re [sjyir] savh 

153 As the examples show, every i (y) followed by a 
vowel is pronounced [j]. Thus the adverb y [i] there be- 
comes [j] when preceding a word beginning with a vowel: 
5a y est [sa j e] thai^s it; il y a[il j a] there is; il y en a[il j a na] 
there are some; oft y a-t-il? [u j a t il] where are there ? But 
when the i is preceded by two or more consonants in a 
group, as bl, br, gl, gr, pi, pr, tl, tr, then the i may pre- 
serve its full vowel quality before another vowel, or may 
have the [j] sound: f a-bli-atT [f a-bli-o] medieval tale (in 
verse) ; f e-vri-er [fe-vri-e] February; pii-er [pri-e] to pray; 
qua-tri-e-me P^a-tri-em] fourth; sem-bli-ez [sa-bli-e] (you) 
seemed; tri-a-ge [tri-ais] sorting. Under these circum- 
stances it is obviously not so easy to pronounce [j]. 

154 y before vowels usually represents the sound [j] 
hya-cin-the [ja-seit]; yeux [j0] eyes; Yo-lan-de [jo-ldid] 
yo-le [jol]. y between vowels is equivalent to i+i 
payer, to pai/ = "pai-ier'' [pe-jc], the first i, when united 
with the preceding a, forming simply a digraph represent- 
ing the simple sound [e], and the second retaining its 
consonantal value of [j], the result being [pe-je]. Like 
cases are: cray-on [kre-j5] pencil; doy-en [dwa-je] dean; 


es-say-cr [e-se-je] to try; foy-er [fwa-je] hearth; moy-en 
[mwa-je] means; voy-cl-le [vwa-jel] vowel. Exceptions in 
which no digraph with the preceding a is formed occur 
in a few proper nouns or adjectives therefrom: Ba-yeoz 
[ba-j0]; Ba-yon-ne [ba-jon]; La Fa-yet-te [la fa-jet]; Fa- 
yen-ce [fa-jais]; Ma-yen-ce [ma-jais]; ma-yon-nai-se [ma- 

155 11 after a vowel, at the end of a word, as in tra- 
vail [tra-vatj] work; and ill within a syllable, or before a 
final mute e, as in ba-tail-lon [ba-ta-j5] baiaUion; ba- 
tail-le [ba-taij] baMe, represent the sound [j]. These 
cases are taken up under so-called *' liquid 1," which rep- 
resents the sound of English y in year (225). 

Exercise XXIII on the semi-vowel [j], written ia, iai, ie, i^, ift, 
to, iau, ieu, iu, and y before a vowel. Write the following words, di- 
viding them, when possible, into syllables as ordinarily done in 
writing and printing, and pronouncing aloud the syllables or words 
as you write them: meul, aUier, bestiaire, baionette, bien, canaille, 
cerisier, chien, di^te, effrayer, enthousiasme, entier, enti^re, espion- 
nage, famille, fier, hier, hygiene, liasse, lier, loyal, m^ocre, miette, 
mieux, miUeu, n^gociait, pieu, pioche, rayon, rien, violon, yacht, 
yeux, yole. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in spoken 
French, using the key alphabet, and pronouncing aloud the words 
or syllables as you write them. 

156 The semi-vowel [w], which sounds like the English 
w in won, though more tense, results from vowel combina- 
tions written: oi, ot, oy, oe, oe, oua, oua, oue, ou6, oui, 
oueu, ua. The following examples illustrate conmion 
cases under each combination: oi, oi, oy = [wa]: boi-te 


[bwait] box; e-toi-le [e-twal] star; ci-toy-en [si-twa-je] cUi-- 
zen; moi [mwa] me; moy-cn [mwa-je] means; toi [twa] 
thee; soi [swa] oneself; voi-sin [vwa-ze] neighbor, oi, oe, 
oe = [wa]: a-droi-te [a-drwat] skilful; bois [bwa] wood; 
croix[krwa] cross; frois-se [frwos] crumples; moel-le [mwal] 
marrow; mois [mwa] month; pa-rois-se [p9,-rwas] parish; 
poe-le [pwail] stove. As to the quality of the a sound in 
words in oi, whether [a] or [a], there is no absolute rule, 
the conditions being those for [a] and [a], usage varying 
considerably (cf . 62) . oua, oufi = [wa] : bi-vouac [bi-vwak] ; 
doua-ne [dwan] customrhouse; goua-che [gwaj] body-color; 
louS-mes [Iwam] (we) praised; oua-te [wat] wadding. 
cue, cue = [we]: ba-fouer [ba-fwe] to baffle; jouer [swe] to 
play; loue [Iwe] hired, cue = [we]: chouet-te [Jwet] owl; 
jouet [3W8] plaything; rouet [rwe] spinning-wheel. oui= 
[wi]: en-fouir [a-fwiir] to bury; 6-va-nouir [e-va-nwiir] to 
vanish; Louis [Iwi]; Loui-se [Iwiiz]; ouir [wiir] to hear; 
rejouir [re-3wiir] to rejoice. oueu = [w0]: boueux [bw0] 
muddy; joueu-se [3W0iz] player; noueux [nw0] knotty. 
oueu = [woe]: joueur [swceir] player; loueur [Iwoeir] one 
who praises. ua=[wa] after q in a number of words, 
some of the commoner of which are: a-de-quat [a-de-kwa] 
adequate; a-qua-ti-que [a-kwa-tik] aquatic; a-qua-rel-le 
[a-kwa-rel]; a-qua-rium [a-kwa-rjom]; e-qua-teur [e-kwa- 
toeir] equator; e-qua-tion [e-kwa-sj5]; quartz [kwarts]; 
squa-re [skwair]; also ua=^[wa] after g in a few words, 
mostly foreign: al-gua-zil [al-gwa-zil] constable; Gua-dal- 
qui-vir [gwa-dal-ki-viir]; Gua-de-lou-pe [gwad-lup]; gua- 
no [gwa-no]; Gua-te-ma-la [gwa-te-ma-la]; lin-gual [le- 
gwal]; — but note that this does not apply to French 
verb-endings as in fa-ti-gua [fa-ti-ga] (he) fatigued; con- 


ju-guant [k5-3y-ga] conjugating; dis-tin-gua [dis-tg-ga] 
(he) distinguished. 

157 w and wh== [w] in some English words: sand-wkh 
[sa-dwitS]; tramway [tra-mwe]; whis-key [winski]; whist 


Exercise XXIV on the semi-vowel [w], written <n, erf, oy, oc, o%, 
oua, ouft, cue, ou^, oui, oueu, ua in some words after q and g, and w 
in a few words from English. Write the following words, dividing 
them, when possible, into syllables as ordinarily done in writing and 
printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables or words as you write them : 
aboyer, aquarelle, aquatique, bafouer, bois, coin, croyez, (il) doua, 
douane, fidouard, ^panouir, Equation, ^vanoui, foi, fouace, foyer, 
fouet, joindre, jouai, joueur, lingual, loin, louange, loyer, Louis, 
Louise, moelleux, moellon, mois, nettoyer, jioire, noix, noyau, ouate, 
oui, po^l^e, pollette, pofilier, poids, poix, quadruple, roi, royal, 
royaume, sandwich, territoire, trois, troyen. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in spoken 
French, pronouncing aloud the words or syllables as you write them, 
using the key alphabet. 

158 The semi-vowel [q], written only u, as in buis [bqi] 
boxwood; cuir [kipir] leather; fruit [frqi] is the result of 
the vowel combinations written ua, ufi, ue, ue, ue, ui 
(uy), ueu.V [q] is a French u lightly pronounced, just as 
[j] is an i lightly pronounced, and [w] an ou lightly pro- 
nounced. But with the vowels u, i, ou, it is the vocalic 
quaUty of the vowel which predominates, while in the 
case of their fricative correspondents [q], [j], [w], owing 
to the narrowing of the air passage, it is the fricative 
quality that is noticeable. The sound [q] is one of the 
most difficult of the French sounds to acquire. Begin by 


pronouncing first the vowel u and then the following 
vowel, which accompanies and makes up the semi-vowel 
[j\], slowly, and with equal emphasis, as in lui [lip] to him; 
increase the speed, and finally pronounce both quickly, 
resting lightly on the u and placing the emphasis on the 
following vowel i. 

169 Distinguish carefully between French Louis [Iwi] 
and lui [Iqi] to him; and avoid such English pronuncia- 
tions as "Bossway" for French Bos-suet [bo-sqe], and 
"poui" for French puis [pqi]. Moreover, as y between 
vowels =i+i (see 125), care should be taken to pronounce 
words like ap-puy-er= [a-pqi-je] to lean upon (not a-pqi-e), 
and in like manner es-suy-er should be pronounced 
[e-sqi-je] (and not e-sqi-e); that is, the presence of the 
semi-vowel in ui+i in such words should be heard just 
before the second i and not simply the semi-vowel ui 

160 Examples of [q] resulting from the vowel combina- 
tions ua, u4, ue, ue, ue, ui (uy), ueu follow: ua, u4=[qa]: 
ar-guft-mes [ar-gqam] (we) argiied; nua-ge [nqais] cloud; 
sua [sqa] (he) swecUed; sua-ve [sqaiv]. ue, u6 = [qe]: nu6e 
[nqe] doud; puer [pqe] to stink; tuer [tqe] to kill, ue, ue = 
[qe]: muet [mqe] mute; ruel-le [rqel] lane; sue-rent [sqeir] 
(they) sweated, ui (uy) = [qi]: buis [bqi] boxwood; es- 
suy-er [e-sqi-je] to wipe; lui [Iqi] to him; pluie [plqij rain; 
tuy-au [tqi-jo] tube; sui-vre [sqi-vr] to follow, ueu=[q0]: 
rueu-se [rq0iz] kicker; tueu-se [tq0iz] slayer. ueu=[qoe]: 
lueur [Iqoeir] glimmer; sueur [sqoeir] sweat; tueur [tqoeir] 


Exercise XXV on the semi-vowel [q], written ua, uk, oeue, u^, v^/ 
ni (uy), ueu. Write the following words, dividing them, when pos^ 
Bible, into syllables as ordinarily done in writing and printing, pro-' 
nouncing aloud the syllables or words as you write them: annuaire, 
annuel, appuyer, bruine, bruire, buis, cuir, cuisine, cuivre, duel, 
Quelle, effectu^rent, essuyer, fruit, fruitier, huile, huissier, lui, man- 
su^tude, mu^, puis, puisque, made, ru^, ruelle, rueuse, mine, mis- 
seau, Stuart, sua, suaire, suave, sueur, tua, tueur, tueuse, tuile, 
tuileries, tuyau. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as usual in spoken French, 
pronouncing aloud the syllables or words as you write them. 

161 The semi-vowels [j], [w], [q] combine with the nasal 
vowels [a], [e], [5], [ce] to form the so-called French nasal 
diphthongs. Otherwise stated: The nasal voweb an, in, 
on, un — or in whatever other way they may be written 
— coalesce with a preceding i (y), o, ou, u (the vowels 
that may begin a so-called diphthong in French, 149), 
and form nasal diphthongs written: ian, ien, ion, oin, 
ouan, ouen, ouin, ouon, uan, uin, uon. 

163 ian and ien (not final nor in the forms of tenir 
and venir, 135 and Note) : con-fian-ce [k5-fjais] confidence; 
6-tu-diant [e-ty-dja] studerd; ne-go-ciant [ne-go-sja] mer- 
chant; o-rient [o-rja]; pa-tien-ce [pa-sjais]; scien-ce [sjais]. 
ien, yen=[je] final and in the forms of tenir and venir: 
an-cien [a-sje] ancient; bien [bje] well; com-bien [k5-bje] 
how much; gar-dien [gar-dje] guardian; main-tien [me-tje] 
support; moy-en [mwa-je] means; pa-ri-sien [pa-ri-zje] 
Parisian. ion=[j5]: ac-tion [ak-sj5] (before ion, t is 
usually sounded like s); con-so-la-tion [k5-so-la-sj5]; fac- 
tion [fak-sjo]; por-tion [por-sjo]. oin = [we]: be-soin [bd- 


zwe] need; foin [fwe] hay; loin [Iwe] far; poing [pwe] fist. 
ouan, ouen = [wa]: £-couen [e-kwa]; louan-ge [lwai5] 
praise. oum=[we]: ba-bouin [ba-bwe] baboon; ba-ra- 
gouin [ba-ra-gwe] gibberish; mar-souin [mar-swS] porpoise. 
ouon = [w5]: jouons fewo] let vs play; louons [lw5] let us 
hire; nouons [nwo] let ils tie, uan = [qa] : huant [qa] hooting; 
re-muant [ra-mqa] stirring; tuant [tqa] kiUing. um = [qe]: 
chuin-ter [Sqe-te] to pronounce [3] instead of [z] and [$] in- 
stead of [s]; jtiin [sqe] June; suin-ter [sqe-te] to ooze. 
uon=[ii5]: dis-tri-buons [di-stri-bii5] let ws distribute; 
suons [sq5] let us sweat; tuons [tqo] let us kill. 

Exercise XXVI on the French nasal diphthongs. Write the fol- 
lowing words, dividing them, whenever possible, into syllables as 
usual in writing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words as you write them : audience, au moins, avions, bedouin, be- 
soin, chouan, chr^tient^, conscience, douons, embryon, fianc^, in- 
gr^ent, italien, jouant, lion, mendiante, muant, nuance, pingouin, 
pointe, quintette, QuintiUen, quintuple, rejoindre, remuons, Rouen, 
Saint-Ouen, scientifique, suant, tuons, viande, viendra, vouons. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in ordinary 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 


163 For general distinctions between French and 
English consonants, see 7. 

164 Final consonants, whether there be one or several, 
are usually silent. After nasal vowels this rule is particu- 
larly applicable: champs [Ja] fi£lds; coup [ku] stroke; doigts 



[dwa] fingers; dos [do] back; franc [fra]; in-stinct [e-ste]; Kt 
[li] bed; long [15]; nez [ne] nose; pieds [pje] feet; prompt [pro]; 
rond [ro] round; vaincs [ve] (I) conquer. Exceptions to the 
general rule will be found under the respective consonant. 

165 Final c, f , 1, q, r (the consonants, barring q, in the 
EngUsh word care/uZ) are usually pronounced: a-vec 
[a-vek] with; bal [bal] ball; car [ka(i)r] for; cinq [sgik] fijoe; 
chef [Sef] chief; coq [kok] cock; froc [Ip^ frock; peur [poexr] 
fear; sauf [sof] except; vil [vil] vile. Moreover, in the few 
cases, mostly words of foreign origin or proper names, in 
which b, k, m and n (when not nasaUzing the preceding 
vowel) occur as final, they are usually pronounced. 

166 In groups made up of r+ consonant, usually r 
alone is sounded: bord [boir] edge; clerc [kleir] clerk; corps 
[koir] body; Jnarc[mair] grounds (of coflfee); nord [noir] 
north; pore ^dir]' porA;; sort [soir] ht; tiers [tjeir] third; 
vers [veir] verse; vert [veir] green. 

167 Double consonants (42) are in general sounded 
as though single: ab-b6 [a-be] abbey; ar-ri-ver [a-ri-ve] to 
arrive; cas-ser [ka-se] to break; col-ler [ko-le] to glue; cou- 
ron-ne [ku-ron] crown; frap-per [fra-pe] to strike; frot-ter 
[fro-te] to rub; gref-fier [gre-fje] bailiff; ter-ri-ne [te-rin] 
earthen pan. 

168 In some cases, double consonants, if not actually 
heard as two separate consonants, are distinctly longer 
than single consonants. This happens: 1° In the future 
and conditional of cou-rir [ku-riir] to run; mou-rir [mu- 
riir] to die; que-rir [ke-riir] to seek. 2** In a number of 


/ ' 

Words beginning with ill-, imm-, in-. 3° In a few 
other cases. Cases of bb, dd, pp, tt, are rare. Some com- 
mon cases of doubling or lengthening are: je cour-rai [3a 
kur-re] I shall run; vous mour-rez [vu mur-re] you will 
die; ils quer-ront [il ker-ro] they will seeh^ il-le-gal [il- 
le-gal] illegal; il-li-mi-te [il-li-mi-te] illirrdted; il-lu-sion 
[il-ly-zj5]; il-lus-tre [il-lystr] illustrious; im-ma-nent [im- 
ma-na]; im-men-se [im-mais]; im-mo-bi-le [im-mo-bil] im- 
movable; im-mu-ne [im-myn]; ir-4'a-tion-nel [ir-ra-sjo-nel]; 
ir-re-pa-ra-ble [ir-re-pa-rabl]; it-ri-tant [ir-ri-ta] irritating; 
ir-rup-tion [ir-ryp-sj5]; al-lfr-go-ri [al-le-go-ri] allegory; al- 
le-guer [al-le-ge] to allege; am-mo-nium [am-mo-njom] am- 
monia; an-na-les [an-^1] records; an-na-lis-te [an-na-list] 
recorder; hor-ri-ble [91^-ribl]; in-ne [in-ne] inborn; syl-la-be 
[sil-la(i)b] syllable 

e [ai^-ribl]; inn 

169 The distinction practically is of no great import- 
ance. Outside of a few cases such as the above, it is 
hardly perceptible, and^ven in such cases usage varies. 
Compare the following, which are "examples in very com- 
mon words of the normal usage: al-ler [a-le] to go; a-mol- 
lir [a-mo-Uir] to soften; an-neau [a-no] ring; an-nee [a-ne] 
year; ar-rie-re [a-rjeir] behind; ar-ri-ve [a-ri-ve] arrival; 
ar-ro-ser [a-ro-ze] to water; car-re [ka-re] square; ter-ri- 
ble [te-ribl]. 

170 b (bb) = [b] as in bout [bu] end; ro-be [ro(i)b] dress; 
ab-be [a-be] abbot; about as in English harbor, barber, 
[b] is regularly represented in French by b; but before 
the voiceless consonants s or t, b becomes unvoiced (cf. 
246) and sounds Uke p: ab-sent [ap-sa]; ab-sin-the [ap- 


sSit] wormwood; ab-so-lu-ment [ap-so-ly-ma] absoltUdy; 
ab-so-lu-tion [ap-sa-ly-6J5]; ab-sol-voas [ap-sol-v5] let us 
absolve; ab-sou-dre [ap-sudr] to absolve; abs-te-nir [aps- 
ta-niir] to abstain; abs-ti-nen-ce [aps-ti-nais]; ob-ser-ver 
[op-ser-ve] to observe; ob-sta-cle [op-stakl]; ob-te-nir [op- 
to-niir] to obtain; bb, as shown by the examples, is simply 
treated as b. 


171 b final is usually silent (339) : Co-lomb [ko-lo] ; 
plomb [pl5] lead, but in some proper nouns, and in a 
few words of foreign origin, is sounded: A-chab [a-kab];cab 
[kab] ; Ca-leb [ka-leb] ; club [klyb] ; Jarcob fea-kob] ; Jo-ab 
[30-ab]; Job [30b]; na-bab [na-ba|fl nabob; ra-doub [ra- 
dujl] refitting; rumb [roib] rhomb. ^ ^ / ;«»^/^ (f^a^k^ \ 

172 b is silent in the following words: Doubs [du]; 
Fab-vier [fa-vje]; Le-feb-vre [lo-fevr]. 

Exercise XXVII on b (bb) = [b]. Write, dividing into syllables 
as ordinarily done in writing and printing, pronouncing aloud the 
syllables and words as you write them, the following: abbesse, baba, 
bahel, babiche, babillcr, babine, balbutier, bambou, barbare, barbier, 
b6b6, bibelot, bi^re, bobine, bobo, bombe, brebis, bubon, gibbosity, 
gobbo, rabbin, sabbat. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them as in spoken Fr^Qch, pronouncing aloud syllables and words, 
using the key alphabet. 

173 c has two sounds: 1° that of [k]; 2<> that of [s]. 
1*» c (cc) before a, o, u = [k], unless the c is marked with 
a cedilla, c: car [kar] for; cor [koir] horn; cu-re [kyir] 
rectory; e-co-le [e-kol] school, cc: ac-cord [a-koir]; sac- 
ca-der [sa-ka-de] to jolt; suc-cu-lent [sy-ky-la]. 


174 Special cases. c=g in se-cond [sa-g5] and de- 
rivatives. c=g in rei-ne-clau-de, [ren-gloid], but also 

JpronQiuxced IrfiBTklpid] greengage. In the word czar and 
derivatives c has the sound of g'fgzair]; but these words 
are now more usually written with ts and so pronounced 
[tsair] or [tzair]. 

Exercise XXVIII illustrating c (cc) before a, o, u. Write, di- 
vide as ordinarily written, and pronounce aloud the following words: 
acad^mie, accabler, accaparer, accoter, acolyte, acoustique, acumin^, 
cacao, calice, cantique, caricature, Caucase, caustique, cuve, raccroc, 
raccrocher, raccommoder, saccade, saccager, saccharin. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

175 2° c, before e, i (y) = [s]: ce-ci-t# [s{5-si-te] blind- 
ness; ces-sion [se-sjS]; cy-gne [siji] swan; Cjrr [siir] (proper 
name); re-ce-voir [ras-vwair] to receive; so-cial [so-sjal]. 

Remark, c, in the combination so, before e, i (y), is silent: 
scg-l#-rat [se-le-ra] rascal; scd-ne [sem] scene; scien-ce [sjais]; 
Scy-fhes [sit] Scythians, 

176 c, written 5, before a, o, u = [s] : de-eu [de^sy] de- 
ceived; gar-^on [gar-s5] hoy; ma-^on [ma-s5] aly [ma-s5] 
mason; per^ [per-sa] pierced; pla-^ [pla-safploced. cc 
before a, o, u = c with the value of [k] as stated under 
173; but cc before e, i = [ks]: ac-cent [ak-sa]; ac-ci-dent 
[ak-si-da]; suc-ces-seur [syk-se-soeir]. 

Exercise XXIX on c, before e, i (y) = [s]. Write, divide as 
ordinarily written, and pronounce aloud the followng words: acc4- 
16rer, accepter, acc^, accident, apergu, ceci, cela, cent, certain, ciel, 
cil, cimeti^y cire, conmienQons, con^u, cymbale, cypres, douce, 


encens, facade, fa^on, frangais, le^on, pergait, percevoir, proc^, 
recent, rtoter, recipient, successeur, succion. 

SuppLEBfENTART ExERCiSE. Write, divide aa in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

177 c before a consonant (other than h, 182-185) = 
\k]: ac-teur [ak-tceir] actor; ac-tion [ak-sj5]; es-clan-dre 
[es-kla-dr] scandal; es-cla-ve [es-klaiv] slave; pros-crire 
[pros-kriir] to proscribe. 

178 c final is usually pronounced (165, 340) and is 
then sounded as [IcJ. This occurs particularly in monosyl- 
labic words and in compounds of which they form the final 
part: a-que-duc [a-ko-dyk] or [ak-dyk] aqueduct; arc [ark]; 
bac [bak] ferry-boat; bee [bek] beak; bloc [bbk] block; bouc 
[buk] buck; choc [Jok] shock; co-gnac [ko-jiak]; crac [krak] 
crack!; due [dyk] duke; es-toc [cs-tok] rapier; ha-mac 
[a-mak] hammock; saint Marc [se mark] (340, 341). 

Exercise XXX, illustrating c, before consonants, = [k]; and c 
final sounded as [k]. Write, divide when possible as ordinarily writ- 
ten, and pronounce aloud the following words: avecjjjjouac, es- 
clafifer, esclavage, esclavon, escrime, facteur, factioi 
lac, muse, obstacle, Pandectes, pare, Quebec, r^actu 
sanctifier, sanctuaire, sec, stuc, sue, tact, tac, tic,^ 
true, vindicte, zinc. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

179 • c is silent when preceded by a nasal vowel (cf . 
164) : blanc [bla] white; flanc [fla] flank; franc [fra] frank; 
jonc [35] rush; tronc [trp] trunk; vaincs [ve] (I) conquer; 
but zinc = [zeik]. ' 



180 c final, though usually sounded, as shown by the 
examples under 178, is nevertheless silent in a number of 
words, of which some conmion examples are the follow- 
ing: ac-croc [a-kro] hitch; broc [bro] pitcher; ca-out-chouc 
[ka-ut-Su]; clerc [kleir] clerk; eric [kri] jack-screw; croc 
[kro] hook; es-croc [es-kro] swindler; es-to-mac [es-to-ma] 
stomach; lacs [la] snares; marc [mair] grounds; pore [poir] 
pig; ta-bac [ta-ba] tobacco. 

Exercise XXXI, illustrating examples of c silent in the combi- 
nation sc (175 Remark) ; and showing examples of silent final c (179, 
180). Write, divide, when possible, as ordinarily written, and pro- 
nounce aloud the following words: ajonc, arc-boutant, aspect, 
convaincs, cotignac, Ducroc, jouer aux tehees, ferblanc, instinct, 
Leclerc, raccroc, sceau, sceller, sc^l6ratesse, scenario, sc^nique, scep- 
ticisme, sceptique, sceptre, scie, scientifique, scier, scienmient, scin- 
tillant, scion, sciure, succinct, il vainc. 

181 The word done, denoting a conclusion and gen- 
erally when bearing emphasis, is pronounced [doik]; 
otherwise, without the k sound: [do]. The following 
words are pronounced with or without a final k sound: 
ar-se-nic [ars-ni(k}] arsenic; cir-con-spect [sir-k5-spe(k)] 
circumspect; 6-chec [e-Se(k)] check; re-spect [re-spe(k)]; 
stis-pect [sys-pe(k)]. 

182 ch=[S], as in English machine ^ is the usual value 
of this combination: ca-che [kaj] hiding-place; cham-bre 
Raibr] chamber; chat [Sa] cat; Chi-ne [Si(Oii] China; cho-se 
[Joiz] thing; fi-cheux [fa-S0] sorry; Ifi-che [laij] coward; 
pro-chain [pro-S§] neighbor. 

183 ch = [S] in words beginning with ar-chi- [ar-Ji] arch 
(except^ ar-chi-e-pis-co-pal [ar-ki-e-pis-ko-pal] and ar- 



chi-6-pis-co-pat [ar-ki-e-pis-ko-pa] archiepiscopaie): ar- 
chi-diacre [ar-Si-djakr] archdeacon; ar-chi-duc [ar-Ji-dyk] 
archduke; ar-chi-fou [ar-Si-fu] archfool; ar-chi-pel [ar-Si- 
pel] archipelago; ar-chi-pre-tre [ar-Ji-preitr] archpriest; 
ar-chi-tec-te [ar-Ji-tekt] architect. 

184 ch = [S] in some words of learned origin that have 
become quite common, among them: ar-che-ve-che 
[ar-Sa-ve-Se] archbishopric; ar-che-ve-que [ar-Ja-veik] 
archbishop; ch6-ru-bin [Je-ry-be] cherub; chi-mie [Si-mi] 
chemistry; chi-rur-gien [Si-ryr-3Je] surgeon; pa-tri-ar-che 
[pa-tri-arj] patriarch. 

Exercise XXXII on ch = [S]. Write, divide as ordinarily writ- 
ten and pronounce aloud the following words: Achille, archiduch^, 
archiduchesse, archifolle, architecture, architrave, archives, archi- 
viste, champ, chant, chasse, chevalier, chien, Chih, chim^re, chirur- 
gie, choquer, chuchoter, d^chu, f^tichisme, Michel, monarchie, 
monarchique, p^cheur, psyche, Rachel, rachitique, revanche, tachy- 
graphe, vache. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud the same words, using the key alphabet. 

185 ch = [k] in many words of foreign origin, especially 
Greek. This is regulariy the case when oh precedes a 
consonant and when final: chr6-tien [kre-tje] Christian; 
Christ [krist]; chro-no-lo-gie [kro-no-lo-si] chronology; 
chry-san-th^me [kri-za-teim] chrysanthemum; £-noch 
[e-nok]; Mo-loch [mo-lok]; tech-no-lo-gie [tek-no-lo-si] 
technology. In al-ma-nach, eh is silent{[al-ma-na]. . *^ U 1'-^ ' 

186 ch = [k], often before a vowel (occurring in words 
of foreign origin) : A-chab [a-kab]; An-tio-chus [a-tjo-kyis]; 


cha-os Pia-o]; choeur [koeir] choir; 6-cho [e-ko]; or-ches- 
tre [or-kestr] orchestra. 

Remark, sch is rare, occurring in learned words, and then gen- 
erally pronounced sh [$]: schis-me Bism] schism; schis-te [Jist] slate; 
but in a few others sch = sk: scha-buHre [ska-le:r] academic; scho- 
las-ti-que [ska-las-tik] schUbl-man; scho-lie [ska-li] scholium (both 
words now usually spelt without the h). 

Exercise XXJCIII, illustrating examples of ch = [k] in words of 
foreign origin, and occurring both before consonants and vowels, 
and also when final. Write, divide as ordinarily written, and 
pronounce aloud the following words: anachor^te, archaique, arch^o- 
logue, archonte, Bacchus, Baruch, Chald^, Cham, Chanaan, chao- 
tique, Charybde, Ch^ps, chirologie, chiromancie, cholera, chronique, 
fuchsia, Uchen, loch, Machiavel, Mettemich, Michel-Ange, Munich, 
orchide, orchestral, orchestration, patriarchal, Saint-Roch, techno- 
logie, Zacharie, Zurich. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

187 d (dd) = [d], about as in English needy, is regularly 
represented in French by d: da-me [dam] lady; de-dier 
[de-dje] to dedicate; con-dui-re [ko-dqiir] to conduct; fi- 
de-le [fi-del] faithful; per-dre [perdr] to lose, 

188 dd. Although dd, like double consonants in 
general (167), is treated like a simple consonant, never- 
theless in a few cases, as in the following words, jiOJUG 
authorities indicate the pronunciation of a rather more 
prolonged sound than for a simple d by writing dd: ad-di- 
tion [ad-di-sj5]; ad-den-da [ad-de-da]; ad-duc-teur [ad- 
dyk-toeir] adductor; ad-duc-tion [ad-dyk-sj5]; red-di-tion 
[red-di-sj5] restitution; qui<d-di-te [kid-di-te] quiddity. 


189 d final, or in a final group, is regularly silent: bold 
[boir] border; chaud [Jo] warm; £-douard [e-dwair]; froid 
[frwa] cold; grand [gra] great; Saint-Cloud [se klu]. 

190 d final (363) is sounded in sud [syd] soiUh, and in 
some proper nouns and foreign words: Al-fred [al-fred]; 
le Cid [la sid]; Da-vid [da-vid]; ^phod [e-fod]; Le-o-pold 
[le^pold]. K--^ ^ ^^^-^^ . L^-fi-p'^C. 

Exercise XXXIV, illustrating examples of silent d when occur- 
ing at the end of a word, or in a final consonantal group. Such ter- 
minations are frequently: nd, nds, rd, rds, aid, and, aud, aiild, end, 
ends, end, ends. Write, divide as ordinarily written and pronounce 
aloud the following words: allemand, Archambauld, Amaud, j'as- 
sieds. Bayard, Berthauld, je confonds, elle coud, couvre-pieds, Ed- 
mond, £)ginhard, ^pinard, Gounod, Greenland, La Rochefoucauld, 
Madrid, milord, je mords, nord, on perd, Oxford, Pharamond, poids, 
Ponsard, Renaud, je r^pands, Rejrnauld, Richard, rond, sourd, tard, 
tu tords, Vaud, vieillard. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronoimce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

Exercise XXXV, illustrating examples of d sounded in the body 
of a word, or when final. Write, divide as ordinarily written, and 
pronounce aloud the following words: Adda, ad hoc, adjoint, ad rem, 
Arnold, Bagdad, Carlsbad, Christiansfeld, Christiansand, Nemrod 
Conrad, Edda, Ethelred, Fould, Friedland, Galaad, George Sand, 
Harold, Jenny Lind, Joad, Port-Said, Rothschild, Sandwich, le 
Sund, Talmud. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as ordinarily pronounced in 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

191 f (flf, ph) = [f], about as in English /ee. [f] is rep- 
resented in French by f, flf and ph. f : bref [bref] hrief; 


de-fai-re [de-feir] to undo; fa-ci-le [fa-sil] easy; fils [fis] son; 
neuf [noef] new, ph: nym-phe [neif] nymph; pha-re [fair] 
lighthouse; phi-lo-so-phe [fi-lo-zof] philosopher, flf has the 
value of f , althoug^r^ indicated by some authorities, in 
a few wordsj^^^nn^^th eff, it may be somewhat 
longer tjwitfi: e|-ffo-res-cefIt [ef-flo-re-sa]; ef-fluent [ef- 
flya]; ef-flu-ve [ef-ti.yiY]efflumum. 

192 f final is regularly sounded (165) : boeuf [beef] ox; 
brief [brief]; ca-nif [ka-nif] penknife; chef [Jef] chief; juif 
[sqif] Jew; neuf [noef] n^ii?; oeuf [oef] egg; sauf [sof] except; 
soif [swaf] ^Airsf. 

193 f final is silent in cerf [seir] stag; clef (cle) [kle] key; 
nerf [neir] n^rve; f preceding s of the plural is silent in 
boeufs [b0] oxen; cerfs [seir] stags; clefs [kle] keys; nerfs 
[neir] nerves; oeufs [0] eggs: f is silent in some proper 
nouns and in a few common words and expressions: 
Neuf-bourg [noe-buir]; Neuf-Bri-sach [noe bri-zak]; Neuf- 
cha-teau [noeSa-to]; Neuf-ch4-tel [noeSa-tel]; le boeuf 
gras [b boe gra] fatted ox, carnival; du boeuf sa-le [dy boe 
sa-le] salted beef; cerf-vo-lant [ser yo-la] kite; chef-d'oeu- 
vre [Je doeivr] masterpiece; nerf de boeuf [neir da beef] 
cowhide; un oeuf dur [ce noe /dyir] a hard-boiled egg; un 
oeuf frais [de noe fre] a fresh egg. 

194 Neuf, the number nine, is pronounced [noef] when 
the word occurs as final: il y en a neuf [il j on a noef] there 
are nine; tren-te-neuf [trait noef] thirty-nine; and also 
when giving the date of the month: le neuf de-cem-bre 
[la noef de-saibr] the ninth of December. It is pronounced 



[noe] before a consonant or dspirate h: neuf li-vres [noe 
liivr] nine books; neuf l\o-mards [h^o-mair] nine lobsters, y 
Jt is pronounced [noeiv] before a vowel or silent h: neuf I 
en-fants [noe-va-fd] nine children; neuf hommes [noe-vom] 
nine men. 

Exercise XXXVI, illustrating examples of pronounced f (ph, 
ff) = [f], in the body of a word or final. Write, divide, whenever 
possible, as ordinarily written, and pronounce aloud the following 
words: affaire, Alphonse, biffer, boeuf k la mode, chef -lieu, difficile, 
fieff6, grief, if, motif, naif, nef, le neuf ao(it, le neuf f^vrier, le neuf 
de pique, page .soixante-neuf, Pont-Neuf, souliers neufs, en voil^ 
neuf, oeuf k la coque, un oeuf gkt6f Ph^re, r^cif, des bas reliefs, ros- 
bif , serf, soif ardente, suif k vendre, tarif , turf, veuf, vif-argent. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as ordinarily pronounced in 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

Exercise XXXVII, illustrating examples of silent f, either in 
the body of a word or final. Pronounce aloud the following expres- 
sions: de beaux bcBufs, un cerf dix-cors, regardez les cerfs-volants, 
crise de nerf s, les nerf s de la guerre, neuf cents francs, neuf hameaux, 
cent neuf hiboux, neuf mille, neuf personnes, ceufs d'autruche. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same expressions, pro- 
nouncing the words aloud as you write them, using the key alpha- 

195 g {ggj gu) = [g], about as in English mgged. The 
sound [g] is represented in French by g before a, o,"u, 
or a consonant (except n in cases where gn = [ji], see 
207). g: an-gle [a-gl]; gai-gon [gar-s5] boy; gk-te [ga-te] 
spoiled; gloi-re [glwair] glory; gout [gu] taste; grand [gra] 
^11' S& (rarely occurs): ag-glo-me-rer [a-glo-me-re] to 
agglomerate; ag-glu-ti-ner [a-gly-ti-ne] to agglutinate; 


ag-gra-ver [a-gra-ve] to aggravate, gu (before e, i, y): 
an-guil-le [a-giij] eel; bfi-guin [be-ge] child's cap; bri-guer 
[bri-ge] to scheme; gue [ge] ford; gui-de [gi(i)df;jCjui-se [giiz] ; 
Gui-zot [gi-zo]; Guizot and his Jgjxiily pronounced the 
name [gwi-zo] ; Gu-yot [gi-jo]. (^'s. &WI ~2^ (V^ryuJUa- Ur^ 

196 gu=[g]. The only use of the u m the examples 
last cited ife to show that the g has the sound in English 
go; without the insertion of the u, the g would here 
have, before e, i, y, the sound heard in English azure, 
pleasure (202). ^' r^K^'^' * ^^^. QI McU^- - . . 

J.97 guer=[ge]." In a number of verbs in -guer, the u 
remains throughout the entire conjugation, even before a 
and o, where, of no use whatever, it is simply orthographic. 
The following verb-forms of some of the commonest of 
such verbs, in which the u before a and o is retained, 
show where th^ retention occurs: nous bri-guons [nu 
bri-go] we schefifie; je con-ju-guais [39 ko-sy-ge] / was con- 
jugating; je dis-tin-guai [39 dis-te-ge] / distinguished; 
vous di-va-gu4-tes [vu di-va-gat] you ramble; 11 ex-tra- 
va-guait [il eks-tra-va-ge] he was talking wildly; tu fa-ti- 
guas [ty fa-ti-ga] you fatigued; il ha-ran-gua [il a-ra-ga] he 
harangued; nous li-gu&-mes [nu li-gam] we hound; vous 
na-vi-gui-tes [vu na-vi-gat] you navigated; pro-mul-guant 
[pro-myl-ga] promulgating; que tu sub-ju-guas-ses [ka ty 
syb-3y-gas] thai you might subjugate; qu'il vo-gu4t [k il 
vo-ga] that he might row. The verb ar-gu-er [ar-gq-e] to 
argue, forms an exception to the above, the u being pro- 
nounced throughout all the tenses: j'ar-gue [3 ar-gy] / 
argue. The dieresis over the e shows that the e and u 


are not to be pronounced together as in drogue [drog] 
drug, but separated from each other in order to give the 
u its entire sound: tu ar-gues [ty ar-gy] ffum arguest. 

198 gu, before i, in a few words =[gqi], that is, a 
diphthong, not unlike the sound heard in English sweet: 
ai-guil-le [e-gqi(i)j] needle; ai-guil-lon [e-gqi-j5] goad; ai- 
gui-ser [e-gqi-ze] to sharpen; am-bi-gui-t6 [a-bi-gqi-te] 
ambiguity; con-san-gui-ni-te [k5-sa-gqi-ni-te] also [k5-sa- 
gi-ni-te] consanguinity; con-ti-gui-t6 [ko-ti-gqi-te] jyrox- 
imity; ex-i-gui-te [eg-zi-gqi-te] scantiness; lin-guis-te 
[le-gqist] linguist. Although ambiguite, contiguite and 
exiguite are spelled with a dieresis, the pronunciation, 
nevertheless, is as indicated, that is, [qi] a diphthong 
and not [yi], two separate vowel sounds. 

199 gu = [gw] only before a [gwa], and even then, with 
few exceptions, only in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian 
words: al-gua-zil [al-gwa-zil] police agent; Gua-da-la- 
xa-ra[gwa-da-la-ksa-ra]; Gua-dal-qui-vir [gwa-dal-ki-viir]; 
Gua-da-lu-pe [gwa-da-lyp]; Guam [gwam]; Guar-da 
[gwar-da]. La Guarda, city of Portugal; Gua-ri-ni [gwa- 
ri-ni]; Gua-te-ma-la [gwa-ta-ma-la]; Gua-ya-kil [gwa-ja- 
kil]; lin-gual [le-gwal]. 

/^ 200 gn = [gn] ; that is, g and n are sounded separately in 
some words, mostly of Greek and Latin origin, instead of 
forming the usual combination [ji] (207); some of the 
more common of such words are: cog-ni-tion [kog-ni-sjo]; 
diag-nos-ti-que [djag-nos-tik] diagnosis; gno-me [gnoim]; 
gnos-ti-ques [gnos-tik] gnostics; gnou [gnu] homed horse; 

^ w / CONSONANTS 79 

^;. in-ex-pti^2ia-ble [i-neks-pyg-na-bl] impregnable; mag- 
ni-fi-cat [mag-ni-fi-kat]; mag-no-lier [mag-no-lje] and 

Exercise XXXVIII, illustrating examples of g before a, o, u, or 
a consonant = [g]. Write the following words, dividing them, when- 
ever possible, into syllables as usual in writing and printing, 
pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you write them: 
ag^om^ration, agglutinative, aggravation, aigu, anguille, digue, 
distinguons, drogue, ^glogue, En-^dgQ, ^nigme, flegme, gai, gan- 
grene, gant, gargotte, gargouilleT'gbgo, gomme, gonfler, Gonzague, 
Gringoire, guenille, gu^pe, gu6rir, guerre, guet, guide, guitare, gut- 
tural, Guy, nagu^re, narguant, sanglier, vigoureux, voguons. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in ordinary 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

301 g before e, i, y=[3], about as in English azure; the 
sound regularly denoted by French j, as in jau-ne [son] 
yellow; jeu [30] game; jo-li feo-li] pretty (217). Common 
examples of g before e, i, y are: a-gir [a-3iir] to act; bou- 
gie [bu-3i] taper; gens [3a] people; gi-te [3iit] lair; gym- 
nas-te [3im-nast] gymnast ;[0'Targevx [o-ra-30] stormy. 

203 ge before a, o, u. Just as silent u is inserted after 
g, before e and i to produce the "hard" g sound (196), 
so silent e is inserted before a, o, u to produce the *'soft" 
g sound: ga-geu-re [ga-3yir] wager; ged-le [30 il] jail; ge6- 
lier [30-lje] jailer; Geor-ges [3or3]; na-gea [na-3a] swam; 
plon-geons [pl5-35] let us plunge. In such cases g never 
has the sound of English g in George. 


203 gg before e = [gs] ; that is, the first g has the " hard '' 
sound and the second the **soft'': sug-g6-rer [syg-se-re] 
to suggest; sug-ges-tion [syg-ses-tjo]. 

f iff 

204 g in the body of the following words is silent: 
Brog-lie [bro-ja]; Clug-ny [kly-ni]; im-brog-lio [e-bro-ljo] 
confusion; Reg-nard [ra-nair]; Reg-naud [ra-no]; sang-sue 
[sa-sy] leech; sig-net [si-ne] and [si-jie] hook-mark. 

305 g, final (365) or in a final group, is usually silent 
in French words and in proper names ending in bourg 
and berg: bourg [buir] (authority can be found for [burik] 
in the singular and [buir] in the plural) borough (365); 
Cher-bourg [Jer-buir]; doigt [dwa] Jingfer; £-dim-bourg 
[e-de-buir]; Ham-bourg [a-bu:r]; legs [le] legacy; Saint- 
Pe-ters-bourg [se pe-terz-buir]; vingt [ve] twenty; Wur- 
tem-berg [vyr-td-beir]. / 

206 g final ns '"sounded in most foreign words: grog 
[grog]; joug [ju(i)^j yoke (365); las-ting [las-teig] lasting, 
DenmarH satin; Lie-big [li-big]; pou-ding [pu-deig] pud- - 
ding; Schles-wig [Slez-vig]; Za-dig [za-dig]; zig-zag [zig-- 

Exercise XXXIX, illustrating examples of g before e, i, y=[3] — 
Write the following words, dividing them, whenever possible, m\jc^^ 
syllables as usual in writing and printing, pronoimcing aloud thc^ 
syllables and words as you write them : agenda, arrangeons, change — 
ment, effigie, gageons, gageure, geindre, g^le, g6mir, gentiment -^ 
Georges, gerc6, germaine, Gertrude, gestes, gibeci^re, gibier, gigan — 
tesque, Gigogne, gigot, gilet, gingembre, girouette, glte, gjnoanase^^ 
gymnastique, mangeons, n^ghgeons, neige, orage, partageons, pigeoiK ^ 
rouge, voyageur. 


SuppLEBfENTART ExERCisE. Write these same words, dividing 
them, whenever possible, into syllables as pronounced in ordinary 
spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words as you 
write them, using the key alphabet. 

HWi Jga=[fi^j as in pei-gne [peji] comb; re-gne [reji] 
reiguy resembling the sound heard in English mignonette, 
omen, um'on, but pronounced as a single sound, and not 
as two successive sounds. The sound [ji], known as 
liquid n or n mouille is represented by gn. The cases 
given under 200, in which gn = g+n, that is, two separate 
consonants, are mostly^ mther rare learned or foreign 
words. The usual sound value of gn is [ji], a single sound, 
although closely related to ni, the successive sounds 
heard in the EngUsh words above cited (om'on, umon), as 
well as to ni in French pa-nier [pa-nje] basket Examples 
of gn = [ji] are: ba-gne [baji] convict prison; cham-pa-gne 
[Sa-paji]; cam-pa-gne [ka-paji] country; cy-gne [siji] swan; 
li-gne [liji] line; s^-gneur [se-jioeir] lord. 

Exercise XL, illustrating gn = [p], the words to be written, di- 
vided and pronounced aloud as usual: agncau, Allemagne, baignoire, 
Charlemagne, cogn6, compagnon, d^daigneux, digne, Eloigner, en- 
seigner, ^pargner, gagner, Gascogne, grognon, hargneux, ignoble, 
ignorant, lor^on, magnanime, magnlfique, magn^ie, magnetisme, 
montagnard, montagneux, poignet, r^gnait, Regnard, refrogn^, 
rognon, signal, vergogne. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, as usual, the above words, 
using the key alphabet. 

208 h is silent in French. It is called mute or aspirate. 
The mute or silent h has no effect whatever upon the 
pronunciation. It is purely conventional, often recalling 
Latin etymology, and treated as though non-existent: 


ITia-bit P a-bi] the coat; les ha-bits [le za-bi] the coats; auz 
ha-bits [o za-bi] to the coais; des ha-bits [de za-bi] of the 
coats; ITieu-re Wobir] the hour; les heu-res [le zoeir] the 
hours; aux heu-res [ozoeir] to the hours; des heu-res [de 
zoeir] of the hours; I'hom-me [1 om] the man; les hom-mes 
[le zom] the men; aux hom-mes [o zom] to the men; des 
hom-mes [de zom] of the men. In these cases, as shown 
by the figured pronunciation, the words are pronounced 
as though written I'abit, les abits, aux abits, des abits; 
I'eure, les eures, aux eures, des eures; I'om, les ommes, 
aux ommes, des omjcnes. 

200 h mute may also occur in the middle or at the end 
of words. Here, again, it is as though it were not there: 
al-lah [al-la] the God; al-ma-nach [al-ma-na] almanac; 
a-rith-m6-tique [a-rit-me-tik] arithmetic; ca-hier [ka-je] 
copy-book; ca-the-dra-le [ka-te-dral] cathedral; dah-lia 
[da-lja]; in-ha-bi-le [i-na-bil] incapable; mal-heur [ma- 
loeir] misfortune; the [te] tea. The English th sound does 
not exist in French; th = [t]. 

210 h aspirate is no longer aspirate. It was once so 
pronounced in certain words and the name aspirate is re- 
tained. Unlike mute h, aspirate h affects the pronuncia- 
tion of a word by preventing elision with a preceding 
vowel and linking with a preceding consonant, such as 
regularly occurs in the examples given under 208. Thus 
neither elision nor linking occur in the following: le ha- 
ri-cot [b a-ri-ko] the bean; les ha-ri-cots [le a-ri-ko] the 
beans; aux ha-ri-cots [o a-ri-ko] to the beans; des ha-ri- 
cots [de a-ri-ko] of the beans; le he-ros [b e-ro]; aux he-ros 
[o e-ro] to the heroes; des he-ros [de e-ro] of the heroes. 



If the h were not aspirate in these eases, the words would 
be pronounced [la-ri-ko], [le-za-ri-ko], [o-za-ri-ko], [de-za- 
ri-ko]; [le-ro], [le-ze-ro], [o-ze-ro], [de-ze-ro], particularly 
distasteful to the French ear. 

211 Whether the h be a mute h or an aspirate h, it may 
be regarded in either case as absolutely silent. There are 
some four hundred words that have the aspirate h, a large 
part of them of German origin. They are usually indi- 
cated in vocabularies and dictionaries by a star (*h) or 
an apostrophe (Ti). Observation and practice alone will 
enable them to be recognized. Some of the more com- 
mon of these words are: 

ha-che [aj], ax 
ha-chis [a-Si]; hash 
ha-gard [a-gair] haggard 
haie [e], hedge 
hail-Ions [a-j5] rags 
hai-ne [en] hatred 
ha-Ir [a-iir] to hale 
ha-ler [a-le] to havl 
h&-ler [a-le] to tan 
ha-le-ter [al-te] to pant 
halle [al] market-place 
hal-lier [al-je] thicket 
hal-te [alt] halt 
ha-mac [a-mak] hammock 
Ham-bourg [a-buir] Hamburg 
ha-meau [a*mo] hamlet 
han-che [aS] haunch 
han-gar [a-ga:r] shed 
han-ne-ton [an-t5] June-bug 
han-ter [a-te] to haunt 
ha-ran-gue [a-ra-g] 

ha-ras-ser [a-ra-se] to harass 
har-des [ard] apparel 
har-di [ar-di] hardy 
ha-reng [a-ro] herring 
har-gneux [ar-ji0] cross 
ha-ri-cot [a-ri-ko] bean 
har-nais [ar-ne] harness 
har-pe [arp] harp 
har-pon [arp5] harpoon 
hart [a!r] withe 
ha-sard [a-za:r] hazard 
M-te [ait] haste 
hau-bert [o-be:r] hauberk 
haus-ser [o-se] to raise 
haut [o] high 
M-ve [aiv] wan 
Ha-va-ne [a-van] Havana 
Ha-vre [a:vr, aivr] Havre 
ha-vre-sac [avrasak, avrasak] 

la Haye [la e] the Hague 



hen-nir [a-m:r] to neigh 
Hen-ri [a-ri] Henry 
h^raut [e-ro] herald 
h^ron [e-r3] heron 
h^ros [e-ro] fiero 
hd-tre [eitr] heech-tree 
heur-ter [cer-te] to hump 
hi-bou [i-bu] owl 
hi-deuz [i-de] hideous 
hi^rar-chie [je-rar-Si] hierarchy 
his-ser [i-se] to hoist 
Hol-lan-de [9-la:d] Holland 
ho-mard [o-ma:r] lobster 
Hon-grie [^gri] Hungary 
hon-te [5:t] shame 
ho-quet [o-ke] hiccough 
hors [oit] outside 

hors d'oeu-vre [or doevr] side' 

hors li-gne [or liji] eaOraordinary 
hou-blon [u-bl5] hop 
hou-il-le [u!J] piircoal 
hour-ra [u-ra] hurrah 
hous-se [us] covering 
houz [u] holly 
hu-che \y^ bin 
Hu-go [y-go] 
hu-gue-not [yg-no] 
huit [qit] eight 
hup-pe [yp] tvft 
hur-ler [yr-le] to howl 
hus-sard [y-sa:r] hussar 
hut-te [yt] hut 
hya-cm-the [ja-S£:t] hyadnlh 

Exercise XLI. Pronounce aloud the words in the above list, 
comparing carefully as you do so the written forms with those of 
the key notation. 

212 special cases. The h of Henri [a-ri] Henry is mute 
in familiar expressions: le chapeau d'Henri; le cheval 
d'Henri; but in more elevated language usually not: 
((jusqu'i la mort de Henri IV)) (Michelet), until the death 
of Henry IV. 

213 h in huit [xpt] eight, hui-tai-ne [xii-ten] abatit eight, 
hui-tie-me [qi-tjem] eighth (317), hui-tie^me-ment [ip- 
tj em-ma] eighthly, is aspirate when these words are not 
preceded by dix [dis] ten, vingt [ve] twenty, soi-±a%te-dix 
[swa-sait dis] seventy, and qua-tre-vingt-dix [ka-tra vg 
dis] eighty: le huit mars [b xpt mars] the eighth of March. 


214 h is aspirate in he-ros (le he-ros [la e-ro] the hero) 
but silent in its derivatives: he-ro-i-ne, he-ro-i-co-mi- 
que, he-ro-i-que, he-ro-i-que-ment, he-ro-isme: ITie-ro- 
i-ne [1 e-FD-in], etc. It is supposed that le he-raut the 
herald, by analogy, caused the aspirate h in le he-ros. 

215 A few words beginning with a vowel are treated, 
with regard to elision and linking, as though they began 
with an aspirate h: le on-ze [b 5iz] the eleventh; le on- 
zie-me [b 5-zjem] the eleventh; la oua-te [la wat] wadding; 
le oui [b wi] the yes (370, 390). 

i816 li = [h]. It is possible, at times, to discern a slight 
aspiration when certain words are forcibly pronounced: 
a-ha [a-ha] aha!; la ha-che [la haS] tlie ax; o-he [o-he] 
hallo; also in hiatus an aspirate, much weaker than the 
English h, can sometimes be heard: le fle-au [b fle-ho] 
the scourge; le pre-au [b pre-ho] the yard. In cases where 
it may not be possible to distinguish any aspiration, there 
is often a slight pause before an h aspirate: la haie [la e] 
the hedge; les har-des [le ard] apparel; la har-pe [la arp] 
the harp; le he-ros [b e-ro]; la hon-te [la 5 it] the shame, 

217 j = [3], about as in English a2:wre, measure, yet 
slightly more resonant, j, wherever it occurs, is pro- 
noimced [3]: ja-mais [sa-me] never; Jean [5a] John; jet [58] 
jet (of water); jeu-ne [seen] young; jou-jou [5U-3U] play- 
thing; jus-te [syst] just; re-jouir [re-5wiir] to rejoice. In 
such cases j never has the soimd heard in English John. 
j never occurs as final. As shown under 201, this same 
sound [3] is represented by g before e, i, y. 


Exercise XLII, illustrating j = [3]. Write, divide as in writing, 
pronouncing aloud as you write, the following words: k jeun, Anjou, 
Jacques, j'ai, jais, jardin, jars, jatte, J^sus, joindre, joint, jonc, jon- 
quille, Joseph, Josephine, jouer, joum^, joute, joyeux, Juif, juin, 
Jules, jumelles, Julien, jute, rejoindre. 

SuppLEMENTABT ExERCiSE. Write, divide as in speaking, pro- 
nouncing aloud as you write, these same words, using the key al- 

218 k=[k], about as in English rocket, kicfc, occurs 
only in foreign words: bif-teck [bif-tek] beefsteak; co-ke 
[kok]; joc-key [so-ke]; ke-pi [ke-pi] undress military cap; 
ki-lo [ki-lo] kilogram; ki-lo-gram-me [ki-lo-gram]; ki-lo- 
m§-tre [ki-lo-metr] kilometer; kios-(iue [kjosk] small news- 
stand; Nec-ker [ne-keir]; sha-ko [Sa-ko] infantry cap, 

219 [k] is also represented by c before a, o, u, or a con- 
sonant, except h (173); by a final c (177); by ch in many 
learned words (185) ; by c in the first element of the com- 
bination CO before e, i, y (176); by q in cases like cinq, 
coq (252) ; by qu, the u being silent, in cases like quand, 
que, qui (254). 

220 1 (11) = [1] about as in English joHy, tean, avoiding 
a hollow vocalic sound sometimes heard in such words 
as English bell, tell. Pronounce French 1 clearly and dis- 
tinctly with the tongue well forward. [1] is represented by 
1 and 11: col-ler [ko-le] to glue; in-tel-li-gent [e-te-li-sa] ; 
la [la] the; li-vre [li-vr] book; lu-ne [lyn] moon; pul-lu-ler 
[py-ly-le] to swarm. 

221 1 final is usually pronounced (165, 344) : bel [bel] 
fine; cal-cul [kal-kyl] calculation; che-val [Ja-val] horse; 


con-sul [k5-syl]; fol [fol] foolish; No-cl [no-el] Christmas; 
nou-vel [nu-vel] new; Ra-oul [ra-ul] Ralph; sel [sel] salt; 
seul [soel] alone; tel [tel] siuJi. 

222 -le final after a consonant. Special care should 
be taken not to pronounce French final -le after a con- 
sonant as a distinct syllable as in the cognate EngBsh 
words ending in -le. The French final -le does not form 
a separate syllable by itself as in English, but the 1 goes 
with the preceding consonant, receiving only a light 
whispered pronunciation, not infrequently disappearing 
in colloquial French: ai-gle [e(i)gl] eagle; bou-cle [bukl] 
huckle; peu-ple [poepl] people; ta-ble [tabl]. 

223 1 is silent in proper names ending in -auld, -ault, 
-aulx; also in a few common words: Ar-nauld [ar-no]; 
aulx [o] pi. garlic; Bel-fort /{be-foirl; cul [ky] posterior; 
fau(l)x [fo] scythe; fils [fis] son; [fi] ((vieilli)) may some- 

^* * _tipiesjbe heard; Gi-rault [si-ro]; He-rault [e-ro]; La Roche- 

.•\ fou-cauld [la roj-fu-ko]; potils [pu] pulse; Per-rault [pe-ro]; 

: ^ Qui-nault [ki-no] ; Sautz [so] ; soiil [su] fill. 1 

^ i: 

Exercise XLIII, illustrating 1 (11) = [1]. Write, divide as in writ- 
ing, pronouncing aloud as you write, the following words: alleluia, 
bol, colonel, cellule, fatal, follicule, gouleux, intelligence, la, lait. Tan, 
las, Teau, 16ger, leur, lien, lin, lit, local, loge, long, louche, loueur, 
loyal, lueur, niiel, mobile, pellicule, soulever, volaiUe. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in speaking, pro- 
nouncing aloud as you write, these same words, using the key alpha- 

224 il, ill, known as liquid I or \ mouillee = [j]. ill in 
the middle of a word and U at the end are generally pro- 


nounced [j], that is, like the semi-consonant in English 
yes, year; nevertheless after a consonant the 1 of final 11 
is apt to be pronounced: oil [sil] eyelash; fil [fil] thread; mil 
[mil] one thousand; Nil [nil] the Nile. L mouillee is repre- 
sented by 11 after i and by il and ill after any other 
vowel (but not when i and I are in different syllables). 
Thus the word for William would be divided in writing 
and printing Guil-latmie, but phonetically would be pro- 
nounced and symbolized [gi-joim]; pail-lasse [pa-jas] 
straw mattress; se-rail [se-raij] harem. This sound has 
already received attention under the semi-vowel y (154). 
The difference between French y and 1 mouillee is that y = 
two i's (i+i), as in pay-e = ((pai-ie)) [pe-je]; while I mouille 
= merely [j] alone, as in paille [paij] not [peij]. 

235 The term liquid, like aspirate, is still used, al- 
though no longer applicable. It applied formerly to 
words having ill in the middle or il at the end. The 
sound was about like that heard in English WiHiam. If 
William be pronounced «wee-yum)) [wi-jom] it will illus- 
trate quite well the change which the ill or il soimd origi- 
nally liquid, underwent. In general, it is necessary to 
consider il final or ill medial, simply as signs representing 
the sound of y in English year; and to disassociate them 
entirely from the preceding vowel or combination of 
vowels. Thus tra-vail-ler (cf. 46, 3°) was formerly pro- 
nounced [tra-val-je] but now [tra-va-je]; and tra-vail was 
pronounced [tra-valj], now [tra-vaij]. Thus, as shown, 
the a and the i do not go together as the ay in the first 
syllable of pay-e, making a single sound [e], but constitute 
the two parts of the diphthong a+i = [aij] or [aij]. 


t il and ill [j]; that is, the so-called I mouill^e, com- 
ordinarily with a preceding vowel or digraph as 

eil ieil euil oeil 

-le eil-le ieil-le euil-le oeil-le 

J] [eij] [jeij] [oeij] [oeij] 

1 (i)il ouil 

1-le (i)il-le oail-le ouil-le uil-le 

[j] [(i)j] [waij] [uij] [yij] and [qiij] 

: ail garlic; bail [baij] lease; e-ven-tail [e-va-taij] 
ail-le : ba-tail-le [ba-taij] boMe; trou-vail-le [tru-vaij] 
vo-lail-le [vo-Iaij] poultry, eil: con-seil [ko-seij] 
il; pa;-reil [pa-reij] equal; so-leil [so-leij] sun, eil-le: 
He [a-beij] bee; cor-beil-le [kor-beij] basket; o-reil-le 
j] ear. ieil: vieil [vjeij] old. ieil-le: vieil-le [vjeij] 
euil: deuil [doeij] mourning; e-cu-reuil [e-ky-roeij] 
'el; fau-teuil [fo-toeij] armchair, euil-le: f euil-le 
leaf; Neuil-ly [noe-ji]; veuil-le [voeij] vxish. oeil: oeil 
eye; ceil de boeuf [oeij da beef] bulVs-eye; oeil de chat 
b Sa] caVs-eye, agate, oeil-le : oeil-la-de [ce-jad] glance; 
j-re [oe-jeir] blinder; oeil-let [ce-je] jrlnk. ueil (after 
g, ue is substituted for eu before il and ill) : ac-cueil 
iij] reception; e-cueil [e-koeij] breaker; or-gueil 
Bij] pride, ueil-le: ac-cueil-le [a-koeij] receives; 
eil-le [ro-koeij] gathers; or-gueil-leux [or-goe-j0] 
ty. (i)il and (i)il-le, that is, in cases when the vowel 
5 syllable is i, 1 or 11 must necessarily be written in 
of il and ill. il: gre-sil [grc-ziij], also [gre-zi] and 
il] sleet; mil [miij] also [mil] millet; cases like the 



two last cited where the l = [j] are rare, ill: an-guil-le 
[ct-giij] ed; be-quil-le [be-kiij] crutch; fil-le [fiij] girl 
oail-le: joaU-le-rie [swaj-ri] jewelry; joail-lier fewa-je] 
jeweler, ouil : f e-nouil [fa-nuij] fennel, ouil-le : d-trouil-le 
[si-truij] pumpkin; gre-nouil-le [gra-nuij] frog; notice this 
word is pronounced [gra-nuij] and not [gra-nwi], the semi- 
vowel ill or il being the only one that may follow a vowel; 
mouil-le [muij] liquid, uil-le: ai-guil-le [e-gqiij]]7ieecBe; 
cuil-ler (cuil-lie-re) [ky-jeir] or [kqi-jeir] or [kyl-jeir] 
spoon; juil-let by-jeCt)] or feyl-jeCt)] or feqi-jeCt)] July^ 
[kqi-jeir] and [3qi-je] are most commonly heard. V ^4nr^ - 

Exercise XLIV, illustrating il or ill (the so-called liquid 1) = [j]. 
Write, dividing, whenever possible, into syllables according to the 
usage in writing and printing, the following words, pronouncing 
aloud the syllables or words as you write them: ail, barbouiller, 
bataille, b<$quilles, b6tail, billet, bouteille, bouvreuil, bredouiller, 
brouillard, caille, cercueil, chenille, cheville, conseiller, d6raill6, deuil, 
fauteuil, feuiUe, groseille, habillons, ceil, orteil, oreiUe, orgueilleux, 
quadrille, soleil, sommeil, vaniUe, veiUeuse, vermeil, Versailles, 
veuille, vieillard, vieillir. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write the above words, dividing 
them as in the spoken language, pronoimcing them aloud, using the 
key alphabet. 

227 il and ill = [il]. As stated under 225, it is necessary, 
in general, to consider ill in the middle of a word and il at 
the end simply as signs representing the soimd of y in 
English year. The sound 1 mouillee is represented by U 
(after i) ; by il and ill after any other vowel (the i and the 
1 being in the same syllable). Nevertheless there are 
many cases where the il and ill have their natural soimd 
of [il]. 




uj 228 il final, not preceded by a vowel = [il] or [i] or [j]; 
1 that is, rl not preceded by a vowel is pronounced in three 
^ different ways: with the 1, without the 1, and as liquid 1, 
*s^r strictly i+liquid 1 [iij]. The cases of final il = [iij] are 
^ quite rare and tend to disappear. Authority may easily 
^ be found for three pronunciations [il], [ij] and with silent 
s 1 [i] of the following words: a-vril [a-vril] or [a-vriij] or 
a-vri] April; ba-bil Ji^aJwlTor [ba-biij] or [ba-bi] pratUe; 
gre-sil [gre-zil] or [gre-ziij] or [gre-zi] sleet. The following 
words bave two pronunciations [il] and [iij]: oil [sil] or 
[miYpgeHash; mil [mil] or [miij] millet; pe-ril [pe-ril] or 
[pe-riij], although this latter pronimciation is im«)m- 
mon; and the following may also be pronoimced in two 
i xWays, with silent 1 and with hquid 1: fe-nil [fa-ni] or [f»- 
ixniij] hay4oft; tiil (more commonly trille) [tri] or [triij] 

229 a final, not preceded by a vowel = [il], that is. 
Cases where 1 of the ending il has its normal value. Be- 
sides the words avril, babil, oil, gresil, mil, peril, the last 
pliable of which, as noted above imder 228, is oftentimes 
J)ronounced with a sounded normal 1, that is [il], the fol- 
Xowing are some of the more common words that have 
the [il] pronimciation, which is generally the usual one 
after a consonant: a-nil [a-nil] indigo plant; be-ryl [be-ril] 
emerald; ci-vil [si-vil]; ex-il [eg-zil] exile; fil [fil] thread; il 
[il] he, and, before a consonant,, popula r [ij; le Nil [b nil] 
the Nile; langue d'o-fl [laig d^'bil] language of ofl (oui), 
northern France; pis-til [pis-til]; pro-fil [pro-fil] side-view; 
pu6-ril [pqe-ril] boyish;/4il [vil] vile; vo-la-til [vo-la-til] 
airy. '(^t-^. ;;• / ' ^ -. : 



230 il = [i], that is, in cases where the 1 of the ending 
-il is silent. Besides the words fenil [fd-ni] and tril [tri]\J 
mentioned under 228 the following have silent 1: ba-ril^j 
[ba-ri] barrel; che-nil [Sa-ni] kennel; cou-tU [ku-ti] tick- ^ 
ing; frai-sil [fre-zi] charcoal-dust; four-nil [fur-ni] bake- 
house; fu-sil [fy-zi] gun; gen-til fea-ti] nice; but notice 
gen-til-homme [sa-ti-jom] nobleman^ and the plural form 
gen-tils-hom-mes [sa-ti-zom] noblemen; gril [gri] gridiron; 
me-nil [me-ni] habitation; nom-bril [n5-bri] navd; ou-til 
[u-ti] tool; per-sil [per-si] parj^ley; sour-cil [sur-si] eyebfow, 

231 ill initial = [il] that is, the ordinary sound of 1+1, 
or [ill], that is, i+1+1 <42 and 168); il-le-gal [i(l)-le-gal]; 
il-li-si-ble [i(l)-li-zi-bl] illegible; il-lus-trer [i(l)-lys-tre] to 

232 ill not initial, in certain other words, which only 
practice makes known, has also the usual sound of 1: 
A-chil-le [a-Sil]; bil-lion [bi-lj5]; co-di-cil-le [ko-di-sil] codi- 
cil; De-lil-le [de-Hl] ; dis-til-ler [di-sti(l)-le] to distil; i-dyl-le 
[i-dil] idyl; im-be-cil-li-te [e-be-si(l)li-te] imbecility; in-stil- 
ler [e-sti(l)-le] to instil; Lil-le [HI]; max-il-lai-re [mak-si-leir] 
maxillary; mil-le [mil] thousand; mil-liard [mi-ljair] thour 
sand millions; mil-lion [mi-lj5]; myr-til-le (mir-til] myrtle; 
os-cU-ler [o-si-le] to oscillate; pu-pil-le [py-pil] u)ard; pu- 
sil-la-ni-me [py-zi(l)-la-nim] pusillanimous; scin-til-lerV 
[se-ti(l)-le] to sparkle; si-byl-le [si-bil] sibyl; Tal-ley-rand 
[ta^le-ra]; ti-til-ler [ti-ti(l)-le] to tickle; tran-quil-le 
[tra-kil] tranquil; va-cil-ler"''[va-si-le] to waver; vau-de- 
vil-le [vo-dvil] ballad; vil-le [vil] city; vil-la-ge [vi(l)-lai3]; 
Villgmain [vil-me]. v _. ^ ;■ . . . \ ^ '• -, 

I « 
-I » « ■ 

y » 


333 m (mm), as in mot [mo] word; da-me [dam] lady, 
about like the m in English steamer, has its consonantal 
value when beginning words or syllables in which the m 
precedes a vowel, as in the two examples just given; and 
elsewhere, excepting the cases (129) where the m after 
a vowel at the end of words or syllables (and before the 
consonants, most frequently p, b, t), makes nasal the pre- 
ceding vowel and is itself not pronounced (373). Other- 
wise stated, m retains its consonantal value when double, 
or between two vowels or a vowel and a silent h. m = [m] : 
la-me [lam] blade; ma-man [ma-ma] qjad.Ima'fmi] mama; 
r6-su-me [re-zy-me] summ^iry. mm=[m]: fem-me [fam] 
wcyman; gram-mai-re [gra-meir] gramm^ir; hom-me [om] 

!834 m when followed by n (132, 143) is not nasal 
but retains its consonantal value: am-nis-tie [am-nis-ti] 
am,nesty; au-tom-nal [o-tom-nal] autumnal; ca-lom-nie 
[ka-lom-ni] calumny; gym-nas-ti-que [sim-nas-tik] gym- 
nastics; in-dem-ni-te [e-dam-ni-te] indemnity; in-som-nie 
[e-som-ni] insomnia; om-ni-po-tent, [om-ni-po-ta] ; om-nis- 
cient [om-ni-sja]; som-nam-bu-le [som-na-byl] somnam- 

335 m is usually pronounced at the end of foreign 
words after a vowel, and also at the end of syllables 
(cf. 132, 134, 139) in such words: al-btmi [al-bom]; Am- 
ster-dam [am-ster-dam]; Beth-le-em [bet-le-em]; de-cem- 
vir [de-sem-vir] ; £-phra-im [e-fra-im]; Ep-som [ep-som]; 
Her-cu-la-ntmi [er-ky-la-nom]; i-dem [i-dem]; in-te-rim 
[e-te-rim]; i-tem [i-tem]; Je-ru-sa-lem [3e-ry-zLark\SL\\ 


Krem-lin [krem-le]; Nem-rod [nem-nxl]; o-pium [o^pjdm]; 
Pri-am [pri-am]; re-quiem [re-kqiem]; rhum [rom]; Rot- 
ter-dam [ro-ter-dam]; Sfi-lim [se-lim]; tri-um-vir [tri-Mn- 
viir]; Tus-cu-ltun [tus-ky-bm]. 

236 When foreign words ending in m become galli- 
cized, then the m, following French analogies, nasalizes 
the preceding vowel: Ab-sa-lom [ap-sa-l5]; A-dam [a-daj; 
Sam-son [sa-s5]. 

S37 m is silent in au-tomne [o-ton] aviumn; dam-ner 
[da-ne] to damn; and in the derivatives con-dam-na-ble 
[ko-da-na-bl] blamable; con-dam-na-tion [k5-da-na-6J5] 
condemnation (cf. 143). 

238 mm=[m] or [(m)m] (168). The cases where two 
m*s, or a somewhat lengthened m, ja^ be heard, like 
those of two sounded Ts or two soimded r's, are practi- 
cally of no great importance. They usually occur in 
words beginning with imm: im-mo-ral [i(pa)-mo-Tal], but 
may occur elsewhere: gram-ma-ti-cal [gra(9i)-ma-ti-kal]. 

Exercise XLV, illustrating the nasal consonant m = [m] or mm 
= [(m)m]. Write, divide as in written French, pronouncing syllables 
and words as you write, the following words: amiti6, calomnie, dia- 
d^me, dilemme, diligemment, Emma, Emmanuel, genmie, grammati- 
calement, immense, immacul6, immortel, macadam, malmener, 
mammif^re, mammouth, marmite, marmotter, m^dire, m^mement, 
m^moire, milieu, module, momerie, monument, murmure, omnibus, 
post-scriptum, sciemment, soumission. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as when spoken, pro- 
noimcing aloud syllable and word when written, these same words, 
using the key alphabet. 


239 n (nn) = [n], as in ni [ni] neither, 4-ne [am] ass, about 
as in English many, occmring before any vowel (except 
in the prefix en (133) where the n, as a rule, nasaUzes 
the preceding vowel), n: a-ni-mal [a-ni-mal]; in-a-ni-m6 
[i-na-ni-me] inanimate; o-no-ma-to-pee [o-no-ma-to-pe] on- 
omatopoeia; e-nor-me [e-norm] enormous; na-nan [na-na] 
candy; u-ni-for-me [y-ni-form] uniform, nn: an-na-les 
[a(-n)-nal] annals; an-neau [a-no] ring; don-ner [do-ne] 
to give; hon-neur [o-noeir] honor; in-no-cen-ce [i-no-sdis]; 
in-ne [in-ne] innate. 

240 n, like m, when following a vowel in the same 
syllable, simply serves to nasaUze the vowel (131). 

241 n final is soimded in proper names and in a few 
foreign words: ab-4o-men [ab-do-men]; A-den [a-den]; 
a-men [a-men]; Bee-tho-ven [be-to-ven] ; £-den [e-den]; 
hy-men4i»Bften]; li-chen [li-ken]; pol-len [po-len]; spe-ci- 
men [^je-si-n^n]. 

242 n in in of some common Latin terms is soimded: 
in-oc-ta-vo [i-nok-ta-vo] 8vo; in pa-ce [in pa-se]; in par- 
ti-bus [inpar-ti-bys]; in pet-to [in pet-to]; in pla-no 
[in pla-no]; in sta-tu quo [in sta-ty kwo]; in ex-ten-so 
[i-neks-te-so]; in ex-tre-mis [i-neks-tre-mis]. 


243 in=[§] generally in expressions giving the size of 
books: in-dou-ze [§duiz] 12mo; in-fo-lio [efo-ljo]; in- 
quar-to [e kwar-to] 4to; in-sei-ze [g seiz] 16mo. 

244 n is disregarded in the -ent, third person plural of 
verbs, and this entire ending is absolutely silent: ils ai- 



ment [ilz eim] they love; ils ai-me-rent [ih e-meir] they loved; 
ils chan-tent [il Sait] they sing; ils chan-te-rent [il Ja-teir] U(^ 
they sang; ils fi-nis-sent [il finis] they are finishing; ils J >p 
fi-ni-rent [il£-niir] they finished. 

Exercise XL VI, illustrating the nasal consonant ns=[n] or nO^ 
= [(n)n]. Write, divide as in written French, pronouncing syllabi^ 
and word as you write, the following words: Annibal, le B^am, c^^ 
liner, camaval, comprenez, ennoblit, flanelle, hennir, hymen, in&^' 
tion, inhabile, inherent, innombrable, Narbonne, nenni, nominati^' 
nonante, nonnain, nonobstant, pinacle, provenir, prune, scenario, 
lennit^, sonore, souvenir, vinaigre. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as when spoken, 
nouncing aloud syllable and word when written, these same wo: 
using the key alphabet. 

Exercise XL VII, illustrating the distinction between nasal vo 
els (129) and oral vowels followed by consonantal m or n. 
divide as in written French, pronoimcing syllables and words as yo 
write, the following words: aimable, amiti6, amoureuse, an, 
mie, dne, arrondir, banane, bon, bonne, brun, brune, calami 
calembour, Damon, dilemme, diligemment, Emma, emmagasine: 
emmailloter, Emmanuel, emm^nager, ils entendent, faim, fenmi< 
fin, fine, flambeau, flanelle, g^ne, gens, gemme, grammatical, imm; 
cul6, immense, immeuble, immoler, immortel, innovation, instinc 
lundi, lunc, malmencr, maman, mammelle, mammif^re, mammou 
marmite, m^mement, mdmoire, momerie, monument, munnure, o] 
nibus, post-scrip tum, sciemment, soumission, Siam. 

245 p (pp) = [p], as in pas, tape, about as in EnglisV^ 

taper, is regularly represented by p: cap [kap] cape; dt — 

p6t [de-po] deposit; e-clip-se [e-klips], pa-pier [pa-pj^J j 

paper; prin-temps [pre-td] spring; su-per-be [sy-perb:/ / 

superb, pp: ap-pe-tit [a-pe-ti] appetite,' nap-pe [nap] / 

doth; sup-plice [sy-plis] punishment. / 



246 [p] may, however, be represented by b before a 
voiceless consonant, as explained under 170. ab-sent 
[ap-sa], ab-surde [ap-syrd] absurd, ob-te-nir [op-ta-niir] 
to obtain, are examples of the soimd of p represented by 
a written b. 

247 p is silent in a number of words, some of the 
commonest of which are: bap-te-me [ba-te:m] baptism; 
bap-ti-ser [ba-ti-ze] to baptize; Bap-tis-te [ba-tist]; bap-tis- 
te-re [ba-tis-teir] baptistry; comp-te [koit] account; corps 
[koir] body; domp-ter [d5-te] to subdue; domp-teur [do- 
tceir] tamer; ex-empt [eg-zd] free; ex-emp-ter [eg-zd-te] to 
exempt; prompt [prS]; promp-ti-tude [pr5-ti-tyd]; romps 
[r5] break; sept [set] seven; sculp-teur [skyl-toeir]; sculp- 
tu-re [skyl-tyir]. 

248 p is pronoimced in other words under identical or 
similar conditions: ab-ni]^ [ab-rypt]; as-somp-tion [a- 
sop-sj5] assumption; con-somp-tif [k5-s5p-tif] consump- 
tive; con-somp-tion [k5-sop-sj5] using up; ex-emp-tion 
[eg-zoW-sjo]; im-pronu^tu [e-prop-ty]; laps [laps] lapse; 
pe-remp-toire [pe-rdp-twair] peremptory; pre-emp-tion 
[pre-dp-sj5]; pr6-somp-tif [pre-z5p-tif] presumptive; pre^ 
somp-tion [pre-z5j-sj5] presumptuousness; pre-som|htueux 
[pre-z5p-tq0] presumptuxms; rapt [rapt] carrying off; re- 
dem6|-teur [re-dd(p)-toeir] redeemer; re-demfi4tion [re- 
dd (p)-sj5]; re-lap-se [ra-laps]; reps [reps] rep; sep-tem-bre 
[sep-tdibr]; sep-tua-ge-nai-re [sep-tqa-se-neir] septuxigenor 
rian; sep-ten-trion [sep-td-trjo] north; symj^to-me [sep- 
toim] symptom. ^^^ 


249 p final is generally silent: beau-coup [bo-ku] 
much; can-ta-loup [ka-ta-lu] cantaloup; coup [ku] stroke; 
drap [dra] cloth; ga-Iop [ga-lo] gallop; loup [lu] wolf; sd-rop 
[si-ro] sirup; trop [tro] and [tro] too much, 

250 p final is sounded in a few instances: cap [kap] 
cape; cep"[scp] vine-stock; croup [krup]; ha-nap [a-nap] 
large cup; ja-lap [sa-lap] {jalap) ; ju-Iep by-lep] jvlep. 

361 p and ph (191) followed by n, s, t are sounded 
at the beginning of words: pneu-ma-ti-que [pn0-ma-tik] 
bicycle tire; pneu-mo-nie [pn0-mo-ni] pneumonia; psal- 
mo-dier [psal-mD-dje] to chard psalms; psal-mis-te [psal- 
mist] psalmist; psau-me [psoim] psalm; psy-ch£ [psi-Je] 
cheval-^lass; psy-cho-lo-gie [psi-ko-lo-si] psychology; psy- 
co-lo-gue [psi-ko-log] psychologist; Pto-16-m6e [pto-Ie-me] 
Ptolemy; pht(l«)i-sie [fti-zi] phthisis; pht^i-si-que [fti- 
zik] consumptive. 

Exercise XL VIII, illustrating p (pp) = [p]. Write, dividing, 
whenever possible, as in written French, pronouncing aloud syllables 
and words as you write, the following words: acception, apoplexie, 
apte, captieux, consomption, coupe, 6pop6e, hippopotame, Lesseps, 
palper, palpitant, pampre, papa, pape, papillon, parapluie, p^remp- 
toire, pion, pipe, pr^somptif, pneu, pneumatologie, pompe, relapse, 
septentrional, S3anpt6me, transept. 

Cases of [p], that is, sounded p= written French b: absoudre, 
abstinence, absurde, observer, obstacle, obtenir. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide, as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud the above words, using the key alphabet. 

253 q and qu= [k]. q is regularly followed by u except 
in cinq [seik] jive and coq [kok] cock^ where the final q has 
the k sound. 


253 qu has three sounds: [k] which is the most usual, 
the u being entirely silent; [kw], usually before a; and 
[kn] usually before e and i. 

!S54 qu=[k] in the majority of cases, especially in 
older and commoner words of the language: ac-qu6-rir 
[a-ke-riir] to acquire; Saint Tho-mas d'Ac-quin: [^ to-ma 
da-ke]; an-ti-quail-le [a-ti-kaij] old curiosity; a-qui-lin 
[a-ki-le] aquiline; a-qui-lon [a-ki-l5] north wind; con- 
que-rir [k5-ke-riir] to conquer; en-que-te [a-keit] inquest; 
6-qui-ta-ble [e-ki-ta-bl]; ^ui-va-lent [e-ki-va-la]; e-qui- 
vo-que [e-ki-vok] equivocal; fa-bri-que [fa-brik] fabric; 
in-quiet [e-kje] anxious; li-que-fier [li-ke-fje] to liquefy; 
li-queur [li-koeir] liquor; lo-que [bk] shred; nu-que [nyk] 
nape; quand P^a] when; quart [kair] quarter; Saint Quen- 
tin [seka-te]; quar-te [kart] fourth; qua-si [ka-zi] almost; 
qua-tre [katr] four; quj^-train [ka-tre] four verses; que-te 
[keit] quest; queue [k0] tail; quil-le [kiij] keel; quin-cail- 
le-rie [ke-kaj-ri] hardware; quin-te [keit] fifth; quin-quet 
[ke-ke] Argand lamp; quin-teuz [ke-t0] whimsical; Char- 
les-Quint [Sar-b ke] Charles V; qui-pro-quo [ki-pro-ko] 
blunder; vain-quis [ve-ki] (I) conquered; vain-quons [ve- 
k5] let us conquer. 

255 The sound [k], as already shown (174, 185, 186, 
219), may under certain conditions be expressed by c, cc, 
ch, k. As seen in such examples as those cited under 
254: li-que-fie, quin-te, etc., the sound [k] must be 
written qu before e and i, and may be so written before 
a, o: qua-li-te [ka-li-te] quality; vain-quons [ve-k5] let us 
conquer. But before re and before consonants [k] is 



written c. This occasions certain variations, according 
to the forms, in the spelling of wo^ds: ca-duc [ka-dyk] 
decrepit; ca-du-que [ka-dyk]; pu-blic [py-blik]; pu-bli-que 
[py-blik]; turc [tyrk] Turk; tur-que [tyrk]; vain-cre 
[veikr] to conquer; vain-cu [ve-ky] conquered; vain-quant 
[ve-ka] conquering; Yedn-qnez [ve-ke] conquer; vain-quis 
[ve-ki} (I) conquered. 

256 qu=[kw] before a: a-qua-rel-le [a-kwa-rel] iwzfer- 
color; a-qua-rium [a-kwa-rjom]; a-qua-ti-que [a-kwa-tik] 
watery; a-de-qua-te [a-de-kwat]; ^ua-teur [e-kwa-toeir] 
equator; e-qua-tion [e-kwa-sj5]; in-quar-to [e kwar-to]; 
lo-qua-ce [Ij-kwas] ^joed [lo-kas] loquacious; qua-dran-gle 
[k(w)a-draigl]; qua-dru-pe-de [k(w)a-dry-ped] quadruped; 
qua-dru-pler [k(w)a-dry-ple].to quadruple; quar-to Ocwar- 
to]; quartz [kwairts]; qua-tuor [kwei'tipiT] quartet; squa-le 
[skwal] dogfish; squa-re [skwair]. 

257 qu = [kii] before e and i, particulariy in the prelSx 
6qui [e-k(ii)i] meaning equal; de-li-ques-cen-cc?^|ae- 
Ii-k(ii)e-sas]; 6-ques-tre [e-k(i[)estr] ^iquestrian; fi-qui-'^*^ 
dis-tant [e-k(ii)i-dis-ta]; e-qui-ta-tion [e-k(i[)i-ta-sj5]j^'' 
o-bli-qui-te [o-bli-k(i[)i-te] obliquity; ques-teur [I^^bs-' 
toeir] questor; ques-tu-re [kqestyir] guestorship; qui-e-tu-de 
[kqi-e-tyd]; Quin-te-Cur-ce [lajeii'kyrs] Quirdus Curtius; 
Quin-ti-lien [kjte-ti-lje]; re-quiem [re-k|c[lem]; u-bi-qui-te 
[y-bi-kqi-te] u6igt^i7i/. -^ • >^ ' *.■ • "' •■'': .' "o- '• 


258 As shown by the examples in 256 and 257, the 
pronunciation of qu is not always easy to determine. In 
a general way it may be said that for the older and es- 


tablished words of the language the pronunciation [k] is 
< quite safe; while for the newer and more learned forms, 
^' brought into the language after 1550 approximately, the 
pronunciation of qu is either [kw] or [kq]. The same con- 
fusion exists with regard to gu (195-199) and the prin- 
ciples governing the pronunciation of the latter follow 
closely those of qu. 

Exercise XLIX, illustrating the three values of qu: 1° [k]; 2^ 
[kw]; 3° [kq]. Writ^, divide as in written French, pronouncing 
aloud syllables and words as you write them, the following in which 
qu has the value of [k] : acquit, Equivalent, Equitable, Equivoque, 
quadrille, quai, quarante, quasi, qiy^tre-temps, quel, queussi-queu- 
mi, queue, quillon, quiiu|uina, quotient; the following/m whicn qu 
= [kw] : aquarelliste, aquatinta, Equation, exequatur, Hquation, qua- 
dragEnaire, quadrat (e), quadrupler, sine qua non, squale; and the 
following in which qu!t=[kq] loqu^le, (quibus),* (quidditE), quiE- 
tisme, quiEtude, (quintette), (quintuple), k quia, (qulntidi), qiiin- 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide and pronounce aloud 
as in spoken French these same words, using the key alphabet. 

359 r=[r]; rr=[(r)r], as in rare [rair]; rend [r5] round; 
cour-rai [kur-re] (I) shall run; about as in English error. 
Two r's are generally rolled or trilled more than a single 
r. Thus in words beginning with irr (168) and in the 
future and conditional of courir, mourir, querir, the 
double r is distinctly heard and serves to differentiate 
these verb-forms from those of the imperfect indicative 
which have but one r. In either case, whether there be 
one or two r's, the r should make itself distinctly felt. 
Not sounding the r is usually the most noticeable defect 

1 The words in parenthesis have also [k]. 


of English-speaking students, a defect which mars appre- 
ciably the spoken word, a-ri-de [a-rid] arid; au-ront 
[o-r5] (they) vrUl have; er-rer [er-re] to err; er-reur [er-roezr] 
error; se-ra [sa-ra] (he) will be; ter-ri-ble [te-ri-bl]. 

260 -re final at the end of a word after a consonant is 
precisely parallel to -le final at the end of a word after a 
consonant (222). The group consonant +re should not 
be pronounced as a distinct syllable, but, just as in the 
case of the group consonant+le, should be pronounced 
sUghtly whispered and as though forming but one syllable 
with what precedes: 4-cre [a-kr] tart; ai-gre [eigr] sour; 
ar-bre [arbr] tree; cen-tre [saitr] ; no-tre [notr] our; or-dre 
[ordr] order; per-dre [perdr] to lose. 

361 r final is regularly sounded (165): coeur [koeir] 
heart; dor-toir [dor-twair] dormitory; fi-nir [fi-niir] to 
finish; leur [Iceir] their; mur [myir] wall; peur [pcBir] 
fear; plai-sir [plc-ziir] pleasure; te-nir [ta-niir] to hold; 
trot-toir [tro-twair] sidewalk. 

362 But final r (347-349) is usually silent in the end- 
ing -er of words of more than one syllable. In such cases 
-er=[e]: ai-mer [e-me] to love; Be-ran-ger [be-ra-se]; 
ber-ger [ber-se] shepherd; bou-cher [bu-Je] buicher; cour- 
rier [ku-rje] messenger; cid-si-nier [kqi-zi-nje] cook; dan- 
ger [da-3e]; e-pi-cier [e-pi-sje] grocer; fer-mier [fer-mje] 
farmer; jar-di-ner [sar-di-ne] to garden; le-ger Qe-se] 
light; of-fi-cier [o-fi-sje] officer; par-ler [par-le] to speak; 
Ro-ger [ro-3e]; ver-ger [ver-se] orchard. When an s is 
added to form the plural of nouns the singular of which, 


ms in the above Kst, ends in -er, the pronunciation of the 
^word remains unchanged: ber-gers [ber-se]. 

!363 r final in monosyllables in -er, and in a few words 

of more than one syllable, and in proper names mostly of 

foreign origin, is sounded: cher [Jeir] dear; fer [feir] iron; 

fier [fjeir] proud; hier [jeir] yesterday; iner [meir] sea; 

ver [veir] worm. Words of more than one syllable and 

proper names: a-mer [a-meir] bitter; as-ter [a-steir] aster; 

Au-ber [o-beir]; can-cer [ka-seir]; cuil-ler [ki^i-jeir]; ei- 

. der [e-deir] eider; en-fer [a-feir] hell; Es-ther [es-teir]; 

j^ ^^^fher [e-teir]; hi-ver [i-veir] winter; Ju-pi-ter [sy-pi- 

':. c^texr]; Ele-ber [kle-beir]; Lu-ther [ly-teir]; ma-gis-ter 

■^^ "^^;"feia-3is-teir] village schoolmaster; Nec-ker [ne-keir]; pa- 

^;, te* [pa-teir] paternoster; part-ner [part-neir]; re-vol-ver 

3 /i^^-vol-veir]; Schil-ler [Si-leir]; sta-bat ma-ter [sta-bat 


r . ■■ ■ • ■ 

264 r is regularly pronounced in words ending in r 

consonant; in such cases the final consonant is always 

ient: ac-quiers [a-kjeir] acquire; An-vers [a-veir]; clerc 

{:*^Jeir] derk; con-quiert [k5-kjeir] (he) conquers; de-sert 
Ir^^^e-zexrl; en-vers [a-veir] towards; fort [foir] strong; 
iers [tjeir]; tiers [tjeir] third part; u-ni-vers [y-ni-veir] 
diverse; vers [veir] verse. 

!S65 r is pronounced in gars [gair] lad; [ga] is a familiar 
^^rm, [gair] is more literary; it is not pronounced in mon- 
^eur [ma-sj0] sir; mes-sieurs [me-sj0] gentlemen. 

Exercise L, illustrating pronounced r, that is, r = [r], iT = [(r)r]. 
^rite, dividing as in written French, pronouncing aloud syllables 
and words as you write them, the following: Albert Durer, arri^re, 



Auber, barbare, Bernard, brancard, brocard, carte, Chartres, cour, 
Eclair, Ferrare, gamir, irraisonnable, irr^conciliable, irr^gulier, irrup- 
tion, meurtre, Niger, Oder, peur, plaisir, pr6tre, Quimper, raidir, ra- 
ret6, regard, remarque, rempart, rendre, rire, ronron, rural, rustre, 
Ruyter, stathouder, le steamer, le tender, thaler, Weser. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud the above words, using the key alphabet. 

266 s = [s], as in French si, danse, about as in English 
miss. The sound is more sharply hissed than the Ekiglish 
s, as can easily be perceived by comparing initial s of 
English six with that of French six. 

367 s = [s] is represented by s, ss, c, before e, i, y (175), 
g (176), t (in ti+vowel in many cases), x, z. s = [s] (com- 
monly as initial, or before or after any consonant in a 
word) : ab-strait [ap-stre] abstract; cris-tal [kris-tal] crys- 
tal; es-clave [es-klaiv] slave; ob-ser-ver [op-ser-ve] to 
observe; pos-te [post] post; sus-pen-se [sys-pais]. ss: cas- 
ser [ka-se] to break; frois-ser [frwa-se] to crumple; pas- 
ser [pa-se] to pass, c before e, i, y = [s]: ce [so] this; cent 
[sa] one hundred; sce-ne [sem]; (for c silent in the com- 
bination so before e, i, y, see 175, Remark) ; ce-ci [sasi] this; 
ci-vil [si-vil]; scien-ce [sjais]; cy-clo-ne [si-klom]; cy-lin- 
dre [sileidr] cylinder; Scyl-la [sil-la]. g : fa-ga-de [fa-sad] 
front; gar-^on [gar-s5] boy; re-gu [ro-sy] received, t (in ti 
+ vowel): i-ni-tial [i-ni-sjal]; na-tion [na-sjo]; par-tiel 
[par-sjel] partial, x: dix [dis] ten; six [sis] six (i.e. when 
dix and six do not precede and modify a noun, see 372) ; 
soi-xan-te [swa-sait] sixty; and in a number of proper 
nouns and adjectives derived from them. Aix [eks] and 
[es] (ville de Provence); Aix-la-Cha-pel-le [eslaja-pelj; 


Aix-les-Bains [eslebe]; Au-xer-re [o-seir]; au-xer-rois 

^: [o-se-rwa] {pertaining to Auxerre)] but Saint-Germain- 
'^ r Au-xet-rois is pronounced [se scr-me lok-ser-wa] ; Au-xois 
^' [o-swa] (a portion of the C6te-d'0r); Au-xon-ne [o-son]; 

Be-a-tiix [be-a-tris]; Bru-xel-les [bry-sel]; bru-xeHois 

[bry-se-lwa] pertaining to Brussels; Ca-dix [ka-dis] and 

,^ [ka-diks]; Lu-xeuil [ly-soeij]; U-xel-les [y-sel]; Xer-xes 

- [gzer-seis], s = [s] and represented by z in: Cor-tez [kor- 

tes]; eau de Seltz [odDsels] Seltzer water; Metz [meis]; 

Suez [sqes]; Ve-las-quez [ve-las-kes]. 

368 s between vowels = [z]: ce-ri-se [s9-riiz] cherry; 
des-ha-bil-ler [de-za-bi-je] to undress; des-hon-neur [de- 
zo-noeir] dishonor; frai-se [freiz] strawberry; mai-son [me- 
z5] house; mi-se-re [mi-zeir] misery; ro-se [roiz]; ru-se 
[ryiz]; tre-sor [tre-zoir] treasure (366). 

269 s has its own sound [s], even when between vowels, 
when beginning the second part of a compound word; 
and, according to some authorities, in all the parts of 
the verb ge-sir [se-ziir] to lie (except the infinitive): 
an-ti-sep-ti-que [d-ti-sep-tik] ; an-ti-so-cial [a-ti-so-sjal]; 
bi-sul-fa-te [bi-syl-fat]; co-si-nus [ko-si-nys] cosine; de- 
su6-tu-de [de-sqe-tyid] disuse; dy-sen-te-rie [di-sa-tri] 
dysentery ; enrtrt-soX [a-tro-sol]; mo-no-syl-la-be [mo-no- 
si-lab]; pa-ra-sol [pa-ra-sol]; po-ly-syl-la-be [po-U-si-lab] ; 
pre-se-an-ce [pre-se-ais] precedence; pre-sup-po-ser [pre- 
sy-po-ze] ; tour-ne-sol [tur-na-sol] sunflower; vrai-sem-bla- 
ble [yre-sa-bla-bl] likely; gi-sons [3i-so] (we) lie hurled. 
The Uniform International Dictionary gives gi-sons [si- 
zo]; gi-sent [siiz]. The MichaeUs-Passy gives gi-sent 
[si iz] and gi-sant [si-za] . [^ <^ ^ ^ ' ' T *" . . V 

■t.- • 



270 s»[z] (always when "linked," 366); in words 
beginning with trans before a vowel: trans-ac-tion [tra- ^ 
zak-sj5]; trans-at-lan-ti-que [tra-zat-la-tik] transaUafUic; ^ 
tran-si-ger [tra-zi-3e] to come to terms; tran-sit [tra-zi(t)] ^ : 
(299); tran-si-tif [tra-zi-tif]; tran-si-tion [tra-zi-sj5]. Ex-' ■ 
ceptions are tran-sir [trd-siir] to becom^e numb; tran-si \ 
[tra-si] benumbed; tran-sept [tra-se(pt)] 299; Tran-syl-va- ; 
nie [tra-sil-va-ni]. The word Pen-syl-va-nie is analagons ■*- 
to Tran-syl-va-nie, and is pronounced [pe-sil-va-ni], 
although you can hear on tbe^fi^way oftriitimofl [pcnr 
sil-va-ni] (137). '^ t. ■ b 'i - : /■•'': ^^^^^^ 

371 s = [z] in some other words, of which the most 
common examples are: Al-sa-ce [al-zas]; as-bes-te [az- 
best] asbestos; As-dru-bal [az-dry-bal]; bal-sa-mi-ne [bal- 
za-min]; bal-sa-mi-que [bal-za-mik] balmy; Dres-de 
[dre-zd] Dresden; Is-ra-el [iz-ra-el]; Jer-sey [ser-ze]; Lis- 
bon-ne [liz-bon]; pres-by-te-re [prez-bi-teir] parsonage; 
Ra-tis-bon-ne [ra-tiz-bon] ; Saint-Pe-ters-bourg [se pe- 
terz-buir]; Stras-bourg [straz-buir]. 

373 s within a proper name which has preserved the 
ancient spelling is almost always silent when followed by 
another consonant: Ais-ne [cm]; As-nie-res [a-njeir]; 
Chas-les [Sail]; Des-car-tes [de-kart]; Des-mou-lins [de- 
mu-lc]; Du-gues-clin [dy-ge-kle]; Du-quesne [dy-kem]; 
Es-pi-nas-se [e-pi-nas]; Es-tien-ne [e-tjen] Stephen; Je- 
sus-Christ [3e-zy kri] and [se-zy krist]; an-te-christ [a-te- 
kri] and [a-te-krist], which form tends to establish itself. 
Before a consonant s is silent in est [e] is; des-quels [de- 
kel] of which; les-quels [le-kel] who, which; mes-da-mes 



[me-dam]; mes-de-moi-sel-les [med-mwa-zel]; Nes-le 
[neil]; Pras-lin [pra-le]; Ros-ny [ro-ni]; Vos-ges [V013]. 

21Z s final as a rule is silent: bas [ba] low; (pain-) bis 
[pg bi] brown bread; bras [bra] arm; cas [ka] ca^e; dos [do] 
back; jus [37] juice; las [la] tired; (fleur de) lis [flcBir da li] 
lily (as an emblem) ; nos [no] our; pas [pa] step; puis [pip] 
^/i6n; puits [pqi] lyeZZ. 

274 s final is usually pronounced in foreign proper 
names and in some French names: A-do-nis [a-do-niis]; 
Ar-ras [a-rais]; Du-cis [dy-siis]; Fr6-jus [fre-syis]; Gil Bias 
[5ilbla!s]; Les-bos [les-bdis]; Mem-phis [me-fiis]; Mens 
[mSis]; Pu-vis de Cha-van-nes [py-vi d Ja-van] (exception); 
>R(h)eims [reisj; Ro-mu4us [ro-my-lyis]; Saint-Gau-dens 
[s8 go-deis]; Sie-yes [sje-jes]; Ve-nus [ve-nyis]. 

375 s final (313) is pronounced in quite a number 
of conmion French words which only familiarity with 
the language will make known: al-ba-tros [al-ba-trois]; al- 
bi-nos [al-bi-nois]; a-lo-es [a-lo-es]; an-ge-lus [a-3e-ly(i)s]; 
as [ais] ace; at-las [at-lais]; bis [biis] tvrice, encore; blo-cus 
[blo-kyis] blockade; cas-sis [ka-sis] bkuik currant; cens 
[sais] quit-rent; cho-rus [ko-ryis]; cor-tes [kor-tes] cortes 
(in Spain) ; es [es] in the; fils [fis] son; ggisJslti.sJ and [3a] 
people; gra-tis [gra-tiis] gratuitously; he-las [e-lais]; hia-tus 
[ja-tyis]; i-bis [i-biis]; i-ris [i-riis]; ja-dis [ja-disj.o/ old; 
laps [laps] lapse; li$ [liis] lily; ma-is [ma-is] maize; mars 
[mars] March; m6-ri-nos [me-ri-no;|J' merino; me-tis [me- 
tii/ff half-breed; moeurs [moers] moraZs^also [moeir]; o-a-sis 
[o-a-ziis]; om-ni-bus [om-ni-byis]; os^(^\pone; ours [urs] 

O.-IA ' 


hear; pa-thos [pa-tois]; plus [plys], so pronounced when 
emphatic and also when meaning pltLS or scrnie mare, 
otherwise it is usually pronounced [ply]; pros-pec-tus 
[pro-spek-tyis]; re-bus [re-byis]; re-laps [ra-laps]; rhi-no- 
ce-ros [ri-no-se-rois]; sens [sais] except in the expressions 
le bon sens [h bo sa] and le sens comun [la sa komde] ; 
en-sus [a-sy^i over and above; tous [tuis] aU, so pronounced 
when emphatic, used as a pronoun, and not when stand- 
ing immediately before a noun, in which case it is pro- 
nounced [tu]; ty-phus [ti-fyis]; us [yis] and [y] usages; 
va-sis-tas [va-zis-tais] transom; vis [vis] screw. 

276 sc = [sk] before a, o, u and consonants: es-clan-dre 
[es-klaidr] fracas; fis-cal [fis-kal]; Pas-cal [pas-kal]; pros- 
cri-re [pros-kriir] to proscribe; scan-da-le [ska-dal]; scar- 
la-ti-ne [skar-la-tin] ; sc(h)o-lai-re [sko-leir] academic; 
scru-tin [skry-te] ballot; sculp-teur [skyl-tceir] sculptor. 

277 sc = [s] before e, i, y: sce-le-rat [se-le-ra] villain; 
scep-ti-cis-me [sep-ti-sism]; scep-tre [sep-tr]; scie [si] 
saw; scin-til-le [sertiij] spark; Scyl-la [sil-la]. 

' ■ - ■ - . c • 

278 sch. This combination has jam values accordmg 
to the pronunciation of eh (182 and 185). sch = [sk] in a ^ 
very few words: sche-ma [ske-ma] scfjikme; sc(h)q::lairr^J- 
[sko-leir]; sc(h)o-las-ti-que [sko-las-tikl./-^Sch = [S] also in 
a very few words: kirsch [kir^] kirschwasser; schis-me 
[Jism]; schis-te [^ist] slate. 

Exercise LI, illustrating s, ss, sc = [s]. Write, divide aa in writ- 
ing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables and words, the 
following: anse, assassinat, biceps, cassation, concession, crocus, dis- 



penser, estime, express, gibus, herm^, lapis, lotus, Madras, motus, 
myosotis, nonscns, omniscienoe, penser, persuader, plus-que-parfait, 
rasibus, science, tandis que. Illustrating s between vowels = [z]: 
base, bise, blouse, chaise, d^habiller, d6shonneur, 16sion, mis^re, 
muse, raison, raser, rose, ruse. 

SuppLEMENTABY ExERCiSB. Write these same words, dividing 
as in the spoken language, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words as you write them, using the key alphabet. 

379 t, tt, th = [t], as in tas [ta] pile; pat-te [pat] paw, 
about as in English en^ry. t: chut [Syt] and [Jit] hush; e-te 
[e-te] been; lan-ter-ne [la-tern]; moi-tie [mwa-tje] half; 
ques-tion [kes-tj5]; temps [ta] /weather, tt: net-te [net] 
dean; sot-te [sot] foolish; trot-tpir [tro-twair] sidewalk, th : 
sjrm-pa-thie [se-pa-ti]; the-^Ttre [ti|<iitr]; the-me [teim]. 

280 ti. The group ti, followed by a vowel, is pro- 
nounced si [sj] in many words and especially the endings: 
-tie, -tial, -tiel, -tieux, -tieuse, -tion; -tien (in proper 
names); -tient (not in verbs); in patience and derivatives; 
-tium. But when any one of these terminations is pre- 
ceded by s or X, as in ques-tion [kes-tj5]; miz-tion [mis- 
tjo] mixture, the group ti has the value of [tj]. 

281 -tie. t has the sound of [s] in the ending -tie when 
following a vowel: -atie, -itie, -otie, -utie: ar-gu-tie [ar- 
gy-si] quibble; a-ris-to-cra-tie [a-ris-to-kra-si]; la Be-p- 
tie [la be-o-si]; cal-vi-tie [kal-vi-si] baldness; Dal-ma-tie 
[dal-ma-si]; de-mo-cra-tie [de-mo-kra-si]; di-plo-ma-tie 
[di-plo-ma-si]; fa-ce-tie [fa-se-si] witticism; mi-nu-tie [mi- 
ny-si] trifle; pe-ri-pe-tie [pe-ri-pe-si] vicissitude; pro-ph6-tie 
[pro-fe-si] prophecy; the-o-cra-tie [te-o-kra-si]. It will be 


noticed that the Enghsh correspondent to these French 
words ends in cy or tia. But in the feminine terminations 
-tie and -ties of past participles, and in all parts of the 
verb chi-tier, ti has its normal value of [ti]: a-pla-tie 
[a-pla-ti] flaUened; a-ver-tie [a-ver-ti] warned; tu ch&- 
tie-ras [ty Ja-ti-ra] thou wiU punish; also the words rd-tie 
[ro-ti] toast; so-tie [so-ti] farce j retain the t; 6-pi-zo-o-ti 
has [e-pi-zo-o-si] and [e-pi-zD-o-ti] epizooty. 

283 -tial. t=[s]: im-par-tial [e-par-sjal]; i-ni-tial [i-ni- 
sjal]; nup-tial [nyp-sjal]; mar-tial [mar-sjal]; par-tial [par- 
sjal] biased; par-tia-li-te [par-sja-li-te], 

383 -tiel. t=[s]: con-fi-den-tiel [k5-fi-da-sjel]; es-sen- 
tiel [e-sa-sjel]; par-tiel [par-sjel]; po-ten-tiel [po-ta-sjel]; 
pro-vi-den-tiel [pro-vi-dd-sjel]; sub-stan-tiel [syp-sta-sjel]. 

384 -tieux. t=[s]: am-bi-tieux [a-bi-sj0]; cap-tieuz 
[kap-sj0]; de-vo-tieux [de-vo-sj0]; fac-tieuz [fak-sj0]; mi- 
nu-tieux [mi-ny-sj0]. For the feminine -tieuse forms, 
simply add [iz] to the mascuUne: [d-bi-sj0iz]. 

385 -tion. t=[s]: fonc-tion [f5k-sj5]; na-tion [na-sj5]; 
por-tion [por-sj5]; ra-tion [ra-sj5]; sta-tion [sta-sj5]; su-je- 
tion [sy-3e-sj5] subjection. 

386 -tien. t = [s] in proper names : Be-o-tien [be-o-sje] ; 
Ca-pe-tien [ka-pe-sje]; Di-o-cle-tien [di-o-kle-sje]; Do-mi- 
tien [do-mi-sje]; fe-g3rp-tien [e-sip-sje]; Hel-ve-tien [el-ve- 
sje] ; Ho-ra-tien [o-ra-sje]; Li-li-pu-tien [li-li-py-sje]; Ti-tien 
[ti-sje]; Ve-ni-tien [ve-ni-sje]. 


287 -tient. t=[s] (not in verbs) in pa-tient [parsja], 
and the derivatives patiemment, patience, patienter, im- 
patiemment, impatience, impatient, impatientant, im^ 
patienter; also in quo-tient [kd-sja]. 

288 -timn. t = [s]: Ac-timn [ak-sjom]; La-timn [la- 
sjom]; stron-timn [stro-sjom] a yellow metal. 

289 ti. The group ti, followed by a vowel, in other 
cases, may be said in general to have its own value [tj]. 
A brief summary of the principal cases follows. 

290 ti+vowel=tj when preceded by s (or x, of which v 
r\mix-tion [imgitio] mixture; mix-tion-ner [mis-tjo-ne] to 

mix appear to be the only available examples). The 
examples of ti+ vowel, preceded by s, are numerous: 
bas-tion [bas-tjo]: bes-tial [bes-tjal]; com-bus-tion [ko- 

" bys-tj5]; con-ges-Won [k5-3es-ij5]; di-ges-tloti [di-ses-tjo]; 

• dy-nas-tie [di-nas-ti]; hos-tiejos-ti] consecrated host; ques- 
tion [kes-tj5]; sug-ges-tioiHsyg-3es-rt55]; ves-tiai-re [ves- 
tjeir] dressing-room. 

291 ti+vowel=tj in the verb-endings -tions, -tiez of^^ 
the first conjugation: por-tions [por-tj5] (we) were carry- 
ing; (but the noun por-tions, meaning portions^ parts 
o/=[por-sj5]); por-tiez [por-tje] (you) were carrying; no- 
tions [no-tj5] (we) v)ere noting; no-tiez [no-tje] (you) were 


292 -tie preceded by a consonant = [ti]: a-ne-an-tie 
[a-ne-a-ti] annihilated; ga-ran-tie [ga-ra-ti] guaranty; 


or-tie [or-ti] netUe; par-tie [par-ti] portion; sor-tie [sor-ti] 
exit. But the words in-ep-tie [i-nepsi] inept, in-er-tie 
[i-ner-si] inertia have the s sound. 

293 ti+vowel = [tj] in the endings -ti6, -tier, -tiers 
and in tie in -tie-me and -tie-me-ment: a-mi-tie [a- 
mi-tje] friendship; cen-tie-me [sa-tjem] 'One hundredth; 
cen-tie-me-ment [sd-tj em-ma] in the hundredth place; 
chan-tier [Sd-tj e] wood-yard; char-pen-tier [Sar-pd-tje] car- 
penter; ch&-tier [Ja-tje] to chastise; en-tier [d-tje] entire; 
en-tie-re [d-tjeir] entire; fi:on-tie-re [fro-tjeir]; frui-tier 
[frqi-tje] fruit-bearing; frui-tie-re [frqi-tjeir] fruit-bearing; 
in-i-mi-tie [i-ni-mi-tje] unfriendliness; moi-tie [mwa-tje] 
the half; pe-nul-tie-me [pe-nyl-tjem] penult; pi-tie [pi-tje] 
pity; Poi-tiers [pwa-tje]; por-tier [por-tje] doorkeeper; 
por-tie-re [por-tjeir] doorkeeper; quan-tie-me [kd-tjem] 
day (of the month) ; quar-tier [kar-tje] quarter; sep-tie-me 
[sc-tjem] seventh; tiers [tjeir] third; ving-tie-me [ve-tjem] 
twentieth; vo-lon-tiers [vo-l5-tje] willingly. But the 
words bal-bu-tier [bal-by-sje] to stammer (and the deriva- 
tive bal-bu-tie-ment [bal-by-si-md] stammering); dif-fe- 
ren-tier [di-fe-rd-sje] to differentiate; in-i-tier [i-ni-sje] to 
initiate (and derivative in-i-tia-tion [i-ni-sja-sjo]); sa- 
tie-te [sa-sje-te] satiety; trans-sub-stan-tier [trd-syp-std- 
sje] transubstantiate have the s sound. 

394 ti=[ti] in the groups tia, tien, tienne, tic making 
up the following words: an-tien-ne [d-tjen] anthem; Chre- 
tien [kre-tje] Christian; chre-tien-ne [kre-tjen] Christian; 
fe-tien-ne [e-tjen] Stephen; e-tiez [e-tje] (you) were; e-tfo- 
ler [e-tjo-le] to make pale; e-tions [e-tj5] (we) u)ere; 



ga-li-ma-tias [ga-li-ma-tja] gibberish; main-tieii [me-tje] 
bearing; sou-tien [su-tje] support; tia-re [tjair] tiara; tien 
[tje] thine; tien-ne [tjen] thine. 

295 t final (350-352) is regularly silent: af-fut [a-fy] 
gun-carriage; ban-quet [ba-ke]; de-troit [de-trwa] strait; 
S-tat [e-ta] state; ha-bit [a-bi] coat; he-raut [e-ro] her- 
ald; im-pot [e-po] tax; in-te-ret [e-te-re] interest; nuit 
[nqi] night; ren-fort [ra-foir] reenforcement; saut [so] 
leap; sou-hait [swe] wish, 

296 t final is pronounced in some words ending in ct: 
' corn-pact [ko-pakt] ; con-tact [ko-takt] ; cor-rect [ko- 

^ rekt]; di-rect [di-rekt]; ex-act [eg-zakt] ; in-cor-rect [e-ko- 
^^ rekt]; in-di-rect [e-di-rekt]; in-ex-act [i-neg-zakt]; in-fect 
.' {e-fekt]; in-tact [e-takt]; tact [takt]; strict [strikt]. 

297 t final is pronounced in some words ending in st: 
bal-last [ba-last]; Brest [brest]; Christ [krist]; Er-nest 
[er-nest] ; est [est] ea^t; nord-est [nord-est] northeast; nord- 
ouest [nord-west] northwest (363) ; ouest [west] west; sud-est 
[sy-dest] southeast; sud-ouest [syd-west] southwest; toast 
[tost]; whist [wist]; zest [zest] nonsense! presto. 

298 t final is pronounced after a vowel in some words \ 

of which the following are quite conamon: but [byt] or ^ 
[by] endy object; brut [br^^ gross; chut [Jyt] hush; dot [dot] ■ ' ^^ 
dowry; fat [fat] fop; huit [qit] eight (except before the 
initial coi/sonant of a word numbered by it) ; lut [lyt] lut- 
ing (cheriiistry) ; mat [mat] dull, checkmated; net [net] 
dean. \ \ ^ 


299 t (or th, h always silent) is pronounced in quite a 
number of loan words and proper names such as the fol- 
lowing: ab-rupt [ab-rypQ; a-co-nit [a-ko-nit]; Belt [belt]; 
bis-muth [bis-myt]; co-balt [ko-balt]; d£-fi-cit [de-fi-s0; 
£-li-sa-beth [e-li-za-bet]; et cse-te-ra [et se-te-ra]; ex- 
e-at [eg-ze-at]; gra-nit [gra-nil] nnH [gp^ni]; m-dix-huit 
[g di zijit]; in-dult [e-dylt]; Ja-phetTs^^^; Ju-dith foy- 
dit]; knout [knut] scourge; Loth [lot]; luth [l^lEj lute; malt 
[malt]; mam-mouth [ma-mut]; oc-d-put lok-si-px)M(]; 
o-piat [o-pia(t)]; pre-te-rit [pre-te-ri(t)]; rapt [rapt] 
seizure; Seth [set]; Soult [suit]; spalt [spalt]; sujbit [sy- 
biJij^' sudden; tran-sept [tra-se(^)] (270); tran-cdt [tra- 
zi(t)] (270); ver-mouth [ver-muy] zS-nith [ze-nit]; zest 
[zest] nonsense! ."- ^^ • . ■ . .. r^-^^ U. f-^^-^--^'- 

300 Special cases. As may be discerned from some of 
the preceding examples, usage as regards pronoimcing or 
not final t in learned words of relatively recent formation 
varies. Moreover such is the difference of opinion, that 
in order to illustrate it without bias, it seems expedient 
merely to quote what those who have been and are con- 
sidered good authority indicate. Teachers and educated 
Frenchmen, for obvious reasons, are apt to have decided 
preferences, and these are worthy the student's careful 
consideration. Five authoritative works are here edited 
as vouching for the pronunciation of the words in the 
following list: Hatzfeld, Darmesteter et Thomas, Dio- 
tionnaire (H); Michaelis-Passy, Didionnaire phonMiqve 
(P); Rousselot, Precis de pronondation (R); Victor, Ele- 
mente der Phonetik (V) ; Lesaint, Traite de la prononciaMon 
frangaise (L): ab-ject [ab-sekt] H, L, R, V; [ab-3e(kt)] 


P; as-pect [as-pe] H, P; [as-pek] L, V; but [by] end, object, 
H, L; [by(t)] P; "the t is sounded when the word occurs 
at the end of a sentence," V; «on h^site pour un certain 
nombre de mots: [by] et [byt], [fa] et [fat], [ne] et [net]» R; 
cir-con-spect [sir-k5-spek] H, L; [sir-k5-spe] P; [sir-k5-spe] 
[sir-k5-spek] [sir-ko-spekt] R; dis-tinct [dis-teikt] or [dis- 
te] P; [dis-teikt] H, R; [dis-te] ((vieiUi)), R, H; [dis-tekt] 
[dis-tek] [dis-te] L. The forms distinctif, distinction and 
distinctement soimd both c and t as in [dis-teikt]; de-fi-cit 

^. [de-fi-sit] H, L; [de-fi-si(t)] P; dis-trict [dis-tri] P; [dis- 
trikt] H; [dis-tri] « vieilli} ) H; [dis-trik] L; ex-act [eg-zakt] 
or [eg-za] P; [eg-za] R; [eg-^akt] «vieilli)) R; [eg-zakt] H; 
[eg-za] ((vieiUi)) H; fat [fat] P, H, L; [fat] or [fa] R; fait 
(substantive) [fe] or [fet] deed, P, R; [fe] H, L; [fet] V; 
gent [3a] or [suit] P; [3a] H, L; the word means race or 
nation: «la gent trotte-menu,)) for rais and mice; gra-nit 
[gra-nit] or [gra-ni] H, R, P; [gra-nit] L; net [net] clean, 
plain, P, H, L; [net] or [ne] R; sot (substantive) [so] fool, 
P, R, H, L, [sot] V; sometimes [sot] in the provinces; post- 
scrip-tum [pos(ts)krip-tom] P; [post-skrip-tom] H; re- 

y spect [re-spe] P; [re-spek] H; [re-spe] ((vieiUi)) H; [re-spekt] 

1^ [re-spek] [re-spe] R; su-bit [sy-bi] sudden, H, P; [sy-bitj L; 

I suc-cinct [syk-se] H, P, L; [syk-sekt] or [syk-se] R; sus- 
pect [sys-pekt] H; [sys-pekt] or [sys-pek] L; [sys-pekt] 
[sus-pek], [sys-pe] R; soit! [swat] he it so, P; [swat] or [swa] 
R; [swa] XTiYef^ct [ver-di(k)] P, R; [ver-dikt] H; [ver- 
dik] L; vi-vat [vi-va] P, R; [vi-vat] H. 

As in the case of the educated Frenchman, so, im- 
doubtedly, the educated teacher will have formed a de- 
cisive opinion in regard to the more usual form prevailing 



where several may be heard. Therefore, in order to avoid ^ 
confusion, not only under this particular case of the ^■ 
treatment of final t, but for usage in general as to pro- , , 
nunciation, the student will do well to rely on his teacher's : 
judgment until such time as he may be able to judge for ^ 
himself by comparing authorities as regards the usage '^ 
in the manner above outlined, and thus form his own '' 
opinion. It remains to be added that much divergence ^' 
of opinion exists in regard to what works pass as current ^i 
authority. Here again the experienced teacher will best : 
serve the student's purpose by differentiating for him ^ 
the point of view of the respective French/'authorities." 

301 t is silent in the following words: Je-sus-Christ 

' [3e-zy-kri] although sounded in the word Christ [krist] 

when used alone; Goth [go]; Os-tro-got(h) [os-tro-go]; 

Vi-si-got(h) [vi-zi-go]; as-thme {asm] asthma; is-thme 

[ism] isthmus; cent un [sa de ] one hundred and one, 

3©!8 t before a vowel, (cf . 350 et seq.) is sounded in sept 
[set] seven; huit [ipt] eight; vingt [v§it] twerdy, as in the 
examples: sept arbres [set ar-br] seven trees; huit heu-res 
[i[it oeir] eight o'clock; vingt hom-mes [vet om] tweniy men; 
also when final at the end of a phrase: 11 y en a sept, huit, 
vingt [il j a na set, i[it, veit] there are seven, eight, twenty of 
them. And when sept, huit, vingt are equivalent to an 
ordinal: le sept mai [b set me] the seventh of May; le huit 
jan-vier [b qit 3a-vje]; le vingt juin [h vet 3qe] the twen- 
tieth of June, Otherwise the t is silent: sept pom-*mes 
[se pom] seven apples; huit poi-res [qi pwair] eight pears; 
vingt sol-dats [ve solda] twenty soldiers. 



303 t is sounded in the numerals from twenty-one to 
twenty-nine: vingt et un [ve te ce] twenty-one; vingt-deuz \ 
[vetd0]; vingt-trois [vettrwa] twenty-three; vingt-neuf ^ 
[vet noef] twenty^ne; but in the nimierals from eighty 
to ninety-nine inclusive the t is silent: qua-tre-vingt-un^ 
[ka-tra ve 6b] eighty-one; qua-tre-vingt-dix-huit [ka-tra ve 
di-zipt] ninety-eight. 

Exercise LII, illustrating t and th = [t]. Write, dividing when- 
ever possible, as in writing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syl- 
lables and words as you write, the following: antipathie, apathie, 
apte, brut, centidme, chrestomathie, chr^tien, Christ, nous contrac- 
tions, deficit, dot, dynastie, fronti^re, nous g&tions, granit, inimiti^, 
nos intentions, Poitiers, portier, quartier, repartie, r6tie, sortie, 
soutien, suggestion, sympathie, tact, V^niat, vingti^me. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
and pronouncing aloud the syllables, whenever possible, as in spo- 
ken French, making use of the key alphabet. 

Exercise LIII, illustrating t = [s]. Write, dividing the syllables 
as in written French, pronouncing word and syllable aloud as you 
write, the following: balbutier, conditionnel, diff erentier, ^gyptiaque, 
essentiel, fac^tieux, Horatius, impartiaht^, ineptie, inertie, initier, 
Uliputien, martial, nation, patience, pl^nipotentiaire, primatie, pro- 
phetic, propitiatoire, rationnel, sati^t^, substantiel, supr^matie, 
tertio, Titien, transsubstantier. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, dividing 
them as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud as you write them, 
syllables and words, using the key alphabet. 

Exercise LFV, illustrating silent, t: Write, dividing, whenever 
possible, as in writing and printing, pronouncing aloud the syllables 
and words as you write them, the following: aoAt, app^tit, art, billet, 
carat, d^g&t, d6pot, doigt, 6cart, et, 6tat, fort, haut, h^raut, inadd- 
quat, manuscrit, mets, odorat, pavot, pot, quart, rat, rempart, 
renfort, r^sultat, rets, sabbat, sort, souhait, urgent, vert. 


SuppLEMENTART ExERCiSE. Write these same words, dividing 
them as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words, using the key alphabet. 

304 v=[v] as in vent, rive, about as in English ever. 
It does not occur as final: le Ha-vre [baivr]; veu-ve 
[voeiv] widow; vi-va-ce [vi-vas] long-lived; voir [vwair] to 
see; vou-loir [vu-lwair] to wish; vrai [vre] true. 

305 [v] is represented by f in the word neuf [noef] nine 
when the latter is linked over before a vowel: neuf en- 
fants [noe va-fa] nine children; neuf heures [noe voeir] 
nine o^chck. Neuf is linked when, as in these cases, be- 
fore a word it multiplies (342). 

300 [v] is represented by w (307) in many names, 
especially foreign words; such, at least, seems to be the 
unstudied natural French usage. The cases where a w, 
as in English, is heard, indicate English influence: Crom- 
well [krom-vel]; War-wich [var-vik]; Wa-ter-loo [va- 

Exercise LV, illustrating v. Write, divide as in written French, 
pronouncing aloud the syllables and words: active, raviver, revol- 
ver, sdve, valet, valu, valve, vent, Versailles, verveine, vienne, vi- 
lain, vivant, vivre, vont, votre, votre. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write these same words, divide 
them as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud the syllables and 
words, using the key alphabet. 

307 w = [v], as a consonant, occurs only in a very 
small nimiber of foreign words, and is usually pronounced 
like an EngUsh v (cf . 306) ; naturally the better the French- 


man knows English, the more likely is he to pronoimce as 
in English and the less likely to follow the French system. 
Bnms-wick [broz-vik]; tram-way [tram-we]; wa-gon [va- 
go]; Wa-gram [va-gram]; Wal-ter Scott [val-ter skot]; 
wa-ter-proof [va-ter-pnif]; Wash-ing-ton [va-zeg-t5]; We- 
ber [ve-beir]; Wi-si-goth [vi-zi-go]. 

308 w = [w] like the English w in well; that is, u+ vowel : 
rail-way [rel-we]; sand-wich [sand-witj]; wig-wam [wig- 

309 wh = [w] that is, the h is absolutely silent: Whig 
[wig]; whist [wist]; whis-k(e)y [wis-ki]. 

Exercise LVI, illustrating w = [v]. Write, divide as in writing 
and printing, and pronounce aloud the following words: Walker, 
Wallon, Walpole, warrant, Watteau, Wellington, Weimar, Weser, 
Wiesbaden, Winkelmann, Wissenbourg, wolfram, Worms. 

Supplementary Exercise. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
and pronounce aloud these same words, using the key alphabet. 

310 X has five soimds: [ks], [k], [gz], [s], [z]. 

x = [ks], the usual value, 1** in the prefix, ex- or 
hex- initial followed by a consonant: ex-cla-ma-tion 
[e(k)s-kla-ma-sj5]; ex-pa-trier [e(k)s-pa-tri-e]; ex-pe-dier 
[e(k)s-pe-dje]; ex-plo-rer [e(k)s-plo-re]; ex-tir-per [e(k)- 
stir-pe]. The [k] in popular pronunciation in such words 
is not sounded. This popular manner of speech need not 
be imitated. It is not uncommon in the language of the 
street and is not infrequently observed and noted. 2** In 
the body of words: A-lex-an-dre [a-kk-saidr]; dex-tre 
[de(k)-str] right hand and right-handed; cf. the remarks 


just made in r^ard to the popular elimination of k in 
the combination ks=x by the uneducated. Mez-i-€o 
[mek-si-ko]; six-te [sikst] sixth; 0iz-y-g&4ie [oknsi-sen]; 
tex-te [tekst]. S** at the end of a number of words: A-jax 
[a-5aks]; bo-rax [bo-raks]; Dax [daks]; Fi-lix [fe-liks]; Fox 
[foks]; in-dex [e-deks]; la-iynx flarreiks]; lynx [leiks]; 
o-njTX [d-niks]; Pol-lux [pa-lyks]; pr£-fix [pre-fiks]; sphinx 
[sfe!ks]; si-lex [si-leks]; tfao-rax [to-raks]. 

311 X =F k(+s). X sounds as [k] in initial ex followed by 
ce, ci; and s: ex-ce-dant [ek-se-dd] surplus (not [eks] in 
one syllable, as in the cases under 1** 310, but the x is 
represented by [k] while the [s] represents the c of the 
second syllable); ex-ces [ek-se]; ex-ces-sif [ek-se-sifj; ex- 
cep-tion [ek-sep-sj5]; ex-d-ser [ek-si-ze] to cut off; ex-d- 
tant [ek-si-ta] exciting; ex-su-der [ek-sy-de] to perspire. 

> 312 x=[gz] in the prefix ex- or hex- before a vowel or 
silent h and in Greek proper names: ex-a-men [eg-za-me] 
examination; [eg-za-men] may still be heard in the south 
of France, due to the Latin pronimciation of the word; 
ex-empt [eg-za] constable; ex-er-ci-ce [eg-zer-sis]; ex-hi- 
bi-tion [eg-zi-bi-sjo]; ex-hor-ter [eg-zor-te]; ex-i-ger [eg- 
zi-3e] to exact; ex-i-ler [eg-zi-le]; hex-a-go-ne [eg-za-gon] or 
[eg-za-gom] or [ek-sa-gom]; hex-a-me-tre [eg-za-me-tr]. 
Greek proper names: Xan-thus [gza-tys]; Xan-tip-pe [gza- 
tip]; Xa-vier [gza-vje]; Xe-no-phon [gze-no-fon]; Xer-xes 
[gzer-seis]; Xan-the [gzait]. 

313 X = [s] when final in a few words, mostly proper 
nouns (cf. 267) : Aix [eks] and [es] ville de Province; Aix-la- 


Chapelle [es-la-Sa-pd]; Aix-les-BaJns [es-k-be]; Au-xer-re 
[o-se:r] and [o-seir]; Au-xois [o-swa]; Au-xon-ne [o-son] 
and [o-son]. Also initial x in Xain-trail-les = [s] [se-traij]; 
Be-a-trix [be-a-tris]; Bru-xeHes [bry-sel]; Ca-dix [ka-dis] 
and [ka-diks]; dix [dis] ten; six [sis] six (when these 
numerals come at the end of a phrase or do not precede 
and modify a noun); soi-xan-tai-ne [swa-sd-ten]; soi-xan- 
te [swa-sa:t] sixty; U-xeUes [y-sel]; Xer-xes [gzer-seis]. 

314 x = [z] in deu-xie-me [d0-zjem] second; dix-huit 
[di-zipt] eighteen; dix-hui-tie-me [di-zqi-tjem] eighteenth; 
di-xie-me [di-zjem] tenth; dix-neuf [diz-noef] nineteen; 
dix-neu-vie-me [diz-noe-vjem] nineteenth; si-xain [si-ze] 
six-line stanza; si-xie-me [si-zjem] sixth; and the deriva- 
tives in -ment of the numerals here noted. 

315 X final is regularly silent (but see 313) : aux [o] to 
the; ceux [s0] those; che-vaux [So-vo] horses; choux [Ju] 
cabbages; creux [kr0] hollow; croix [krwa] cross; cru-ci-fix 
[kry-si-fi] ; deux [d0] two; flux [fly] flow; heu-reux [oe-r0] 
happy; paix [pe] peace; per-drix [per-dri] partridge; prix 
[pri] price; toux [tu] cough; voix [vwa] voice, x is silent in 
six, dix (cf. 313) before a consonant or h aspirate: six 
pom-mes [si pom] six apples; dix sol-dats [di sol-da] ten 
soldiers; six he-ros [si-ero] six heroes. 

Exercise LVII, illustrating the various values of x. Write, di- 
vide, pronouncing aloud syllables and words as you write them, the 
following; 1° z=^[ks]: ex-ca-va-tion, exclamer, exclure, excursion, 
expansif , expatrier, Halifax, ph4nix, le Styx. 2° x = [k] : exc^der, ex- 
cellence, exceller, excepts, exception, excitation, exsangue. 3° x = 
[gz]: exact, ex<5cuter, exemple, exhorter, exhumer, exiger, exiler, 
exotique. 4° x=[s]: Bruxelles, il on a dix, dix-sept, dix-septidme, 


Luxeuil, c'est le six, soixanti^me, ox-huit, six-qiiatre. 5** z=»[s]: 
deuxi^me, deuxi^mement, dix-huit, dixi^e, dix-neuf, sixain, si- 
xitoe. X silent: Citeaux, courroux, faux, houx, jaloux, tu peux, je 
pr^vaux, taux. 

SuppLEMENTABT ExERCiBE. Write these words, dividing them 
as in spoken French, pronouncing aloud syllables and words, using 
the key alphabet. 

316 z = [z] as in ze-le [z8(i)l] zeal; ro-se [roiz], about as 
in English cozy: a-zu-re [a-zy-re] azure color; ba-zar [ba- 
zair]; vi-zir [vi-ziir]; z6-ro [ze-ro]; zo-ne [zoin]; gaz [gaxz] 
gas; Suez [sqeiz]. 

317 [z] is regularly represented by s between vowels 
(268): ro-se [rozz]; and in deu-xie-me and the other 
numerals noted in 314 is represented by x. 

318 z final is regularly silent: al-lez [a-le] go; as-sez 
[a-se] enough; Du-mou-riez [dy-mu-rje]; Du-prez [dy-pre]; 
Ge-ru-sez [se-ry-ze]; nez [ne] nose; por-tez [por-te] carry; 
riz [ri] rice; ve-nez [va-ne] come, 

319 z final (357-359) is pronounced in gaz [gaiz] gas, 
and in a few proper names; the sound is usually [z] after 
vowels and [s] after consonants: Aus-ter-litz [os-ter-lits] ; 
Ber-lioz [ber-ljoiz]; Biar-ritz [bja-rits]; Bu-loz [by-loiz]; 
Diaz [djaiz]; Fritz [frits]; Metz [mes]; Ve-ra-Cmz [ve-ra 

Exercise LVIII, illustrating z = [z] and [s]. Write, divid^, pro- 
nouncing aloud as you write syllable and word, the following: 1° z 
= [z] gazon, Sanchez, Suzanne, suzerain, topaze, z^bre, zigzag. 2® z 
= [s] Aranjuez, Cortez, eau de seltz; Goritz, Leibnitz. 


SuppLEMENTAKY ExERCiSE. Write, divide as in spoken French, 
pronouncing aloud as you write syllable and word, these same words, 
using the key alphabet. 

Examples of s=[z] written s, and regularly so when 
between vowels, but also in a few other words (see 270) : 
Alsace, amuser, apaiser, Asie, des oeufs, des oignons, 
^eraser, lisible, oser, raser, r^soudre, ruse. Examples of 
x = [z] and written x (see 313): deux enfants, deuxi^me, 
dbc-huit, dbc-neuf , she amis. Thus, as shown above, the 
sound [z] is represented by the letters z, s between vowels 
and X. 


320 Vowel combinations representing simple sounds: 
ai, ale, ay=[e] (90); ei, ey=[e] (90); au, eau = [o] (102); 
au before r, etc., = [o] (112); eu (ue after c and g), oeu, 
ce = [oe] (118) or [0] (114); ou = [u] (119). These combi- 
nations merely represent simple sounds and receive atten- 
tion under the respective sound as indicated by the 
reference. They are here briefly summarized: 

321 ai, ale, ay, except as noted inmiediately below, 
where the value is [e], are pronounced [e]. This occurs 
especially in the combinations ale, air, aire, ais, aisse, aix: 
chair [Jeir] flesh; chai-se [Jeiz] chair; je chan-tais [39 Ja-te] 
I was singing; craie Po-e] chalk; grais-se [greis] fat; j'i-rais 
[3 i-re] I should go; paixFpc] peace; je par-le-rais [39 parl- 
re] I should speak; pay-er [pe-je] to pay; tai-re [teir] to be 


322 ai is pronounced [e] in the auxiliary: j'ai [56] 
have; wherever it is final in the verb-endings: je dian- 
rai [38 Sat-re] / stiaU si ng; j'i -rai [3 ire] I shall go; je par- 
lai [38 par-le] I spokeC^ the foijas-xrf thcr^vef'B' savoir 
Jjl [sa-vwair] to knowi4% sals fed se] Jknow; tu sais [ty se] 
thou kruywest;^ salt [il se] he knowsysaid in a few words: 
1 gai [ge] gay; geai [se] jay; quai lEefgmy (82). ay = [e] in 
a-yez [e-je] have (ye); a-yons [e-j5] let tis have. Elsewhere, 
as noted in 320, these combinations have the sound of 
e, that is [e]. 

3!23 ei and ey are regularly pronounced e, that is 
[e], wherever they occur: as-sey-ez-vous [a-se-je vu] be 
seated; ba-lei-ne [ba-len] whale; gras-sey-er [gra-se-je] 
to pronounce r vrith the uvula; nei-ge [nei3] snow; pa-reil-le 
[pa-reij] equal; pei-ne [pen] pain; Sei-ne [sein]; sei-ze 
[seiz] sixteen, 

324 au and eau are regularly pronounced [o] : au [o] to 
the; aus-si [o-si] also; beau [bo] beauiifvl; ca-deau [ka-do] 
present; eau [o] water; nou-veau [nu-vo] new, 

325 au before r is pronounced as open o, that is [o]; 
also in the proper name Paul [pol]. In j'au-rai and j'au- 
rais the usage varies [3 o-re, 3 o-re] and [3 o-re, 3 o-re]. 
Lau-re [loir]; lau-rier [lo-rje] laurel; Mau-re [moir] Moor; 
res-tau-rant [res-to-ra]. 

326 eu (ue after c and g), oeu, oe simply represent the 

I open sound of eu, that is [oe], or the closed eu, that is [0]. 
eu has regularly the closed sound [0] when final or fol- 


lowed by silent final consonants; also usually before s= [z] 
or t within the syllable of a word: dan-seu-se [da-s0iz] 
dancer; 6-meu-te [e-m0it] riot; feu-tre [f0itr] feli; heu-reuz 
[c)e-r0] happy; lieuz [li0] places; neu-tre [n0itr] neuter; 
noeud [n0] knot; peu [p0] little; pre-cieu-se [pre-sj0:z] 
precixms; voeuz [v0] vows. 

327. eu elsewhere, as before pronounced final conso- 
nants, and before 11, ille = [j] has the sound of the open eu, 
that is [oe], which is less commonly heard than the closed 
eu = [0]: accueil [a-koeij] reception; a-veu-gle [a-voegl] 
blind; boeuf [beef] ox; jeu-ne [seen] young; meu-ble [moebl] 
piece of furniture; neuf [noef] neWy nine; ceil [oeij] eye; 
ceil-let [ce-je] pink; or-gueil [or-goeij] pride; peu-ple 
[poe-pl] people; veu-ve [voeiv] widow. 

328 ou=[u] regularly: bout [bu] end; e-cou-tez [e-ku- 
te] listen; jou-jou [3U-3U] plaything; loup [lu] wolf\ lou-pe 
[lup] magnifying glass; Lour-des [lurd]; tous-se [tus] 


329 Consonantal combinations. Like the vowel 
combinations or so-called digraphs and trigraphs, a niun- 
ber of consonant combinations represent simple sounds. 
They will be foimd treated in more detail under the re- 
spective sections to which they belong, as indicated by 
the reference: ch = [S] as in chas-se Ras] hurd (182); 
l=[j] as in gen-til-hom-me [sa-ti-jom] nobleman (230); 


il, ill=[j] as in bail [baij] lease; pail-le [paij] straw (225); 
gn = [ji] in re-gne [reji] kingdom (207); ph=f as in phi-lo- 
so-phe [fi-lo-zof] philosopher (191); double consonants in 
general (167), as ss = [s] as in as-sez [a-se] enough (267); 
sc = [s] as in sce-ne [sein] (277); sch=[S] as in schis-me 
Rism] schism (278); gu=[g] as in gu6 [ge] ford (195); qu= 
[k] as in qui [ki] who (253); th = [t] as in the-&-tre [te- 
aitr] (279); wh = [w] as in whist [wist] (309). 


330 In general. When two or more words are closely 
connected, as with a hyphen, or as an article or adjective 
with its noun, a subject or object-pronoun with its verb, 
a preposition with its object, an adverb with the word it 
modifies, the two words are then regarded as a unit sound 
group and not as two separate words. In such cases the 
final consonant, whether silent or sounded, before a word 
beginning with a vowel or silent h, is carried over to it in 
pronouncing the group: 

331 Article and adjective with qualifying noun: les 
en-fants [le za-fa] the children; les bons en-fants [le bo- 
za-fa] the good children; un char-mant hom-me [6b Jar-ma- 
tom] a charming man; ai-ma-bles a-mis [e-mabl-za-mi] 
amiable friends. 

333 Subject or object pronoun with the verb: nous 
ai-mons [nu-ze-mo] we love; il nous ai-me [il nu-zeim] he 
loves us; di-sait-on [di-ze-to] said they; don-nez-en [do- 
ne-za] give some; dort-elle [dor-tel] does she sleep? 


333 Auxiliaries and verbs; words connected with a 
hyphen: vous avez eu [vu-zave-zy] you have had; je dois 
al-ler [39 dwa-za-le] I must go; il faut e-cri-re [11 fo-te- 
kriir] it is necessary to write; veuil-lez en-trer [voe-je- 
za-tre] please come in; arc-en-ciel [ar-ka sjel] rainbow; 
pied-4-terre [pje-ta teir] temporary lodging. 

334 Verb with object or predicate complement: nous 
at-ten-dons une let-tre [nu-za-ta-d5-zynletr]; il 6-crit 
u-ne re-pon-se [i-le-kri-tyn re-p5is] he writes a reply; 
nous som-mes k ta-ble [nu som-za ta-bl] we are at the 
table; ce-la m'est £-gal [sa-la me-te-gal] that is all the same 
to me. 

335 Preposition (except se-lon, 378) and object: chez 
eux [Se-z0] ai their house; sous un toit [su-zde twa] under a 
roof; dans u-ne ten-te [da-zyn ta:t] in a tent. 

336 Adverb with modifying word: beau-coup ai-me 
[bo-ku-pe-me] much loved; fort in-struit [for-te-strqi] well 
instructed; res-tez en-co-re [res-te-za-koir] stay longer; 
tres ha-bi-le [tre-za-bil] very able; trop en a-vant [tro-pa- 
na-va] too far forward. 

337 Words so closely related as to represent but a 
single group or idea: bon k rien [b5-na rje] or [bo-na rje] 
good for nothing; mot k mot [mo-ta mo] word by word; pas 
k pas [pa-za pa] step by step; pe-tit k pe-tit [pa-ti-ta pa-ti] 
little by litUe; plus ou moins [ply-zu mwe] more or less; 
pret k par-tir [pre-ta par-tiir] ready to leave; de temps en 
temps [da ta-zfi to] from time to tim^. 


338 The letters j and v do not occur as final, hence the 
question of Unkmg does hot occur. The letters b, c, f 
(but see 194 and 342), k, 1, p, q, r, t, z are carried over 
without change of sound. 

339 b final is rare, and is usually silent (171); con- 
sequently it is seldom linked, save where diflScult to avoid 
linking: Ja-cob est ve-nu [sa-ko-be va-ny] Jacob has come; 
Jo-ab e-tait ne-veu de Da-vid [30-a-be-te n9-v0 da da- 
vid] Joab wa^ David's nephew. But in the commonest 
cases where b occurs as final, as in a-plomb [a-pl5] assur^ 
ance; Chris-to-phe Co-lomb [kris-tof ko-lo]; plomb [pla] 
lead; sur-plomb [syr pl5] overhanging, it is not linked. 

340 c final (178) when silent, is not usually linked, as 
in the words: ac-croc [a-kro] hitch; a-jonc [a-35] furze; 
al-ma-nach [al-ma-na]; banc [ba] bench; ca-out-chouc [ka- 
ut-Su] rubber; clerc [klezr] derk; eric [kri] jackscrew; croc 
[kro] hook; es-croc [es-kro] swindler; fer-blanc [fer bla] 
tin; franc [fra] twenty-cent piece; jonc [50] reed; marc 
[mair] mark (coin); rac-croc [ra-kro] lucky hit; tronc [tro] 
trunk; le lion de Saint-Marc [b lj5 da se mair] Saint 
Mark's lion; la pla-ce Saint-Marc i Ve-ni-se [la plas se 
ma-ra va-ni:z] Saint Mark's square in Venice; marc d'ar- 
gent [mair dar-3a] (ancient French money); du marc 
de ca-fe [dy mair da ka-fe] coffee-grounds; Saint-Marc 
Gi-rar-din [se mair si-rar-de]; banc a dos [baa do] secU 
with a back; es-croc in-tel-li-gent [es-kro e-te-U-3a] in- 
telligent knave; le marc et le franc sont des pie-ces d'ar- 
gent [la ma-re la fra so de pjes d ar-5d] the mark and the 
franc are silver coins. 


341 c final is linked in croc-en- jam-be [kn>-ka5aib] 
tripping up; du blanc au noir [dy bla-ko nwair] from black 
to white; de clerc i mai-tre [da kler-ka meitr] from derk 
to master; franc al-leu [fra-ka-l0] freehold; franc e-tour-di 
[fra-ke-tur-di] giddy-headed fellow; franc et net [fra-ke net] 
frank and plain; i franc e-trier [a fra-ke-tri-je] fidl speed; 
Marc An-toine [mar-ka-twan]; Marc Au-re-le [mar-ko- 
rel] (cf . with preceding exainples of marc 340) ; il est done 
ar-ri-ve [i-le d5-ka-ri-ve] he has then arrived. 

343 f when linked, except in the word neuf nine (305), 
retains its proper value. Even in neuf, when linked, the 
V pronunciation is giving way to the normal f : neuf en- 
fants [noe-fa-fa] nine children; neuf k table [noe-fa ta-bl] 
nine at table. Thus the f of neuf is following the analogy 
of the ordinary cases like vif e-clat [vi-fe-kla] loitd report; 
oeuf k la coque [oe-fa la kok] egg in the shell; veuf en se-con- 
des no-ces [voe-fa s9-g5id nos] widower marrying a second 

343 k final, whether before a voiirel or a consonant, is 
sounded : le co-peck est u-ne mon-naie rus-se [b ko-pe- 
ke-tyn mo-ne rys] the copeck is a Russian coin. 

344 1 final (221), whether before a vowel or a conso- 
nant, keeps its own value. Being silent in the following 
words, no linking takes place: a-nil, ba-ril, che-nil, cour- 
til, cou-til, four-nil, frai-sil, fu-sil, nom-bril, ou-til, per- 
sil, pouls, soiU, sour-dl. Being soimded in the following 
words, the linking before a vowel occurs naturally: bel 
hom-me [be-lom] fine man; fil u-ni-que [fi-ly-nik] only 


thread; fol es-poir [fo-les-pwair] foolish hope; nou-yel an 
[nu-ve-la] new year; seul ha-bit [soe-la-bi] only coat. 

345 p final is rarely linked; it may however be heard 
not infrequently in the adverbs beau-coup acnd trop be- 
fore a vowel: beaii-coup e-tu-die [bo-ku-pe-ty-dje] miLch 
stitdied; trop 6-cla-tant [tro-pe-kla-ta] too bright. 

346 q=[k] (252). Notice the following: le dnq mars 
[b seik mars] the fifth of March, the final consonant being 
so pronounced when the cardinal numeral is equivalent 
to an ordinal; cinq en-fants [se-ka-fa] five children; cinq 
hom-mes [se-kom] five men; but cinq li-vres [se livr] Jive 
books; cinq he-ros [se e-ro]. 

' 347 r final (262) of an adjective is linked only before 
a noun: le pre-mier en-fant [la pra-mje-ra-fa] the first 
child; notice [pra-mje] but [pra-mje-ra-fa], e becoming e 
under the opening influence of r; son der-nier a-vis [s5 
der-nje-ra-vi] his last counsel; but: 11 est 16-ger et 6-tour-di 
[i-le le-3e e e-tur-di] he is flighty and thoughtless; le pre- 
mier et le deu-xie-me [b pra-mje e h d0-zJ8m] the first 
and the second. 

348 r of infinitive endings in er may be linked; and 
in reading, especially verse, usually is: ai-mer k chan-ter 
[e-me-ra Sd-te] to love to sing. 

349 r final, when silent in nouns, is not linked: le 
sen-tier es-car-pe [b sd-tje es-kar-pe] the steep path; 
mon-sieur Er-nest [ma-sj0 er-nest]; un bou-lan-ger in- 
tel-li-gent [ce bu-ld-se E-te-li-3d] an intelligent baker. 



350 t final (295-298) of adjectives, verbs, participles 
and adverbs, though silent in the words themselves, is 
almost always linked: un ex-cel-lent homme [de nek-se- 
la-tom] ah excellent man; el-le est fort en pei-ne [e-le 
f or-ta pen] she is very much troubled; 11 faut es-say-er 
[il fo-te-s8-je] it is necessary to try; en al-lant k pied [a-na- 
la-tap je] in going on foot. 

351 t final of verb-endings -ent, -ient, although silent, 
is linked: 11 tient k cela [il tje-ta sa-la] he holds to that; il 
vient k temps [il vje-ta ta] he comes in time; el-les se- 
raient in-vi-tees [el sa-re-te-vi-te] they would be invited. 

352 t final of the adjectives court ?uid fort is only 
linked with the vowel of a following noun: un court es- 
pa-ce [de kur-tes-pais] a short space; un fort a-thle-te [de 
for-tat-let] a strong athlete; but: le che-min est court et 
fa-ci-le [la Ja-me e kuir e fa-sil] the road is short and easy; 
il est fort et bien b&-ti [i-le foir e bje ba-ti] he is strong and 
well built. 

353 ect. Words ending in ect, ab-ject, cor-rect 
■300), in which both c and t are sounded, link over before 

vowel, naturally, the t. — The four words as-pect, cir- 

lon-spect, re-spect, sus-pect link over the c (=k) ordi- 

^narily, although the usage varies: as-pect ad-mi-ra-ble 

■^i[as-perkad-mi-rabl], also [as-pe adrmi-rabl] ; cir-con-spect 

'^ en tout [sir-k5-spe-kd-tu], ,PJsq1 [sir-ko-spek-ta-tu]; man- 

quer de re-spect a quelqu'un [ma-ke da re-spe-ka kel-kde], 

^sojma-ke da re-spe a kel-kde] ; il est sus-pect k son par-ti 

[i-le sys-pe-ka s5 par-ti], also [i-le sys-pe a s5 par-ti] he is 


an object of suspicion to his party; re-spect hu-mam is al- 
ways pronounced [re-spe-ky-mg]. 

354 Although the t final of nouns is usually silent, 
nevertheless in the following common expressions it is 
linked: ac-cent ai-gu [ak-sa-te-gy]; au doigt et k Poeil 
[o dwa-^ a 1 oeij] at beck and call; de point en point [dd 
pwe-ta pwe] in detail; bout i bout [bu-ta bu] end to end; 
d*un bout i Pau-tre [dob bu*ta lotr] from one end to the 
other; du haut en bas [dy o-ta ba] from top to bottom; d*un 
mo-ment k Pau-tre [d ce ma-ma-^ lotr] from one moment 
to another; doit et a-voir [dwarte a-vwair] debit and credit; 
le fait est re-con-nu [b fe-(j?E ra-ko-ny] the fact is recog- 
nized; nuit et jour [nxp-te 3Uir] night and day; par-le-ment 
an-glais [parl-ma-^a-gle] English parliament; point ex- 
cla-ma-tif [pwe-ttks-kla-ma-tif] exdamaiion point; point 
in-ter-ro-ga-tif [pwe-te-te-ro-ga-tif] interrogation point; 
pot a fleur [po^t;a floeir] flower-pot; pot k eau [po-tao] 
water-pot; pot au lait [po-to le] milk-pitcher; pot au feu [po- 
to f0] boiled beef and broth; pot aux roses [po-to roiz] pot 
of face-powder; mystery. 

355 t final of cent un [sa oe] a hundred and one, and of 
cent onze [sa oiz] a hundred and eleven, is never linked. 
The t of the conjunction et is never linked: fort et ac-tif 
[foir e ak-tif] strong and active; Paul et Alice [po-le a-lis]. 

356 t final in the endings -fit, -art, -ert, -eurt, -ort, 
-ourt (380) of verbs, nouns, some adverbs and preposi- 
tions is not linked, but the r is sounded just as though it 
were the final letter: il se-rait bon qu'il ar-ri-v&t aujour- 


dliui [il sa-re bo ki-la-ri-va o-3ur-dqi] it would be well for 
him to arrive to-day; k part elle et vous [a pair el e vu] 
aside from her and you; elle part k regret [el pair a ra-gre] 
^he leaves with regret; il s*est of-fert & le soi-gner [il se-to- 
ieir a b swa-jie] he offered to take care of him; le de-sert 
«-ri-de [b de-zeir a-rid] the arid desert; il meurt a-vec 
«ou-ra-ge [il moeir a-vek ku-rais] he dies courageously; k 
"tort et a tra-vers [atoir ea tra-veir] at random; il court 
«u feu [il kuir o f0] he runs to the fixe. 

357 z final (319) of the second person plural of verbs 
is^reg[]|jiy linked: vous ai-mez k li-re [vu-ze-me-za liir] 
you like to read; vous i^-lez k Pa-ris [vu-za-le-za pa-ri] 
you are going to Paris. \ V^ ^2. - V^ .r/ -^». 

358 z final of as-sez, chez, is regularly linked: as-sez 
ai-ma-ble [a-se-ze-mabl] kind enxmgh; chez eux [Se-z0] at 
their house. 

359 z final of nez and riz is never linked: du riz au lait 
[dy ri o le] rice cooked with milk; nez a-qui-lin [ne a-ki-le] 
aquiline nose; nor is z linked in the expressions: por-tez 
ar-mes [por-te arm] carry arms; pre-sen-tez ar-mes [pre- 
za-te arm] present arms. 

360 As may be seen from the above examples just 
cited, final consonants that are regularly silent like p, q 
or c=k, t, z are carried over without change of sound 
just as are those usually pronounced c, f, 1, r. Never- 
theless the linking of silent consonants of singular nouns 
is usually avoided: mot an-glais [mo a-gle] English word; 



es-prit al-le-mand [es-pri al-ma] German wit; ob-jet im- 
por-tant [ob-3e e-por-ta] important object. Common ex- 
pressions: de temps en temps, pas k pas, etc., enmnerated 
in 337, form an exception. 

361 d, g, s, X, when linked, have respectively the sound 

I, A, £ty £*% 

363 d = [t] : quand i-rez-vous? [kai-lfi-re vu] when will fj 
you go?; pied-4-ter-re [pje-ta teir] mxmientary lodging; re- • 
pond-elle [re-p5-tel] she replies; le froid et le chaud [la *• 
frwa^ b So] the cold and the heat; \m froid ac-cueil [defrwa- 
jra-koeij] a cool reception; mi grand hom-me [ce gra-tom] a 
great man; de pied en cap [da pje+tia kap] from head to foot; 
com-prend-il [k5-pra-til] does he understand?; en-tend-on 
[a-ta-to] does one hear?; perd-il [per-ti|| does he lose? 

363 The linking of d = [t] is most usual in cases of an 
adjective followed by its noun as in the example just 
above cited: mi grand hom-me; or as in: laid a-ni-mal 
[le-ta-ni-mal] an ugly animal; se-cond 6-ta-ge [s8-g5- 
te-tais] third story; but if the word following the ad- 
jective is not a noun, the d is silent: le se-cond et le 
troi-sie-me [b s9-go e b trwa-zjem] the second and the 
third; grand et bien fait [gra e bje fe] tall and well made; 
es-prit pro-fond en tout [es-pri pro-f 5 a tu] mind deep , 
in everything, d^ig ^linked as d in nord-est [nordest] /'- 
northeast and nord-ouest [nord west] northwest (297). : v r, ^" 

364 d final of the endings -ard, -ord, -ourd (380) is rtbt ^ 
usually linked over, but the preceding r is linked to the 
vowel of the following word: mi vieil-Iard in-firme [Cb vje- 


jair 8-finn] an infirm old man; le re-nard et la ci-go-gne 
[la ra-nair e la si-goji] the fox and the stork; lourd et indi- 
geste [luir e e-di-sest] heavy and indigestible. 

365 g when linked =k, in long [15]; rang [ra] rank; 
sang [sa] blood; long hi-ver [l5-ki-veir] long mnter; rang 
6-le-ve [ra-kel-ve] high station; rang in-fi-me [ra-ke-fim] 

I lowest rank; sang im-pur [sa-ke-pyir] impure blood; sang 

hu-main [sa-ky-me] human blood. This usage, however, 

r \s more literary than ,coUoqiiiali, Ordinarily, in these 

J cases, tlie g may be silent: long hi-ver [loiveir]; rang 
e-le-ve [rael-ve]; sang im-pur [sae-pyir]; sang et eau 
[sdeo] blood and water. Elsewhere g final, except in 
» joug and bourg, where according to some authorities 
(but not generally, see 205 and 206) it has the sound of 
k before vowels and consonants, it is silent: le fau-bourg 
ex-te-rieur [bfo-buireks-te-rjoeir] the outer suburb; Pe- 
tang est tout pres [le-ta e tu pre] the pond is quite near; 
le coing est un fruit [la kwe et ce frip] the quince is a fruit. 

366 s when linked =z, the most frequent of the Unk- 
ings, because occurring so often between closely related 
words (330). This linking of s, sounded as z, occurs 
in many expressions in which the s of the individual word 
is silent: de plus en plus [da ply-za ply] mcrre and more; 
de temps en temps [da ta-za ta] from time to time; dos a 
dos [do-za do] back to back; les en-ne-mis en fuite [le-zen- 
mi-za fipt] the enemies in flight; pas a pas [pa-za pa] step 
by step; plus ou moins [ply-zu mwe] more or less; tiers 
6-tilt [tjeir-ze-ta] third estate; un suc-ces i-nat-ten-du [ce 
6yk-se-@i-na-ta-dy] an unexpected success. 


367 s of final cs, rs is silent in plural of nouns and of 
compound words: arcs-en-ciel [ar-ka sjel] rainbows; bees 
Auer [be-ko-eir] Auer burners; des dues et pairs [de dy-ke 
peir] dvJces and peers; des pores-€pies [de por-ke-pik] par- 
cupines. In these and the following cases, the linking of 
s, not being pleasant to the French ear, is avoided, while 
the c or the r is linked over: des vers k sole [de ve-ra swa] 
silkworms; des mai-tres es arts [de me-tre-zair] masters 
of arts; corps i corps [ko-rakoir] hand to hand (fight); 
chars k bancs [Sa-ra bo] jaunting cars; vers un en-droit 
[ve-rdB-(n)a-drwa] towards a place; en-vers et con-tre tous 
[a-veir-e ko-tra tuis] towards and against all. 

368 s final of a proper noun is silent: Geor-ges est 
ri-che [3or-3e rij] George is rich; la ca-th£-drale d'A-miens 
est ma-gni-fi-que [la ka-te-dral d a-mje-(n)e ma-jii-fik] 
the Amiens Cathedral is magnificent; Pa-ris est u-ne bel-le 
vil-le [pa-ri e-tyn bel vil] Paris is a beavliful city. 

369 s final is not sounded in un a-vis im-por-tant 
[de-na-vi e-por-ta] an important advice; vers les une 
heu-re [verle ynoeir] towards one o^ clock; and the s of 
vo-lon-tiers [vo-l5-tje] willingly is never soimded; vo-lon- 
tiers a mes or-dres [vo-lo-tje a me-zordro] willingly to my 

370 Certain expressions contain the soimd most often 
heard in linking [z] represented by s, x orz; and this 
sound may occur twice in a short phrase. To avoid such 
repetition the Unking is made but once: dix heu-res un 
quart [di-zoeir-ce kair] instead of [di-zoeir-zoe kair] quarter 


pcLst ten; six heu-res et de-mie [si-zoeir-e da-mi] half past 
six; ai-dez-vous les uns aux au-tres [e-de vu le-zde o-zotr] 
help one another; les lar-mes aux yeux [le lar-mo-zj0] tears 
in the eyes. 

371 Neither linking nor elision occurs before huit, hui- 
tie-me (213) (excepting dix-huit and dix-hui-tie-me), onze, 
on-zie-me, oua-te, oui, oui-di-re (215, 390): le huit du 
mois [b xpt dy mwa] the eighth of the month; le on-zie-me 
[la o-zjem] the eleventh; la on-zie-me heu-re [la 5-zjem 
oeir] the eleventh hour; le on-ze [la oiz] the eleventh {day of 
the month); qua-tre-vingt-on-ze [ka-tra ve oiz]; la oua-te 
[lawat] wadding; des oui-di-re [dewidiir] hearsay; les 
on-ze en-fants [le 5i-za-fa] the eleven children. Notice 
the following: des man-teaux oua-t6s [de ma-to wa-te] 
lined cloaks; le uh-lan [la yla] German lancer; les uh- 
lans [le yla]; met-tez le un avant le deux [me-te la de a-va 
la d0] pvi the one before the two; but un vui mai-fait [de- 
nde mal fe] a one badly m^ade; trois un de sui-te [trwa-zde 
da sipt] three consecutive ones; cent un [sa de] one hundred 
and one; cent van [sa-tde] one hundred times one; sur les 
une heure [syrleynoeir] about one o^ clock; vers les une 
heure [verleynoeir] towards one o^ clock (some ellipsis, 
such as about or towards the minutes preceding or fol- 
lowing one o'clock, seems to be implied) ; quatre-vingt-un 
[katra ve de] eighty-one; le yacht [la jak(t)] (the word is 
also pronounced ak Tanglaise)) [jot] by those familiar with 
English); la yole [la jol] smMl boat or canoe. 

372 X when linked =z: aux ar-mes [o-zarm] to arms; /^ 
des prix 61ev6s [de pri-zel-ve] high prices; deux k deux 


138 f f;bench pronunciation 

[d0-za d0] two by two; dix en-fants [di-za-fa] ten children; 
paix u-ni-ver-sel-le [pe-zy-ni-ver-sel] universal peace; six 
hom-mes [si-zom] six men. Before consonants, x final 
follows the general rule and is silent: six sol-dats [si sol- 
da] six soldiers; dix pom-mes [di pom] ten apples. 

373 m usually has no other function after a vowel 
than to nasalize it, the m itself not being sounded (233). 
Therefore in such cases no Unking is heard: A-dain et 
E-ve [a-daeeiv]; u-ne faim ex-ces-si-ve [ynfeek-se- 
siiv] excessive hunger; un nom il-lus-tre [de n5 il-lystr] 
an illustrious name; un par-fum ex-quis [de par-foe eks-ki] 
an exquisite perfume. 

374 But when m does occur as a final pronounced con- 
sonant, then it is naturally linked over like any other r 
final pronounced consonant: Je-ru-sa-lem est-vam-cuTT 
[3e-ry-za-le-me ve-ky] Jerusalem is conquered; le ha-rem 
at-tray-ant [lo a-re-ma-tre-ja] the attractive harem. 

375 n like m after a vowel has the function of nasaliz- 
ing that vowel (129, 239). It differs in this case from m in 
that while m nasalizing the preceding vowel is never linked 
over, n may be when the two words are so inseparably 
connected as to form but one word, group or idea. Then 
the nasalized vowel usually retains its nasal quality and 
the n is carried over as a consonant: au-cun ou-vra-ge 
[o-kde-nu-vrai3] no work; bien ai-ma-ble [bje-ne-mabl] 
very kind; bon a-mi [bo-na-mi] good friend; bon en-fant 
[bo-na-fa] good fellow; un an-cien a-mi [de-na-sje-na-mi] 
a former friend; bien heu-reux [bje-noe-r0] very happy; 


rien ac-cep-ter [rjc-nak-sep-te] to accept nothing; en plein 
air [a-ple-neir] in the open air. Another pronunciation 
in such cases and rather common in colloquial usage is 
to denasalize the vowel, retaining its oral quality, linking 
the n over as a consonant in the usual way. Simply 
removing the sign of nasality over the vowel in the pre- 
ceding examples will illustrate the second method of pro- 
nunciation in such cases; or: men a-mi [mo-na-mi] my 
friend J instead of [m5-na-mi] ; un enfant [oe-na-fa] a child, 
instead of [oe-na-fa]. 

376 But when n appears simply as a pure consonant, 
it is then linked over to the following vowel just as m is 
or any other consonant: I'hy-men ac-tuel [1 i-me-nak-tqel] 
ike actual marriage; sp6-ci-men a-de-si-rer [spe-si-me- 
na de-zi-re] desirable specimen. 

377 n final of the nasal vowel of a noim is not linked: 
ce bien est a men f re-re [sq bje e-ta-mo freir] this prop- 
erty is my brother^ s; Jean est pe-tit [3a e pa-ti] John is 
little; le vin et Peau [b ve e 1 o] the wine and water; le bon 
et le mau-vais [b bo e b mo-ve] the good and the had, 

378 n final in the following common expressions is 
not linked: c'est bon a manger [s e-bo a ma-se] it is good 
to eat; se-lon eux [sa-l5 0] according to them (335) ; il se 
con-duit bien en clas-se [il sa-kS-dqi bje a klais] he he- 
haves himself well in the class; com-bien y en a-t-il? [ko- 
bje i a-na-til] how many of them are there? I'un ou I'au-tre 
P ce U 1 otr] one or the other. 

379 h. Neither linking nor elision takes place before 
an aspirate h. Care should be taken not to aspirate this 



written (but unsounded) h as in English. Simply detach 
the word preceding from that beginning with h: la hon-te 
[la 5 it] shame; le ha-sard [la a-zair] chance; le cri des hi- 
boux [b kri de i-bu] the owW cry; les hut-tes des sau-va- 
ges [le yt de so-vais] the Indians* huts. 

380 Special cases. Consonants after r are not usually 
linked. This applies to the endings of many words in 
-ard, -ord, -curd, -art, -ert, -eurt, -ort, -curt (356): 
dard ai-gu [dair-e-gy] sharp dart; bord k bord [boir-a boir] 
alongside; lourd et fort [luir-e foir] heavy and strong; el-le 
part au-jourd'hui [el pair-o-3ur-dqi] she leaves to-day; il 
con-quiert une pro-vince [il ko-kjcir-yn-pro-veis] he con- 
quers a province; elle meurt ex-pres [el moeir-eks-pre] she 
dies on purpose; fort et grand [foir-e gra] strong and tall; 
on ac-court aus-si-t6t [5-na-kuir-o-si-to] they run imme- 

381 Exceptions to the general rule that consonants 
after r are not usually sounded may be noticed in the 
flexional s which follows r: des re-gards ai-ma-bles [de 
ra-gair-ze-mabl] kind attention; in the final t or d after r 
of verbs before a pronoun: perd-il [peir-til] does he lose? 
sert-il [seir-t il] is he of use? in fort used as an absolute 
superlative, that is, in the sense of very: fort ai-ma-ble 
[foir-te-ma(i)bl] very amiable; but fort et dur [foir-e dyir] 
strong and hard, 

383 In the expressions de part en part [da-pair-ta par] 
right through; de part et d'au-tre [do pair-te d otr] on all 
sides; Part o-ra-toi-re [1 air-to-ra-twair] oratorical art, the 
final t is linked over. 


Exercise LIX. Linking occurs in the expressions throughout 
this exercise. Read carefully, pronouncing aloud the following: 1 . A 
neuf heures precises. 2. Attendez un instant. 3. Beaucoup aim6. 
4. Bien ennuyeux. 5. Bloc 6norme. 6. C'est un enfant trds 6veill^. 
7. C'est un franc ^tourdi. 8. Cheval ombrageux. 9. Cinq heures. 
10. Comprend-il ce qu'on dit? 11. De fond en comble. 12. Des 
cheveux ^pais. 13. Des histoires ^tonnantes. 14. De part en part. 
15. D'excellents exercices. 16. Du blanc au noir. 17. En avez- 
vouseu? 18. En6t6. 19. Enhiver. 20. lis ^tudient bien. 21. lis 
se rendent en classe deux k deux. 22. II y a cinq ans. 23. Le 
bourg est en f^te. 24. Le grand oc6an. 25. Le nabab est un richard. 
26. Les empereurs Marc Aur^le et Marc Antoine. 27. Nous irons 
ensemble. 28. (Euf ^ la coque. 29. Onenaassez. 30. Parler franc 
et net. 31. Perd-il son temps? 32. Quand irez-vous? 33. Qu*en- 
tend-on? 34. R^pond-elle. 35. S'il en est ainsi. 36. Tr^ habile. 
37. Trap ^troit. 38. Un arc-en-ciel. 39. Un fort argument en sa 
faveur. 40. Un joug intolerable. 41. Unporc-^pic. 42. Vousavez 
6t6 au pare. 43. Vous en avez assez. 

Exercise LX, illustrating examples in which linking is to be 
avoided. Read carefully the following expressions, pronouncing 
them aloud: 1. Allez-vous-en avec eux. 2. Arcs-en-ciel. 3. A-t-on 
^t6 aimable? 4. Bees Auer. 5. Bordeaux est une belle ville. 6. C'est 
le huit. 7. Colomb a err6 longtemps. 8. Combien en demande- 
t-il? 9. De demain en huit. 10. Du plomb argentif^re. 11. Duriz 
au lait. 12. Enfin on arriva. 13. Envers eux. 14. II est grand et 
beau. 15. Jean et Alexis. 16. Le loup coiui, encore. 17. Le 
second et le troisitoe. 18. Le surplomb en est visible. 19. Le 
trente et un octobre. 20. Mais oui. 21. Marie coud k merveille. 
22. Nez k nez. 23. Paris est la capitale. 24. Quatre-vingt-onze. 
25. Quatre-vingtnaept. 26. Saint-Marc k Venise. 27. Sourd k 
toutes les demandes. 28. Sourd et muet. 29. Trop hardi. 30. Un 
banc k dos. 31. Une faim excessive. 32. Un et deux font trois. 
33. Un gargon indolent. 34. Un nom anglais. 

Exercise LXI. State briefly the principle by reason of which 
linking takes place in each example given in Exercise LIX and 
does not take place in each of the examples given in Exercise LX. 



383 Elision, or the dropping of the final vowel of a 
monosyllable before the initial vowel of the next word, 
is indicated by the apostrophe (31). In certain cases the 
letters e, a, i, the vowels undergoing eUsion, are entirely 
silent. The monosyllables eliding final e are de, le, ne, 
que; the pronoims je, ce, le, me, se, te when followed by 
a verb, by en or by y. 

384 Elision of e : 1'6-co-le [1 e-kol] the school; d*un en- 
fant [d oe-na-fa] of a child; n*est-ce pas [n es pa] is it not 
so f j'ai-me [3 eim] / love; c'est [s e] it is; il I'a [i-1 a]. Ae has 
it; m'a-t-elle vu [m a-tel vy] has she seen me? H s*en va 
[il s a va] he goes away; qu'a-vez-vous [k a-ve vu] what is 
the matter with you? tu t'y es mis [ty ti e mi] you have jmt 
yourself there; en-voy-ez-Py [a-vwa-je 1 i] send him there. J 

385 The vowels of the pronoims ce, je, la, le are not 
elided when these monosyllables come after the verb: 
est-ce vrai [es vre] is it true? ai-je rai-son [ei3 re-zo] am I 
right? fai-tes-le [fet I9] do it; voy-ez-le [vwar-je la] see 


386 The final e of jusque is elided in jus-qu'i [3ys-k'a] 
up to; jus-qu'a-lors [3ys-k a-loir] uy to that tims; jus-qu'en 
[sys-ka ] up to; jus-qu'i-ci [sys-k i-si] up to this time; the 
final e of lorsque, puisque, quoique is also elided, but only 
before elle, il, on, un : lors-qu'il [lors-k il] when he; puis- 
qu'el-le [pqis-k el] since she; quoi-qu'on [kwa-k 5] although 


387 A few words, generally having quelque, entre or 
presque in their composition, elide final e: quel-qu'un 
[kcl-kce ] some one; en-tr*ac-te [a-tr akt] interval between 
the acts; pres-qu'i-le [pres-k il ] peninsula; also au-jour- 
d'hui [o-3ur-d qi] ] to-day, 

388 Elision of a. a is only elided in the article or 
pronoun la before the verb: 1'4-me [1 aim] the soul; I'his- 
toi-re [1 is-twair] the story; 11 I'aime [i-1 eim] he loves her; 
but ai-mez-la [e-me la] love her. 

389 Elision of i. i is elided only in the conjunction si 
before 11 or ils: s*ll va [s il va] if he goes; s'ils vien-nent 
[s il vjen] if they come. 

390 Elision does not take place before the aspirate h, 
xior before on-ze, on-zie-me, oui, ouJ-di-re, oua-te (371, 
215), oh que oui [o ka wi] why yes; la bn-zie-me [la 5-zjem] 
^he eleventh. 

391 While the preceding examples illustrate elision as 
^hown by the apostrophe, the great majority of cases 
xnay be said to occur where no apostrophe marks the 
suppression of an e mute before a word beginning with a 
ATowel or silent h. In fact e is silent at the end of most 
^ords (but cf. 393): pla-ce [plas]; pren-dre [praidr]; ta-ble 
[ta(i)bl]; (except where the e itself is the only vowel in the 

"word, as in le, me, te); in verbal endings -es, -ent (tu 
ai-mes [ty eim]; ils ai-ment [il-zeim]); and after a vowel 
that just precedes the final e: rue [ry] street. 

393 In very many instances, two or more words are 
pronounced just as though parts of one entire word, that 


is, together in one breath, just as though each formed a 
component part of one entire word. The final e in such 
cases is absolutely mute and the preceding consonant is 
linked over with the initial vowel of the following word: 
fa-ci-le k li-re [fa-si-la liir] easy to read; la guer-re 6-cla-te 
en-tre eux [la gei-re-kla-ta-tr0] vHir breaks ovt between 
them; la ro-be est rou-ge [la ro-be ruis] the dress is red; 
rex-er-ci-ce o-ral [1 eg-zer-si-so-ral] the oral exercise; u-ne 
an-cien-ne e-le-ve [y-na-sje-ne-lezv] a former pupil; u-ne 
au-tre an-nee [y-no-tra-ne] another year. 

393 Compare the following pairs of words, in the 
former of which the e is elided and in the latter (70, 71) 
it is not: Allemagne and Angleterre; bulletin and porte- 
feuille; causerie and brusquerie; joyeusement and triste- 
ment; Ieg6ret6 and fermet^; logement and appartement; 
longuement and largement; maintenant and autrefois; 
mugissement and hurlement; salet^ and propret^; samedi 
and vendredi. 

394 Compare again in the same manner the following 
pairs, each of which is composed of two or more words 
(cf. 74). In the first group composing the pair, the e is 
not pronotmced; in the second it is: A de-main and pour 
demain; au-dessus and par-dessus; je ne sais pas and il 
ne sait pas; la demande and leur demande; la petite and 
cette petite; la semaine and tme semaine; les chemin^es 
and tme chemin^e; le velours and quel velours; mademoi- 
selle and une demoiselle; monsieur De Vire and madame De 
Vire; on recommence and elle recommence; roi de France 
and reine de France; sa fendtre and cette fenfitre; sans le 


chien and avec le chien; sous le pont and sur le pont; un 
demi-litre and line demi-livre; un pot de bifere and un 
verre de bifere; vin de Champagne and bi^re de Munich. 

EIxERCiSE LXII. A most useful exercise may be had by writing 
the two pairs above given in 393 and 394, first as usual in ordinary 
writing and printing of French, dividing them into syllables and pro- 
nouncing aloud each syllable and word; secondly, performing the 
same operation and using, in so doing, the key alphabet. 

395 The following sentences illustrate the usual 
eUsion of e when occurring m ordinary phrases. The 
elided e is itaUcized: 1. Cette phrase est facile k lire et 
k comprendre. 2. EUe raconte encore une histoire ab- 
surde. 3. filise a une autre id^e en t^te. 4. La balle 
6tait derri^re une chaise au salon. 5. La campagne est 
belle et agr^able en juin. 6. Laissez la porte et la fe- 
nStre ouvertes. 


396 Capitals are used as in English to begin a sen- 
tence, quotation or a proper name: Les oiseaux chantent, 
The birds are singing. U m*a dit: ((Faites-le tou jours.)) 
He said to me: ^^Keep on doing iV^ Felix Faure. 

397 Small letters, contrary to English usage, are used 
to begin the pronoun je = English I: Eh, bien, je m'en 
vais, Wellj Fm going away. Enfin, j*y suis, j*y reste, 
In short, Fm here, Fm going to stay here; and in writing 
the interjection 6 = English oh or 0: — 6 Dieu, Heavens ! 
6 douleur, grief! 6 ma jeunesse, my youth! 


398 Small letters are used to begin the names of the 
days of the week and of the month: C*est aujourdliui 
lundi le dix aodt, To-day is Monday the tenth of August; 
n est venu vendredi le trois mars, He came Friday the 
third of March. 

399 Small letters are used to begin adjectives derived 
from proper nouns: un noble venitien, a Venetian noble- 
man; un savant allemand, a German scholar; le rivage 
troyen, the Trojan shore; le chant gregorien, the Gregorian 
chant; 11 etudie le frangais, he studies the French language; 
also in writing the expressions: catholique, lutherien, 
mahometan, protestant, puritain, pharisien, voltairien; 
also catholicisme, christianisme, judaisme. But when the v] 
adjective is used substantively, then it is treated as a *, 
proper noun:^fl5L: Frangais, the Frenchman; un Irlandais, _f 
an Irishnwer(;vai riche Americain, a rich American; les"^*' 
Asiatiques, the Asiatics; les Europeens, the Europeans; 
un illustre Parisien, an illustrioy^ Parisian, , ^i^- ... .. , ) 

400 When to a product or object of manufacture, the 
name of the town or locality of production or fabrication 
is given, this name is treated like a proper adjective and 
begins with a small letter: un metre d'angleterre; une 
statue to carrare ; un bel angora ; une bouteille de cognac ; 
fumer du maryla^d; une robe de florence; une robe de 

401 In titles of books, companies, associations and 
the like, but one word usually begins with a capital, 
generally the first noun, unless preceded by a preposi- 


tion: Dans les gardes frangaises, la Jerusalem delivree, 
le Malade imaginaire, la Mare au diable, le Paradis 
perdu, Pour la couronne; les Precieuses ridicules. 

402 If an adjective (or numeral) precedes the noun, 
instead of following it as in the above examples, then 
both adjective (or numeral) and noun begin with a cap- 
ital: I'Ancien Testament; les Deux Sceurs; la Divine 
Com6die; les Fausses Confidences; la Jeune Femme 
colere; la Nouvelle Heloise; la Petite Fadette; Un beau 
manage; Un Manage dans le monde. The article (defi- 
nite) when used as the first word of the title, as in these 
examples, is written with a capital only when it begins 
the sentence. 

Notice the usage in the following titles of literary 
works: le Vieux celibataire; le Vieux fat; les Vieux gar- 
(ons; Une Vieille maitresse; le Vieux neuf; la Vieille 
roche; la Vieille tante. 

4ft3 When the title of a word is accompanied by the 
author's name, both title and name are written with a 
capital: la Biographie Didot; les Commentaires de Cesar; 
le Dictionnaire de I'Academie; I'Encyclopedie de Diderot; 
les Essais de Montaigne; la Geographie de Crozat; le 
Glossaire de du Cange. 

404 When two substantives figure as the title of a 
publication, a society or order, the second substantive 
being merely the complement of the first, then the first 
only is written with a capital: Bulletin des lois; Cours 
d'astronomie ; Dialogue des morts; Elements de phy- 


sique; Essai sur les mceurs; Histoire des croisades; 
Voyage autour du monde; I'Academie des sciences; le 
Conservatoire de musique; le Conservatoire des arts et 
metiers; l'£cole des chartes; I'ordre de I'Aigle de fer; 
Pordre de la Legion d'honneur; I'ordre de la Toison d'or. 

405 Nevertheless, it frequently happens that when two 
substantives figure in the title of a book, society or 
order, that it is the second that is written with a capital 
while the first is written with a small letter. This is so 
because in such cases the second word characterizes and 
epitomizes more appropriately the entire title: le cap des 
Tempetes; la cour des Miracles; la fontaine des Inno- 
cents; I'hdtel des Ambassadeurs; VUe de la Reunion; les 
montagnes de la Lune; le quai aux Fleurs, meaning a 
particular quay in Paris where flowers are sold; while 
quai aux fleurs designates a quay given over to the sale 
of flowers in any city. 

406 Occasionally it happens that two words in the 
title of a publication or association are written with a 
capital : Memoires de la Societe nationale des antiquaires 
de France; Memoires de la Society de linguistique; la 
Critique de l'£cole des femmes; Defense du G§nie du 
christianisme ; Observations sur I'Esprit des lois; Journal 
des Savants. In such cases two titles are considered as 
combined in one, or the two words are of such importance 
that it appears inappropriate to write either with a small 

407 Capitals are used in writing the title of a fable, 
comedy or farce, the characters of which appear in the 


title and are considered as personified: le Chene et le 
Roseau; la Genisse, la Chevre et la Brebis; le Flatteur 
et TEnvieux; le Maitre et le Valet. 

408 Two capitals are necessary in a compound proper 
noun joined by a hyphen, as: les Anglo-Saxons; les Gallo- 
Grecs ; les Moldo-Valaques ; and the name of a dynasty, 
when preceded by that of the race over which the dynasty 
ruled, is written with a capital: les Francs Merovingiens; 
les Turcs Osmanlis ; but not when the name of the dynasty 
is used adjectively, as: la dynastie merovingienne; la 
dynastie napoleonienne; likewise ecriture anglo-norman- 
nique ; ecriture nomuuino-saxonne. 

409 The word saint before its noun begins with a 
small letter: saint Denis, saint Frangois, saint Martin; 
but when used as a part of a proper name with a noun to 
which it is joined by a hyphen, it is never abbreviated 
and is always written with a capital: le due de Saint- 
Simon; I'eglise Saint-Germain-des-Pres ; I'eglise Sainte- 
Marie-aux-Neiges ; I'eglise Sainte-Marie-des-Fleurs; (in 
the three examples just cited the two last hyphens in 
each example are sometimes omitted, but the more com- 
mon usage appears to be in favor of connecting all the 
parts with hyphens)'; I'eglise de Saint-Pierre; le mont 
Saint-Michel; la porte Saint-Martin; but if the entire 
expression is merely used as a name to indicate, for ex- 
ample, a prison or a theater, the usage is: les prisonniers 
du Mont-Saint-Michel, le the&tre de la Porte-Saint- 


410 The names of avenues, boulevards, quays, squares, 
streets, etc., are written with a capital, but the word for 
avenue, boulevard, square, street, etc., is written with a 
small letter: allee de I'Observatoire; avenue des Champs- 
£lysees; avenue de POpera; bairiere de l'£tofle; boule- 
vard Montpamasse; carrefour de PAbattoir; chaussee 
des Minimes; cour des Fontaines; place de la Concorde; 
quai de I'Horloge; rue de Rivoli. 

Small letters are used in writing the articles le, la, les, 
du, de la, des before the name of a town or of a person: 
le Caire, Cairo; la Havane; le Havre; le Mans; le Puy; 
la Rochelle; la Bruyere; le Camoens; le Cid; la rue de la 
Bruyere; la rue de P^cluse; le comte de la Guiche; le 
prince de la Paix; Peveril du Pic; le Tintoret; Bar-le- 
Duc; Choisy-le-Roy; Fo|^nay-aux-Roses; Villeneuve- 
le-Comte. Also in writing adjectives not joined to the 
noun by a hyphen, as: la basse Bretagne, le bas Canada; 
but les Basses-Pyrenees, la Haute-Mame. 

411 Small letters are used to begin titles before proper 
nouns: le president Fallieres; le prince de Galles; le roi 
Alfonse; le czar Nicholas; lord Ruthven; le comte de 
Monte-Cristo; le general Boulanger; le roi d'Angleterre; 
le professeur Croizet; I'abbe de l'£pee; le due d'Enghien; 
I'empereur de la Chine, le docteur Allard; I'archeveque 

412 Titles of honor, being considered as proper names, 
whether in speaking to or of the honored personage, are 
written with a capital: Votre Majeste; Vos Majestes; Sa 
Majeste; Ses Majestes; Sa Saintete, in speaking of the 


Pope; Son Eminence, in speaking of a cardinal; Sa Gran- 
deur, in speaking of a bishop; Son Altesse, in speaking of 
a prince of the royal line. 

413 Capitals, therefore, are used in the following cases 
for the titles and smaU letters for the common names, 
king, queen, emperor, czar, etc.: Sa Majeste le roi; Sa 
Majeste la reine; Sa Majeste imperiale; Son Altesse 
royale ; Sa Majeste I'empereur Napoleon DDE ; Sa Majeste 
la reine d'Angleterre; Sa Majesty le czar, I'autocrate de 
toutes les Russies; Sa Majeste le sultan Abdul Medjid; 
Sa Saintete le pape Pie IX; Son Eminence le cardinal de 
Retz; Sa Grandeur I'eveque de Marseille; Son Altesse 
I'electeur de Saxe. 

414 Capitals are used on the above principle when the 
title is extended: Sa Majeste Catholique,*' la reine d'Es- 
pagne; Sa Majeste Fidele, le roi de Portugal; Sa Majeste 
Britannique, la reine d'Angleterre. 

415 Small letters are used to write the titles monsieur, 
madame and mademoiselle when not beginning the 
sentence, although not infrequently capitals are used. 
These words are generally abbreviated, M. being written 
for monsieur, English Mr., MM. (with a full stop) for 
messieurs; M"® for madame, English Mrs,; and M"® for 
mademoiselle, English Miss, M. Blondel, monsieur 
Blondel; M™® Blondel, madame Blondel; M"® Blondel, 
mademoiselle Blondel. They are more convenient terms 
than their English equivalents, being used with equal 
appropriateness with or without the name: oui, made- 
moiselle; oui, madame; oui, monsieur. In writing the 


abbreviated forms, usually printed M"® and IP®, no punc- 
tuation whatever is used; and this is the customary usage 
in French in writing abbreviations which include the final 
letter as M*' = monseigneur, iy=docteur. No stop is 
used after Roman numerals with names of sovereigns or 
divisions of a book: Louis XIV et Charles X celebrent 
. . . Voir tome m, chapitre IV de I'ouvrage. 1st, 2d, 
3d, 4th, etc., are usually written I«', II®, HI®, IV®, etc. 

416 Small letters are used to begin names designating 
political, religious and monastic schools: les republicains, 
les legitimistes, les orleanistes, les socialistes ; les calvi- 
nistes, les catholiques, les jansenistes, les lutheriens, 
les voltairiens, les benedictins, les cordeliers, les do- 

417 The name of the order itself, being considered a 
proper noun, is written with a capital: I'ordre de Saint- 
Benoit; la congregation de Saint-Lazare; I'ordre du 
Mont-Carmel; I'ordre de I'Incamation; I'ordre de la 
Visitation ; I'ordre de la Jarretiere ; la ref orme de Sainte- 
Therese. The word order, congregation, etc., is often 
understood, as in prendre le voile (de Pordre) de Sainte- 
Claire; prendre I'habit (de I'ordre) de Saint-Francois. 

Exercise LXIII. Note the following giving practice on the use 
of capitals; the words and expressions appear here according to 
recognized standard usage: anabaptiste, gentil (GentUe), hussite, 
malthusien, pythagorien; bouddhisme, islamisme, paganisme; canne, 
chartreux, cordelier; bey, calif e, consul, due, pacha, schah; druide, 
mage, pontife, pythonisse; les bacchanales, les satumales; une 
dryade, un faune, un satyre, une sir^ne, un triton; un missel; Con- 
siderations sur Phistoire de France; Discours sur rhistoireuniverselle 
{only one capital here in each instance is itsedj as hvJt one work is reaUy 


comprised in each title)] Tesplanade des Invalides, faubourg Poisson- 
ni^re, passage des Panoramas, place de FEstrapade; Taigle de Meaux 
(Bossuet); Taigle de Patmos (saint Jean), Tange des t^nebres (le 
diable), le p^re du mensonge (Satan), le pere de mis^ricorde (Dieu), 
I'Ange de F^cole (saint Thomas d'Aquin), TOint du Seigneur (J^sus- 
Christ), rOrateiu" romain (Cic^ron), le Sage (Salomon); un arabe, 
un cosaque, une m^g^re, un mentor, un tartufe (origincdly proper 
nouns, frequent usage has caused them to he regarded simply as common 
nouns)) un d^ale, un hermes, du mithridate, un phaeton; des Cal- 
lots, des Elz6virs, des Plines (meaning editions of Elzevir and Pliny, 
and collections of CaUot) ; empire f rangais, empire des Perses, princi- 
paut^ d'Orange, r^publique romaine; Tambassade turque k Paris, 
Famiraut^e de Londres, la chancellerie de la Legion d'honneur, la 
chambre des pairs, la chambre des lords, le consulat de Smyrne, 
rhotel de ville de Paris, la legation russe k Berlin, la mus6e de Ver- 
sailles, le parlement d'Angleterre, le s^nat de Rome; 1' Arsenal, bi- 
bliotheque de Paris, la Bastille, ancienne prison d'fitat, le Chdtelet, 
ancien tribimal de Paris, le Cirque, thedtre de Paris, la Tour de 
Londres, prison d'Etat; la tour de Babel {thai is, de la Confusion), 
la tour des Vents k Ath^nes, la valine de la Vision; Fadministration 
des postes, des monnaies, des douanes, des domaines, le comptoir 
d'escompte, la caisse d'dpargne, le convent des dominicains, T^glise 
des penitents gris, la halle aux bl6s, aux cuirs, aux draps, aux pois- 
sons, le march6 au charbon, aux fleurs, le minist^re de Tint^ieur, 
le minist^re des finances, le palais de justice, la r^gie des tabacs; il 
est all^ aux Arts et metiers, k Flnstruction publique, k la Monnaie 
(instead of saying: il est all^ k Fadministration des Arts et metiers, de 
FInstruction publique, de la Monnaie) ; le Capitole k Toulouse trans- 
form^ en hotel de ville, le Louvre en mus^e, le Luxembourg en s^nat, 
le Palais-Royal en tribunal; ce temple des protestants s'appelle le 
Temple des protestants, cet hotel de ville s'appelle FH6tel de ville, 
cette prison militaire s'appelle la Prison mihtaire, ce palais de jus- 
tice s'appelle le Palais de justice, ce mus6e s'appelle le Mus6e. 

418 Whether a capital be used or not depends on the 
sense of the expression. For instance, cote d'or may 
mean any fine coast renowned for its vineyards; la cote 


d*Or is a name applied particularly to a region near 
Dijon; la C6te-d'0r is the name of one of the French 


419 The same marks of pmictuation are used in French 
as in English. The most commonly used are: 

le point fvU stop 

la vir-gu-le comma , 

le point ^t vir-gu-le semicolon ; 

l0(3ileuz points colon : 

^le point d*in-ter-ro-ga-tion interrogation ? 

le point d'ex-cla-ma-tion exclamation I 

le trait d'u-nion hyphen 

le ti-ret (de s6-pa-ra-tion) dash — 

les points sus-pen-sifs three dots 

les guil-le-mets quotation marks « » 

la pa-ren-thd-se parenthesis ( ) 

les cro-chets brackets [ ] 

Pac-co-la-de brace } 

Pas-tS-ris-que asterisk * 

la croix de ren-voi dagger t 

420 In general it may be said that French punctua- 
tion is more subject to the caprice of the individual 
writer than is the case in English. The following points 
deserve notice: 1<* In a case Uke the following: men, 
womeUf and children^ where good usage may be found 
sanctioning the comma before the conjunction, no conmia 
IS used in French: les hommes, les femmes et les enfants. 
2*» The colon, le^deux points (notice"^ the form of the 


article), is rather more freely used than in English, not 
infrequently replacing the comma before phrases which 
explain, amplify or resume the subject-matter: de Ul 
deux sortes de devoir rlesuns negatifs . . . consequently 
two kinds of dviy, the one negative ... 3° Quotation 
marks, le guillemet ouvrant, le guillemet fermant, are 
less common than in English, a. In giving the text of a 
letter they are used precisely as in English. 6. If a 
quotation extends through several paragraphs, the marks 
are used at the beginning of every paragraph, and at the 
end of the last. c. In the interior of a paragraph, the 
marks are used as in English, d. If the quotation coin- 
cides with the paragraph, no quotation marks are used, 
the paragraph usually beginning with a dash. The 
writer's aim is to try to put each short quotation into a 
separate paragraph, each beginning with a dash (see 
the example under 421). e. Single quotation marks 
(* ') are not used at all. 

421 The dashy tiret as just indicated, serves in dialogue 
to note a change of speaker, and is often used where 
quotation marks would be used in English. It also 
serves to replace the words: re-pon-dit-il, dit-il: 

— Allons, ton dernier mot, bonhomme! 

— Faut-il vous parler clair? 

— Oui. 

— C'est que je garde mon moulin. 

To denote incompleteness or interruption three dots 
(. . .) are used oftener than the dash: Enfin, comment 
vous dire . . . nous avons peur ! 


432 The hyphen, le trait d'union, is used between two 
names forming an indivisible whole: les ftats-TJnis; le 
Nouveau-Brunswick ; la Nouvelle-£cosse; la Nouvelle- 
Orleans; les Pays-Bas; le Royaume-TTni de Grande- 
Bretagne et (d')Irlande, Terre-Neuve (see 409 for more 
diversified examples). 

Exercise LXIV, for general practice. Words apt to be badly 
pronounced: agneau, aigue« aiguille, aiguiser, album, AUemagne, al- 
manach, Alsace, amen, amer, Angleterre, anguiUe, aotit, appendice, 
archange, Asie, aspect, ath6e, atlas, atome, autocratic, autographe, 
automate, automne, Auxerre, avril, ayant, ayez, ayons, baionette, 
balbuticr, bapttoe, baptiser, baril, bataille, Bengale, benzine, bille- 
ves6e, bloc, boeuf, boeufs, broc, Bossuet, Bruxelles, calvitie, capi- 
taine, cauchemar, cent un, chef, chef-d'oeuvre, cher, Christ, chut, 
cinq, le cinq mars, Cinq-Mars, cinq robes, clerc, Cojomb, compter, 
cons6quemment, consciemment, conscience, coq, correct, croc, croup, 
crucifix, cuiller, damner, David, d^cenmient, des haricots, dessous, 
dessus, diplomatic, distiller, distinct, dix, le dix avril, dix chevaux, 
dix-huit, dix-ncuf, dixnaept, dix sous, dot, Duguesclin, tehees, £den, 
Clever, dloquemment, ^minemment, enmiener, enfer, en haut, enno- 
blir, ennui, 6quinox, essentiel, Test, escroc, est-ce, Estienne, estomac, 
^teint, 6ther, eiu-ent, examen, exempt, exempter, excellent (adj.), 
excellent (vcr6), fac6tie, faience, faim, je faisais, faisons, faon, fat, 
femme, fier (adj,)j fier (verb), fini, fleur de lis, flux, gageur, galop, gen- 
til, gratis, grenouiUe, gu6rilla, gueule, gueux, hair, ils h£ussent, h^las, 
hennir, heureux, hiatus, hier, hiver, huit, huit jours, le huit mai, 
huit enfants, hymen, hymne, idylle, immense, immeuble, immobile, 
immodeste, immoler, immoral, incroyable, initial, inn^, innombrable, 
innovation, inoui, inutile, isthme, jadis, J^sus, J6sus-Christ, joug, 
legs, Icndemain, Unguiste, lis, lui, magnifique, mais, mangeant, mar- 
tial, mars, mauvais, mayonnaise, messieurs, merinos, Michel-Ange, 
mille, minutie, minutieux, moelle, monsieur, moyen, murmurer, mu- 
seum, myosotis, nef, nerf, nerfs, net, neuf, neuf ans, le neuf du mois, 
neuf francs, neuf heiu-es, neuf soldats, nuptial, observer, obtenir, 
ocil, oeuf, oeufs, oignon, un os, osciller, ouest, paille, paon, partial, par- 


tiel, patient, payer, pays, peine, pensum, p^ril, perip^tie, persuader, 
philosophe, poignard, poison, poisson, post-scriptum, pouls, pr6c6- 
demment, prompt, prudemment, puis, punch, pupille, pusillanime, 
quatre-vingt-cinq, quatre-vingt-six, quatre-vingt-un, quelques-uns, 
quotient, R(h)eims, r6serv6, resignation, respect, ressembler, res- 
sentir, reesource, rosbif, je romps, science, sculpteur, second, sens, 
bon sens, sens commim, sept enfants, le sept mai, sept plumes, 
signifie, simple, six chaises, six et dix, six heures, le six mars, soleil, 
songea, sp^imen, Strasbourg, sud, sugg^rer, supr6matie, tabac, tact, 
tandis, temps, thym, tient, tilleul, toast, tons, tranquille, travail, 
vasistas, veille, vendetta, vieille, vingt, le vingt aoiit, vingt-deux, 
vingt chevaux, le vingt-sept mars, vingt-huit, vingt-neuf . 


433 Address on the envelope. It is now customary to 
write out the words Monsieur, Madame and Made- 
moiselle. Sometimes the following expressions are em- 
ployed on the outside of a letter or missive: Envoi de 
(Monsieur Dup6e), Sent by (Mr. Dup6e); Recommandee 
or ChargSe, Registered; aux soins de or chez, care of; 
(Prifire de) faire suivre {Please) forward; Faire parveniT; 
Send on. The following are specimen superscriptions: 

Monsieur Georges Pelletier 

chez Madame Lafor^t ^ 

. 31, place de la R^publique • ' 

Paris, France 

Madame Henri de la Tour 
aux soins de Monsieur Loubet-Andr6 

26,' boulevard Saint-Michel ' - 

Paris, France 


Monsieur le Professeur Georges Blondel 
7, Tue Camot "7 

Pridre de faire suivre France 

Mesdemoiselles Longuemare 

.16, rue Montmartre ' ^ 
Faire parvenir ^ Paris, France 

434 Business houses. In addressing firms, such ad- 
dresses as the following are usual: Messieurs Favreau at 
Debne; Messieurs Larousse & O®; Madame V''^^^ La- 
foret et Fils; Messieurs L. Tremblay Freres; Monsieur 
le Directeur du Credit Lyonnais. 

Instead of prefixing Monsieur, Messieurs, sometimes 
other general names are employed: Maison Chagnon- 
Asselin, Firm of C.-A,; Librairie Gamier Freres, Messrs, 
Gamier Brothers j Publishers (Booksellers) ; £tablissements 
Archambault-Belanger, The A.-B, Business Houses. 

425 Dates. With the exception of le premier, the 
cardinal numbers are used for the days of the month. 
The name of the month itself is written with a small 
letter (398). In commercial letters, September, October, 
November and December are frequently abbreviated: 
7bre^ gbre^ Qbre^ IQbre^ The foUowiug examples illustrate 
current usage, the article before the date being sometimes 
omitted. Sometimes ce is used: Marseille, le \^ mars 
1912; Toulon, 7, rue Saint-Georges, le 18 aoiit 1911; 
Londres, 19 juillet 1910; Bruxelles, ce 13 fgvrier 1908; 
Bourges, le 11 mai 1909; Ce vendredi matin. / 

426 Forms of address. The following illtisfrate the 

ordinary usage in addressing friends: Cher Georges, Dear 

» • .' 


George; Mon cher Jean, My dear John; (Mon) cher ami, 
(My) dear friend; Mon cher Delille, My dear Delille; 
Cher Monsieur Belisle, Dear Mr. Belisle; Monsieur et 
cher confrere, My dear colleague. Monsieur, Sir, is more 
formal than Cher Monsieur, {My) dear Sir. It should be 
noted that «Mon cher Monsieur)) is generally avoided 
when used without the noun; like «Ma chere Madame)) 
it is redundant. 

In addressing ladies, the adjective chere is not usual 
except among relatives and very intimate friends: Madame, 
Dear Mrs.; Mademoiselle, Dear Miss. 

437 Endings of letters. Much variety exists in the 
conclusion of French letters. This depends on the age, 
rank, sex of the person addressed, as well as on circum- 
stances. Much used familiar forms are the following: 
Bien k vous or Tout k vous. Sincerely yours; A vous de 
tout coeur. Ever sincerely yours; Une poignee de main. 
Yours most sincerely; Votre ami sincere (fidele). Yours 
faithfully {sincerely); Je vous serre cordialement la main. 
Most sincerely yours; Salut amical. As ever, yours; Votre 
tout d^voue. Faithfully yours; Croyez a ma vive et sin- 
cSre amitie, Believe me, as ever, sincerely yours. 

J' jl -'■• -■•'■• 

438 More formal expressions corresponding to Very 
truly yours, but ill adapted to translation: Agreez, Mon- 
sieur, mes cordiales salutations; Veuillez agreer. Mon- 
sieur, I'assurance de mes sentiments distingues ; Recevez, 
Monsieur, les meilleures amities de votre bien devoue; 
Agreez, Monsieur, mes salutations amicales. 

Notice the following: Je vous prie d'agreer Pexpres- 
sion de ma consideration distinguee. Haute (parfaite) 



consideration is frequently used in closing a letter among 
equals, while Consideration alone is generally not used 
except to inferiors. Je vous prie de croire k Pexpression 
de mes meilleurs sentiments; Veuillez agreer, cher Mon- 
sieur, avec tous mes remerciements, Passurance de mes 
sentiments bien devours. 

429 In addressing ladies: Veuillez accepter, Madame, 
mes salutations respectueuses; Veuillez accepter, Ma- 
dame, I'assurance de ma parfaite et affectueuse con- 
sideration; J'ai I'honneur d'etre, Madame, votre tres 
devoue et respectueux ami; Je vous prie, Madame, 
d'agreer I'expression de mes hommages respectueux. 
A lady addressing a lady friend might write: Toute a 
vous; Je vous embrasse tendrement (aff ectueusement) ; 
Votre amie affectionnee ; Votre bien sincere. 

430 The following expressions are much used in clos- 
ing a letter: Agreez mes civilites empressees, Accept my 
kind regards; Dites bien des choses de ma part H . . ., 
Please remember me to . . ,; Je vous souhaite une bonne 
et heureuse annee, I wish you a Happy New Year; 
Joyeuse Noel, Merry Christmas; Mes amities chez vous, 
My regards to your family; Mille amities, Kind regards; 
Une bonne annee, A Happy New Year; Veuillez me 
rappeler au bon souveiiir de . . ., Please remember me 
to . . . 

431 Note the following: Ci-inclus, Trois cents francs, 
Valv£y Three hundred francs; £cliantillons sans valeur, 
Patterns (Samples) of no value; E. V. ( = En ville), Local; 
Imprimes, Book-post or Printed matter; Papier d'affaires, 



Commercial papers; Personnelle or En mains propres, 
Private or Personal (to be handed over to addressee in 
person) ; Poste restante, To be called for (Poste Restante) ; 
Urgent or Press6, Urgent or Important. ■ 

^ Af 


a. c. 

ami^ com'ante 



av. J.-C. 

avant J6siis- 






c. k, d. 

cVflt k dire 

p. p. c. 

pom* prendre cong6 

c. (c'"*) 


p. r. V. 

I>oiir rendre visite 



R. S. V. P 

. R<5pondez,s'ilvousplatt 



S. A. R. 

Son Altesse Royale 

jC''»**« (cm.) 


8. d. 

sans date 

ct. (crt.) 






S. Kxc. 

Son FiXcellence 


et csetera 


Sa Grandem* 

fr(8) (f.) 

franc (s) 

8. 1. n. d. 

sans lieu ni date 




Sa Majesty 

ib. (ibid.) 







Sa Saintet6 



S. (S*) 








S' (le) 

le Sieur (for Monsieur) 









M« (pi. M«») 

mattre (a law- 

8. V. p. 

s'il vous platt 

yer's tide) 





t. s. V. p. 

tournez s'il vous plait 

M"« (pi M"«») 


ye (Vve) 


M"^ (pi M^) 




m~» (m») 







ExEBCiSE LXV, on proper names. For the pronunciation, con- 
sult the Passy-Hempl, Uniform IrUematianal Dictionary, Lesaint's 
Traits complet de la prononciation fran/Qaise, or Muller's AUgemeines 
Worterhuch: Achab, Acheron, Achille, Agores, Adam, Agamenmon, 
Abnizze, Abyssinie, Adriatique, Agn^, Aix-la-Chapelle, Ajaccio, 
Alger, Alg^rie, Algdsiras, Alpes, Alsace, Apennins (les), Aristophane, 
Aristote, Asie, Ath^nes, Atlantique, Australie, Autriche, Bade, B&le, 
Baptiste, Barcelone, Barth^lemy, Beatrice, Beatrix, Bengale, Ben- 
jamin, Berlin, Boulogne, Brfeil, Bretagne (la), Bruxelles, Buenos- 
Ayres, Caen, Cain, Caire (le), Calabre (la), Camille, Camoens, 
Campagne, Castille (la), Caucase (le), Cayenne, C^sar, Ceylan, 
Chamb^ry, Champagne (la), Chanteclair, Charlemagne, Charles, 
Charon, Chary bde, Cherbourg, Chili (le), Chretien, Cic^ron, Cl^o- 
p&tre, Colomb, Crim^ (la), Danemark (le), D^mosth^ne, Denis, 
Dieppe, Diog^ne, Dordogne (la), Doubs(le), Douvres, Dresde, Dublin, 
Dunkerque, Edimbourg, figypte (P), Equateur, Europe, Faust, Fer- 
rare, Fiesque, Finlande (\&), Franche-Comt^ (la), Friedland, Galaad, 
Galat(5e, Galilee (la), Galil^, Gascogne (la), Gaule (la), Glascow, 
Gracques (les), Greenland (le), Guadalquivir (le), Guadeloupe (la), 
Guemesey, Guyane (la), Guyenne (la), Hambourg, Havane (la), 
Hawai, Himalaya, Hudson, Hugues, Hyacinthe, Hymen, Islande 
(F), Leipsick, Lydie, IvUxembouiig,'X«ys,"Machiavel, Madrid, Maes- 
tricht, Mandchourie, Marengo, Marseille, Michel-Ange, Millet, 
Miltiade, Munich, Niger, Nuremberg, Regnauld, Reims (Rheims), 
Roch, Saint-Roch, Rubens, Ruisdael, Saint-Gaudens, Sa6ne (la), 
Scylla, Titien, Versailles, VosgesJ; Washington. 

Exercise LXVI, on words apt to be mispronounced. Abbaye, 
abdomen, accessit, accroc, agenda, albumen, aluminium, ananas, 
ang^lus, antipathic, aotit, aquarelle, aquarium, arch^ologie, aristo- 
cratic, as, bas-relief, Bayard, Bayonne, bayonette, bis, blocus, bourg, 
bourgmestre, Bruxelles, Cadix, calcium, cantaloup, caoutchouc, cap, 
cerf -volant, chaos, chat-huant, chef-lieju, chiromancie, chrysanth^me, 
circonspect, clef, condamner, congr^s, credo, cric-crac, czar, demo- 
cratic, d^pens, De profundis, desert, dessert, direct, doigt^, dompter, 
Dumas (A.), ^chec, 6cho, Equateur, Equation, ^questre, ^quinoxe, 
Equitation, Equivalent, Equivoque, examen, exempt, exempter, faix, 


fils, flanc, foyer, franc, fret, fuchsia, fusil, gentilhomme, gentils- 
hommes, ge61ier, g^raniiun^ gigot, Goethe, Gounod, granit, grief, 
gril, guet-apens, guichet, Guizot, haine, hennir, h6ros, hiatus, honte, 
idem, immMiat, in-douze, ineptie, inertie, in-octavo, in-quarto, in- 
stinct, Jeanne, juillet, Lafayette, laudanum, loquace, Madrid, mil- 
lion, mcBurs, Moise, monarchic, Montreal, New-York, omnibus, 
orchestre, os (pi.), persil, plomb, po^le, pr^t^rit, prospectus, qua- 
druple, quai, quatuor, quinine, quotidien, reflux, revolver, rez-de- 
chauss^, rhum, sculpter, Sinai, sourcil, succinct, sud, Suez, suspect, 
toumevis, vermout, vis, vis-^vis, volubilis, Vosges (les), Wagner, 
Weber, zinc. 

Exercise LXVII. Pronounce aloud the following words, in re- 
gard to which there may be a difference of opinion: aspect, but, fat, 
granit, hennir, jadis, legs, imm^diat, nenni, ours, Cadix, subit, exact, 
cresson, fils, h^las, hennissement, joug, linceul, moeurs, obus, p^ril, 
aoulier, soit, fait. 


Arabic numerals refer to the paragraph sections; Roman nmnerala 
to the exercises. As regards quantity, only full length is indicated by 
two dots (0, thus: rouge [ru:3], r&i. It will be remembered (19) 
that a vowel| either nasal or oral, long in the final syllable, as in 
rouge [ru:3], demande [d3ma:d], when occurring in the penult, is 
usually hsdf as long, as in rouigeur [ru'3oe:r], redness; demander 
[dama'de], to ask. Therefore half length is not indicated. 

Variations not noted in the text may frequently be found in the 

abonn^ [abane] n p. 57 xxn 
abord [abair] o 105 
aboyer [abwaje] oy p. 62 xxiv 
Abraham [abraam] am 132 
abricotier [abrikatje] o 109 
abrupt [abrypt] p. 248; < 299 
Abruzze [abry:z] e p. 162 lxv 
Absalom [apsal5] m 236 
absent [apsq] b 170, 246 
absinthe [apse:t] 6 170 
absolument [apsalyma] b 170 
absolution [apsalysja] b 170 
absolvons [apsalv5] & 170 
absoudre [apsu(:)dr] b 170, p.- 98 

abstenir [apstaniir] b 170 


a [a] 22, 24; [a] 28; elision 383, 

k [a] 28, 49 
ft [a] 58, 98 
abbaye [abeQ)i] ay p. 49 xvi, 

p, 162 Lxvi 
abb(l [abe] bb 42, 167, 170 
abbessfe [abes] &6 p. 68 xxvn 
abdomen [abdomen] n 241, p. 

abeille [abeij] e 91; eiZZe 226 
Abenc^rage [abesera:3] en 137 
abime [abi:m] 1 15, 95, p. 37 ix 
abject [ab3£(kt)] t 300, 353 

1 Prepared by the Boston University 1913 Class in PhonettcSt under the general 
direction of Miss Mary Carmel Fox, candidate for the degree of A.M. and especially 
aided by the following candidates for the degree of A.B.: Miss A. M. Gorman, 
MissE. K. Johnston, Miss M. Metcalf, Miss L. M. Palmer, Miss E. M. Robin- 
son. These aids were assisted by Miss A. E. Fisher, A.B., and by the following 
candidates for the degree of A.B.: Miss G. B. Kennedy, Miss C. E; Maoom- 
ber. Miss M. J. Mahoney, Mr. F. B. Mitchell, Miss M. M. Mitchell, Miss E. H. 
Mosher, Mr. F. H. Peterson, Mr. B. Stinchfield, Miss H. L. Stone, Miss M. B. 
Sullivan. Miss J. M. Thomell, Miss M. C. Whitaker, Miss H. A. Williams. 





abstinence [apstina:s] & 170, p. 

98 XLvin 
abstrait [apstre] s 267 
absurde [apsyrd] b 246, p. 98 


Ab]rssinie [abisini] p. 162 lxv 
acad^mie [akademi] c p. 69 

accabler [akable] a 63; cc p. 69 

accapara [akapara] a 52 
accaparer [akapare] cc p. 69 


accelerer [akselere] cc p. 69 xxix 
accent [aksa] 27; cc 176 
accent aigu [aksat egy] t 27, 354 
accent circonflexe [aksa sirko- 

accent grave [aksa gra:v] 28 
accepter [aksepte] cc p. 69 xxix 
acception [aksepsj5] pp. 98 

acc^s [akse] cc p. 69 xxix 
accessit [aksesit] t p. 162 lxvi 
accident [aksida] cc 176, p. 69 

acclama [aklama] a 52 
accolade [akdla(:)d] 419 
accord [akoir] cc 173 
accoter [akote] cc p. 69 xxvin 
accroc [akro] c 180, 340, p. 162 


accueil [akoeij] iieil 226; eu 118, 

127, 327, p. 45 xiii 
accueille [akoeij] tLeille 226 
Achab [akab] h 171, p. 162 lxv; 

ch ISQ 

achat [aSa] a 53 

Acheron [aker5] ch p. 162 lxv 

achMe [aSet] b 87, p. 36 vm 

acheter [aSte] e 70, p. 30 vi 

achMerai [aSetre] ^ 88, p. 36 vin 

ach^ve [aSe:v] e 13 

achever [ajve] cA 40; e p. 30 vi 

Achille [aSil] ch p. 72 xxxn; iU 

232, p. 162 LXV 
acolyte [akolit] c p. 69 xxvm 
aconit [akonit] t 299 
Azores [asoir] p. 162 lxv 
acoustique [akustik] c p. 69 

acquSrir [akeri:r] qu 254 
acquiers [akjeir] r 264 
acquit [aki] qu p. 101 xlix 
&cre [a:kr] re 260 
acteur [aktcBir] c 177 
action [aksj5] on 141; ion 162; 

c 177 
actiiim [aksjam] t 288 
active [aktiiv] vp. 118 lv 
acumin^ [akymine] c p. 69 xxvm 
Adam [ada] am 132, p. 51 xvm, 

p. 162 lxv; m 236 
Adam et Eve [ada e eiv] m 373 
Adda [ada] A p. 74 xxxv 
addenda [addeda] dd 188 
addition [addisj5] dd 188 
additionnel [ad(d)isJ3n8l] d 42 
adducteur [addyktcBir] dd 188 
adduction [addyksj5] dd 188 
H demain [a dme] e 394 
Men [aden] n 241 
ad^quat [adekwa] tea 156 
adequate [adekwat] qu 256 



ad hoc [ad ok] d p. 74 xxxv 

adjoint [adswe] dp. 74 xxxv 

ad libitum [ad libitam] um 145 

admirer [admire] 38 

Adonis [adaniis] 8 274 

ad rem [ad rem] d p. 74 xxxv 

Adriatique [adriatik] p. 162 lxv 

adroite [adrwat] oi 156 

aerer [aere] 36 

aerostat [aerosta] 36 

affaire [afeir] / p. 76 xxxvi 

affut [af y] t 295 

k franc 6trier [a frak etiije] c 

Agpmiemnon [agamemnS] em p. 

162 LXV 
age [ai3] [a:3] d 29 
agenda [aseda] en 137, p. 162 

Lxvi; ge p. 80 xxxrx 
agglomeration [aglomerosjd] gg 

p. 79 xxxvm 
aigglom^rer [aglamere] gg 195 
agglutinative [aglytinatiiv] gg p. 

79 xxxviii 
agglutiner [aglytine] gg 195 
aggrava [agrava] a 52 
aggravation [agravasj5] gg p. 79 

aggraver [agrave] gg 195 
agir [asiir] g 201 
agneau [ajio] p. 18 n, p. 81 xl, 

p. 156 Lxiv 
Agn^s [ajiezs] gn p. 162 lxv 
Agram [agram] am 132 
Agreez mes civilitSs empressSes 

[agree me sivilitez aprese] 430 
Agr^ezj Monsieur, mes cordiales 

salutations [agree, maeJ0, me 
kardjal salytosjS] 428 

AgrSez, Monsieur, mes saluta- 
tions amicales [agree, masje, 
me salytasj5z amikal] 428 

ah [a:] a 63 

aha [aha] h 216 

-ai [e] [e] 82, 84, 90, 122-124, 

-al [e] [e] 84, 90, 122 

aidez-vous les uns aux autres 
[ede vu lez de oz otr] « 370 

-aie [e] 90, 123, 320, 321 

aieul [ajcBl] t p. 60 xxin 

aigle [e(:)gl] le 222 

aigre [e:gr] re 260 

aigreur [egroeir] eu p. 45 xiii 

aigu [egy] [egy] 27, 90; gu p. 79 


aiguS [egy] gueS3;e p. 156 Lxly 
-aiguille [egqi(:)i] [egqi(:)j] ai 
gui 198; uille 226; u p. li 


aiguillon [egqijo] [egqijS] gui 198 
aiguiser [eg(ii)ize] [eg(q)ize] gui 

198; u p. 156 lxiv 
ai-je [e:3] p. 36 viii; e 69 
ai-je raison [8:3 rez5] e 385 
-aU [a:j] a 61; iZ 226, p. 90 



-aim [e] 135 

aimable [ema(:)bl] [ema(!)bl] m 

p. 96 xlvix 
aimables amis [emablz ami] s 331 
aimee [erne] [eme] ^ 89 
aiment [e:m] e 72 



aimer [erne] [erne] 10, p. 18 n; r 

aimer k chanter [emer a Sate] r 

aimes [e:m] e 72 
aimez-U [erne la] a 388 
-ain [e] 135 

ainsi [esi] ain p. 53 xtx 
-air [e:r] ai 84, 123, 321 
-aire [e:r] ai 84, 123, 321 
-ais [e] ai 84, 90, 123, 321 
-aise [e:z] ai 84, 123 
Aisne [e:n] s 272 
-aisse [e:s] ai 84, 123, 321 
-«it [e] 90 

-aix [e] 84, 123, 321 
Aix [eks] [es] x 267, 313 
Aix-la-Chapelle [es la S^pd] x 

267, 313, p. 162 ixv 
Aixjles-Bains [eslebe] x 267, 

Ajacdo [asaksjo] c p. 162 lxv 
Ajax [asaks] x 310 
k jeun [a 3oe] eun 144, p. 56 xxi; 

j p. 86 XLii 
ajonc [a35] c 340, p. 71 xxxi 
k la Momiaie [a la mane] M p. 

153 liXin 
albatros [albatn>:s] 8 275 
Albert Diirer [albeir djreir] r p. 

103 L 
albinos [albinais] s 275 
albmn [albam] u 113, p. 43 xi, 

p. 156 Lxiv; um 145; m 235 
albmnen [albymen] n p. 162 


Alexandre [aleksaidr] a; 310 

Alfred [alf red] d 190 
Alger [alse] r p. 162 ixv 
Alg^rie [alseri] p. 162 lxy 
Alg^siras [alsesirais] a p. 162 

algwazil [algwazil] ua 156; giui 

k llnstruction publique [a les- 

tryksj5 pyblik] / p. 153 uan 
allah [alia] h 209 
a]16e de PObsenratoire [ale dd 

1 opservatwair] O 410 
aU6gori [allegari] U 168 
aU^guer [allege] U 168 
alleluia [alelqija] [alelyja] I p. 

Allemagne [almaji] e 393; p. 156 

lxiv; gm p. 81 XL 
aUemand [abna] e 70; d p. 74 


aller [ale] U 42, 169 

allez [ale] z 318 

Allez-vous-en avec eux [alevuz 

a avek 0] n p. 141 lx 
allier [alje] ie p. 60 xxnr 
allure [alyir] ti p. 46 xv 
almanach [aknana] a 53; c^ 185, 

p. 156 lxiv; h 209; c 340 
alods [alaes] s 275 
alors [alair] o 105 
Alpes [alp] 8 p. 162 lxv 
Alphonse [alf 5is] ph p. 76 xxxvi 
Alsace [alzas] « 271, 319, p. 156 

LXIV, p. 162 LXV 

aluminimn [alyminjam] u 113, 

p. 162 LXVI 
alun [alee] un p. 56 



-am [a] 131; [am] am 132 
amalgama [amalgama] a 52 
amarra [amara] a 52 
amateur [amatoeir] m p. 57 xxn 
Amazone [amazon] [amazom] o 

. ambiguity [abigqite] gul 198 
ambitieux [abisje] t 2S4 
ambulance [abyla:s] am 131 
dme [a:m] 31 ; d p. 25 iv 
amen [amen] [amen] n 241; en p. 

156 Lxrv 
amdnerions [amenrj5] h 88 
amer [ame:r] r 263, p. 156 lxiv 
americain [amenke] ain p. 53 


-dmes [am] d 15, 51, 58 
ameublement [amoeblama] e p. 

amitie [amitje] ii 152; ti 293; m 

p. 94 XLv, p. 96 XLvn 
ammonium [ammanjam] mm 168 
anmistie [amnisti] am 132; m 

amoUir [amaliir] U 169 
amour [amuir] ou 119, p. 45 xiv 
amoureuse [amuroiz] m p. 96 

ample [a:pl] am 131 
Amsterdam [amsterdam] a 54; 

am 132; m 235 
amuse [amy:z] u 121 
amuser [amyze] 8 319 
an [a] n p. 96 XLvn 
-an [a] 131, 161; [an] 146 
anabaptiste [anabatist] a p. 152 


anachordte [anakoret] ch p. 73 


ananas [anana] [anana] p. 18 n; 

n p. 57 xxn; « p. 162 ixvi 
anatomie [anatami] n p. 96 XLvn 
ancien [osje] an 45, 131; ien 162; 

en p. 53 xix 
andenne prison d'£tat [osjen 

priz5 d eta] 6 p. 153 Lxni 
ancien tribunal de Paris [osje 

tribynal da pari] P p. 153 

ftne [am] n 4, 239, p. 96 XLvn; e 

an^antie [aneati] tie 292 
k neuf heures pr6cises [a noev 

oeir presiiz] / p. 141 lix 
ang61us [aselyis] s 275; 4, s p. 162 


anglais [agle] ai p. 49 xvi 

angle [a:gl] g 195 

Angleterre [agbte:r] e 71, 393, p. 

30 V, p. 156 LXIV 
anguille [agi(:)j] gu 195, p. 79 

xxxvin; iU 226, p. 156 lxiv 
anil [anU] U 229; I 344 
animal [animal] n 239; p. 18 

anjou [a3u] j p. 86 xlh 
Anna [ana] a 54; n p. 57 xxn 
annales [a(n)nal] nn 168, 239; n 

p. 57 xxn 
annaliste [annalist] nn 168 
anneau [ano] nn 169, 239 
annSe [ane] nn 146, 169 
annee courante [ane kurait] p. 

161 XIV 



Annibal [anibal] nn p. 96 xlvi 
annonce [anSis] on 141 
annoter [anote] n p. 57 xxn 
annuaire [anqeir] tia p. 64 xxv 
annuel [anqel] n p. 57 xxn; ue .. 

p. 64 xxv 
anse [ais] an p. 56 xxi B; 8 p. 

108 LI 
ant^hrist [dtekri] [atekrist] 8 

antienne [atjen] ti 294 
Antiochus [atjokyis] ch 186 
antipathic [atipati] ^^ p. 117 ui; 

h p. 162 Lxvi 
antiquaille [atikaij] qu 254 
antiseptique [atiseptik] 8 269 
antisocial [atisasjal] 8 269 
Anvers [aveir] r 264 
aoiit [u] [ut] [au] [aut] a 57; oti p. 

45 xiv; a, t p. 117 liv; p. 156 

LXIV, p. 162 LXVI 

apaiser [apeze] s 319 

k part elle et vous [a pa:r el e vu] 

apatiiie [apati] ^^ p. 117 lh 
Apennins (les) [apene] en p. 162 


aper^u [apersy] f p. 69 xxix 
aplatie [aplati] t 281 
aplomb [aplo] b 339 
apoplexie [apapleksi] p p. 98 

apostrophe [apastrof] 31 
appartement [apartama] e 393 
appeler [aple] e 46, 70, p. 30 vi 
appendice [apadis] [apedis] en 

137, p. 156 LXIV 

app^tit [apeti] pp 245; t p. 117 


appr^te [apreit] 6 85 
appr^ter [aprete] 6 86 
_appuyer [apijije] uy 159, p. 64 
&pret6 [apFdte] e 71 
apte [apt] p p. 98 XLvni; t p. 117 


aquarelle [akwarel] ua 156, p. 62 
xxiv; qu 256; u p. 162 lxvi 
aquarelliste [akwareUst] qu p. 

101 XLIX 

aquarium [akwarjam] u 113, p. 

162 Lxvi; ua 156; qu 256 
aquatinta [akwateta] qu p. 101 


aquatique [akwatik] ua 156, p. 62 

xxiv; qu 256 
aqueduc [aksdyk] e 71; c 178, 

A quia [a kqia] qu p. 101 xlix 
aquilin [akile] qu 254 
aquilon [akil5] qu 254 
Aranjuez [arasqes] z p. 122 lviii 
arbre [arbr(8)] e 69; re 260 
arc [ark] c 178, 340, 341 
.f aro-boutant [arbuta] c p. 71 xxxi 
arc-en-ciel [ark a sjel] 34; c 333 
archalque [arkaik] c^ p. 73 xxxm 
Archambauld [arSabo] d p. 74 

archange [arkazs] ch p. 156 lxtv 
arch^ologie [arkeabsi] ch p. 162 


archSologue [arkeolo(i)g]cAp. 73 



archev§ch6 [arSaveSe] ch 184 
archevSque [arSaveik] ch 184 
archi- [arji] ch 183 
archidiacre [arSidjakr] ch 183 
archiduc [arSidyk] ch 183 
archiduch^ [arJidySe] ch p. 72 


archiduchesse [arJidySes] ch p. 72 


ju-chi^piscopal [arkiepiskapal] cA 

V archi^piscopat [arkiepiskapa] ch 

archifoUe [arSifol] ch p. 72 xxxn 
archifou [arSifu] c/i 183 
archipel [arSipel] ch 183 
archiprStre [arjiprcitr] ch 183 
architecte [arSitekt] ch 183 
architecture [arSitektyir] ch p. 72 


architrave [arSitraiv] cA p. 72 


archives [arSiiv] ch p. 72 xxxn 
archiviste [arSivist] ch p. 72 


archonte [ark5:t] ch p. 73 xxxiu 
arcs-en-ciel [ark a sjel] s 367, p. 

141 LX 

-ard [air] 356, 364, 380 
ardemment [ardama] e 55; em 

argu&mes [argqam] ud 160 

arguer [argqe] gu 197 
argutie [argysi] t 281 
aride [arid] r 259 
aristocratie [anstokrasi] t 281, p. 
162 Lxvi 

Aristophane [aristafan] p. 162 


Aristote [aristot] o p. 162 lxv 
arithmStique [aritmetik] h 209 
Amaud [amo] d p. 74 xxxiv 
Amauld [amo] I 223 
Arnold [amold] d p. 74 xxxv 
arome [aroim] o 111 
arquebuse [arkabyiz] 6 71 
arrangeons [ara35] ge p. 80 


Arras [ara:s] s 274 
arri^re [arjeir] rr 169; r p. 103 l 
arrive [ariiv] i 12 
arrive [arive] rr 169 
arriver [arive] rr 167 
arrondir [arSdiir] n p. 96 XLvn 
arroser [aroze] rr 169 
arsenic [ars(8)ni(k)] k 181 
art [air] ^ p. 117 liv 
-art [air] t 356, 380 
artichaut [artijo] au p. 49 xvi 
as [ais] a 60; 8 275, p. 162 lxvi 
asbeste [azbest] s 271 
Asdrubal [azdrybal] 8 271 
-ase [aiz] a 60 
Asie [azi] s 319, p. 156 lxtv, p. 

162 LXV 
-asion [azjo] a 60 
Asni^res [anjeir] s 272 
aspect [aspe(k)] 6 92; ed 353, p. 

156 ixiv; c p. 71 xxxi; t 300, 

p. 163 Lxvii 
aspect admirable [aspek admi- 

rabl] [aspe admirabl] ect 353 
assassinat [asasina] s p. 108 li 
-asse [ais] a 60 




assemblant [asabla] em, an p. 51 


asseyez [aseje] ey 90, 125, 159, 

p. 49 XVI 
asseyez-vous [aseje vu] ey 323, 

p. 36 vin 
assez [ase] s 42; e 80; z 318; ss 

267, 329; e p. 32 vn 
assez aimable [asez emabl] z 

assieds [asje] e p. 32 vn 
-assion [osjS] a 60 
assomption [as5psj5] p 248 
aster [aste:r] r 263 
ast6risque [asterisk] 419 
asfhme [asm] [azm] t 301 
-M [a] d 51, 58; t 356, 380 
ataqua [ataka] a 52 
atelier [atalje] e 71, p. 30 v 
-fttes [at] d 15, 51, 58 
ath^e [ate] ^^ p. 156 Lxrv 
Ath^nes [ate:n] h p. 162 unr 
athenien [atenje] th 40 
-atie [asi] t 281 
-ation [asj5] a 60 
Atlantique [atlatik] p. 162 ucv 
atlas [atlaCOs] a 60, p. 156 Lxrv; 

8 275 
atmosphere [atmasfeir] 44 
atome [atom] [ato:m] o 111, p. 

156 LXiv 
*atone [aton] [atom] o 111 
A-t-on-St^ aimable [a 1 5 ete 

ema(i)bl] n p. 141 lx 
k tort et H travers [a toir e a tra- 

veir] t 356 
attaque [atak] p. 18 ii 

Attendez mi instant [atadez den 

esta] z, n p. 141 lex 
-«u [o] 97, 102, 112, 126, 320, 

324; before r etc. [o] 104, 112, 

126, 320, 325 
aube [o!b] au 102 
Auber [oben-] r 263, p. 104 l 
au botit [o bu] otx p. 46 xiv 
Auch [oS] Au 112 
aucun [ok&] un 144 
auctin ouvrage [okden uvrais] n 

au-dessus [o dsy] e 394 
audience [odja:s] ien p. 65 xxvi 
au doigt et k Poeil [o dwat e a 

1 oe:j] t 354 
auguste [ogyst] [og3rst] au 112 
aujourdliui [o5urd qi] 387 
-auld [o] I 223 
-ault [o] 1 223 
-aubc [o] I 223 
au moins [omwe] oin p. 65 


aumdne [oman] [omom] d 111 
aurai [ore] [ore] au 112, 126, p. 

43 xi; au, ai p. 49 xvi 
aurais [ore] [ore] au 112, 126, p. 

43 xi; au, ai p. 49 xvi 
aureole [oreol] [oreol] ati 112; au, 

op. 43 XI 
auront [or5] [orS] r 259 
aurore [oroir] au p. 49 xvi 
Australie [ostrali] au p. 162 lxv 
aussi [osi] au 102, 126, 324 
Austerlitz [osterlits] z 319 
autel [otel] au 102, p. 39 x 
auto- [oto] au 109, 112 



autocratie [atokrasi] aUy t p. 156 

autographe [atograf] au p. 156 

automate [atomat] au p. 156 

automnal [otonal] [atonal] om 

143; m 234 
automne [otan] [atan] om 143; 

m 237; au, m p. 156 lxiv 
automobile [atamabil] [otamabil] 

o 109; au 112; o p. 43 xi 
autorite [atarite] [otarite] au 112 
autrefois [otrafwa] e 71, 393, p. 

30 V 
autrement [otrama] e 71 
Autiiche [otriS] au p. 162 ucv 
Autun [otde] un p. 56 xxi B 
aux [o] 102; x 315 
aux annes [oz ann] x 372 
Auxerre [aseir] [osezr] Au^ll2; 

X 267, 313, p. 156 lxiv 
auxerrois [oserwa] ^ 267 
aux habits [oz abi] h 208 
aux haricots [o ariko] h 210 
aux hdros [o ero] h 210 
aux heures [oz oezr] h 208 
aux hommes [oz am] h 208 
Auxois [oswa] x 267, 313 
Auxomie [osan] [asan] x 267, 313 
aux soins de [o swe da] 423 
avant J^sus-Christ [ava 3ezy kri] 

p. 161 XIV 
avec [avek] e 91, p. 36 vin; c 165, 

p. 70 XXX 
avec le chien t&vek la Si^] ^ 


Avenue de POp^ra [avny da 

1 apera] O 410 
Avenue des Champs-£lysSes 

[avny de Sazelize] C, 6 410 
avertie [averti] t 281 
aveugle [avoegl] eu 127, 327, p. 

45 xm, p. 49 xvi 
avez-vous [ave vu] 34 
avions [avjS] ion p. 65 xxvi 
avoir [avwair] 78, 112, 116, 126 
k votre aise [a vatr eiz] e 73 
A vous de tout coeur [a vu da tu 

kcBir] 427 
avril [avril] [avriij] [avri] U 228; I 

p. 156 Lxrv 
-«y [e] [e] 84, 90, 122-124; 225; 

ayant [eja] [eja] ay p. 156 lxiv 
ayez [eje] [eje] ay 124, 322, p. 

156 LXIV 
ayons [ej5] [8J5] ay 124, 322 
-azon [az5] a 60 
azur [azy!r] li p. 46 xv 
azur6 [azyre] z 316 


b [be] [ba] 22, 24; final [b] 165, 
171, 338, 339, 342; [p] 170, 
246; silent 172 
baba [baba] a p. 21 m; & p. 68 

babel [babel] & p. 68 xxvn 
babiche [babiS] 6 p. 68 xxvii 
babil [babil] [babiij] [babi] U 228 
babiller [babije] & p. 68 xxvn 
babine [babin] & p. 68 xxvn 



tuibouin [babwe] ouin 162 
Babylone [babilon] o 111 
bac [bak] a 54; c 178, 340, 341 
Bacchus [bakkyis] ch p. 73 xxxin 
Bade [bad] a p. 162 lxv 
bafouer [bafwe] oue 156, p. 62 


Bagdad [bagdad] d p. 74 xxxv 

bagne [baji] gn 207 

baie [be] aie 90 

baignoire [bejiwazr] gm p. 81 xl 

bail [ba!j] aU 226; U 329 

bailie [ba:j] a 64 

bain [be] ain p. 56 xxi B 

balonette ^ [bajonet] to p. 60 

XXIII ; p. 156 LXiv 
bal [bal] 1 165 
balai [bale] ai 90 
balbutiement [balbysima] ti 293 
balbutier [balbysje] ti 293; 6 p. 

68 xxvii; t p. 117 lhi, p. 156 


Bile [bail] d p. 162 lxv 
baleine [bale(!)n] ei 90, 125, 323 
ballast [balast] t 297 
balsamine [balzamin] s 271 
balsamique [balzamik] 5 271 
bambou [babu] h p. 68 xxvii 
ban [ba] an p. 56 xxi B 
banane [banan] n p. 96 xlvii 
banc [ba] an 131; c 340 
banc k dos [ba a do] c 340 
bande [baid] an p. 56 xxi B 
banlieu [bal jo] eu p. 49 xvi 
banquet [bake] t 295 
bapt§me [bateim] p 247, p. 156 


baptiser [batize] p 247, p. 156 


Baptiste [batist] p 247, p. 162 


baptistdre [batisteir] p 247 
baquets [bake] e 92 
baragouin [baragwe] ouin 162 
barbare [barbazr] & p. 68 xxvu; 

r p. 104 L 
barbe [barb(8)] a p. 21 iii; e 69 
barbier [barbje] 6 p. 68 xxvn 
barbouiller [barbuje] HI p, 90 


Barcelone [barsabn] o p. 162 


baril [ban] a 230; I 344, p. 156 


Bar-le-Duc [bairlodyk] B, D 

barridre de P£toile [barjezr da 

1 etwal] S 410 
Barth^lemy [bartelmi] e p. 162 


Baruch [baryk] ch p. 73 xxxm 
bas [ba] a 59; s 273 
base [ba:z] a 60; s p. 109 u 
bas-relief [baraljef] / p. 162 


basse [bais] a 60 

bastion [bast j 5] ti 290 

bat [ba] d 58 

bataille [bata(0j] [bata(:)j] e 46, 

a 61, p. 25 iv; aiUe 155, 226; 

itt p. 90 xuv; p. 156 lxiv 
bataillon [batajd] iU 155 
batelier [batalje] e 71 
battu [baty] » 42 



bavarda [bavarda] a 52 
Bayard [bajair] a p. 162 lxvi; d 

p. 74 XXXIV 
Bayeux [baJ0] y 154 
bayonette [bajonetl a p. 162 


Bayonne [bajon] a p. 162 lxvi; 

y 154 
bazar [bazair] z 316 
bb [b] 42, 168, 170 
Beatrice [beatris] p. 162 lxv 
Beatrix [beatris] x 267, 313, p. 

162 LXV 
beau [bo] au 102, 126, 324 
beaucoup [boku] p 249 
beaucoup aim6 [bokup erne] p 

336, p. 141 LEX 
beaucoup de monde [boku d 

mSid] e 73 
beaucoup 6tudi6 [bokup etydje] 

beau-frire [bo freir] 34 
Beatunarchais [bomarje] au, ai 

p. 49 XVI 
b6b6 [bebe] 6 p. 68 xxvii 
bee [bek] e 91; c 178, 340, 341 
bees Auer [bek oeir] 8 367, p. 141 


bedeau [bado] e p. 30 v 
bedouin [bedwe] ouin p. 65 xxvi 
Beethoven [betoven] en 133, 241 
b^gayer [begeje] ay p. 49 xvi 
b^guin [bege] gu 195 
bel [bel]e91;Z221 
bSle [beil] i 85 
beler [bele] ^ 86 
Belfort [befoir] Z 223 

bel homme [bel om] 2 344 

belle [bel] e 46, 91 

Belt [belt] t 299 

Bengale [begal] en 137, p. 156 

LXIV, p. 162 LXV 

bengali [begali] en 137 
Benjamin [besame] en 137, p. 

162 LXV 
benzine [bezin] en 137, p. 156 


B6otien [beosje] [beosje] 1 286 
b^quille [beki:j] iZZ 226 
b^quilles [beki(:)j] Hip. 90 xliv 
Beranger [berase] r 262 
berceuse [bers0:z] et^ p. 44 xn 
-berg [beir] in proper names 
(> 205 

berger [berse] e 91; r 262 
bergers [berse] r 262 
Berlin [berle] p. 162 lxv 
Berlioz [berljoiz] z 319 
Bernard [bemair] r p. 104 l 
Bertbauld [berto] d p. 74 xxxrv 
b^ryl [beril] iZ 229 
besoin [bazwe] oin 162, p. 65 


bestiaire [bestjeir] iai p. 60 xxm 
bestial [bestjal] t 290 
b^tail [betaij] a 61, iZ p. 90 xltv 
bSte [belt] i 85 
Bethl^em [betleem] m 235 
beurre [bceir] cw 118 
bey [be] 6 p. 152 Lxni 
Biarritz [bjarits] z 319 
bibelot [biblo] 6 p. 68 xxvii 
biblioth§que de Paris [biblio- 
te(i)k da pari] P p. 153 Lxni 



biceps [biseps] a p. lOS li 

bien [bje] en p. 53 xix; ie 4, p. 

60 xxin; ien 162 
bien aimable [bjen emabl] n 375 
Bien k vous [bjen a vu] 427 
-bien ennuyeuz [bjen anqe] n p. 

141 ox 
bien heureuz [bjen oero] n 375 
biSre [bjeir] 6 p. 68 xxvn 
bidre de Munich [bje:r da mynik] 

6 394 
biffer [bife] / p. 76 xxxvi 
bifteck [biftek] k 218 
bijou [bi3u] om p. 45 xrv 
biUet [bi(i)je] itt p. 90 xliv; t p. 

117 LIV 

billeves^e [bilvaze] iU p. 156 lxiv 
biUion [bi(l)j5] t72 232 
binde [beid] in p. 56 xxi B 
bis [biis] 8 275, p. 162 lxvi 
bise [bi:zl 8 p. 109 li 
bismuth [bismyt] th 299 
bisulfate [bizylf at] 8 269 
bivouac [bivwak] oua 156; c p. 

70 XXX 
blAme [blaim] d 58, p. 25 iv 
blanc [bla] c 179; an p. 51 xvin 
blanche [blazS] an p. 51 xvni 
blason [blozS] a 60 
blSme [bleim] ^ 15 
bleu [bl0] 62^ 114 
' bleu&tre [bleaitr] eull4: 
bleuet [bl0c] ew 114 
bloc [bbk] c 178, 340, 341; o 105, 

p. 43 xi; c p. 156 lxiv 
bloc §nonne [bbk enarm] c p. 

141 LK 

blocus [bbkyzs] 8 275, p. 162 


blond [bl5] on 4 

blonde [bbid] on 141 

blouse [blu:z] ou p. 45 xrv; 8 p. 

109 LI 
bobine [bobin] 6 p. 68 xxvn 
bobo [bobo] & p. 68 xxvn 
bcBuf [beef] 0? 118, 127, 327; / 

192, p. 156 Lxrv 
Ixsuf k la mode [boef a la mod] / 

p. 76 XXXVI 
boeufs [bo] eu 114;/ 193, p. 156 


boire [bwair] oi 56 

bois [bwa] ot 62, 156, p. 62 xxrv 

bois6 [bwaze] oi 64 

boit [bwa] oi 56 

bolte [bwait] [bwait] oi 156, p. 21 

bol [bal] Z p. 87 xun 
bombe [bSzb] & p. 68 xxvn 
bon [b5] on p. 56 xxi B; n p. 96 


bon ami [b5n ami] n 375 

bon H lien [b5n a rje] [ban a rjc] 

47; n 337 
bonde [baid] on p. 56 xxi B 
bon enfant [b5n afa] n 375 
bonheur [bonoezr] o 109; eu p. 45 

bonne [bon] o 107, p. 43 xi; nn 

146, p. 96 xLvn 
bonnement [banma] e 70 
bon sens [b5 sais] 8 p. 157 Lxrv 
bontg [b5te] 10; on p. 55 
borax [baraks] x 310 



bord [boirl d 189; r 166; o p. 43 


bord k bord [b9:r a bo:r] d 380 
Bordeaux est une belle ville 
[bordoetyn bel vil] x p. 141 lx 
^Bossuet [bosqe] ue 159, p. 156 


bouc [buk] <m 119; c 178, 340, 

bouche [buj] ou 119 
boucher [buSe] r 262 
boucle [bukl] Ze 222 
bouddhisme [budism] [budizm] 

6 p. 152 liXiii 
boueuz [bw0] ouett 156 
bougie [busi] gr 201 
boulevard Montpamasse [bul- 

va:r mSpamas] M 410 
Boulogne [buloji] ^ p. 162 lxv 
bourg [bu:r] [burik] jf 205, 365, 

p. 162 liXVi 
-bourg [busr] in proper names 

BourgeS) le 11 mai 1909 [burs, b 

5!z me diz noef sa noef] 425 
bourgmestre [burgmestr] g p. 

bout [bu] 6 4, 170; ow 128, 328 
bout k bout [but a bu] 47; ^ 354 
bouteille [bute:j] i22 p. 90 xliv 
bouvreuil [buvrceij] iZ p. 90 


brancard [brokair] r p. 104 l 
bras [bra] a 59; a 273 
bravo [bravo] o 99, p. 39 x 
brebis [brab^ & p. 68 xxvii 
bredouiller [brdduje] iU p. 90 xliv 

bref [bref] / 191 

Br^sil [brezil] I p. 162 lxv 

Brest [brest] t 297 

Bretagne (la) [brataji] .gn p. 162 

brief [brief] / 192 
briguer [brige] gu 195 
broc [bro] c 180, p. 156 Lxrv 
brocard [brokair] r p. 104 l 
brodeuse [brodeiz] et^ p. 44 xn 
^ Broglie [broja] g 204 
brosse [bros] o 107, p. 43 xi 
brouillard [bruja:r] iZZ p. 90 xltv 
brouter [brute] ou p. 49 xvi 
bruine [brqin] ui p. 64 xxv 
bruire [brqiir] ui p. 64 xxv 
brun [brde] un 144, p. 56 xxi; n 

p. 96 XLVii 
_ brune [bryn] n p. 96 XLvn 
Brunswick [brosvik] un 142; w 

brusquerie [bryskari] e 393 
brut [bryt] ^ 298, p. 117 lii 
Bruxelles [brysel] x 267, 313, p. 

121 Lvn, p. 156 LXIV, p. 162 


Bruxelles, ce 13 f^vrier 1908 
[brysel, sa treiz fevrie diz ncBf 
sa qit] 425 
bruxellois [bryselwa] x 267 
bubon [bybo] 6 p. 68 xxvii 
'^uenos-Ayres [bqenoz eir] p. 162 


-.buis [bqi] u 158; ui 160, p. 64 
bulletin [bylte] e 70, 393, p. 30 




Bulletin des lois [bylte de Iwa] B 

Buloz [bybiz] z 319 
bun [bee] un p. 56 xxi B 
bunde [boeid] un p. 56 xxi B 
but [by(t)] « 298, 300; li 121; < p. 



c [se] [sa] [ka] 22, 24; 91; 110; 127; 
300; [k] [s] 165, 173-175, 177, 
178, 181, 219, 255, 267, 311, 
340; 341; [g] 174; silent 164, 
175 Remark, 179-181 

S [s] 176, 267 

^ [sa] d 28, 50 

cab [kab] h 171 

cAble [kaibl] d p. 25 rvr 

cacao [kakao] c p. 69 xxvui 

cache [kaSl ch 182 

cachot [kajo] o 99 

cadavre [kadavr] [kadavr] a 64 

cadeau [kado] au 126, p. 49 xvi; 

Cadix [kadis] [kadiks] x 267, 313, 
p. 162 liXVi, p. 163 Lxvn 

cadre P^a:dr] a 63 

caduc [kadyk] c 255 

caduque [kadyk] qu 255 

Caen [ka] a 57; e p. 162 Lxv 

cage [ka!3] ^ ^9 

cahier [kaje] e 80; ^ 209 

cahiers [kaje] e 80, p. 32 vn 

caille [kaCOj] iZZ p. 90 xliv 

Cain [kae] p. 162 lxv 

Caire (le) Pceir] ai p. 162 lxv 

Calabre (la) [kalabr] p. 162 lxv 
calamity [kalamite] m p. 96 

calcium [kalsjom] u p. 162 unn 
calcul [kalkyl] 2 221; u p. 46 


Caleb [kaleb] & 171 

cale^on [kals5] 46 

calembour [kalabun-] m p. 96 

calfeutre [kalfeitr] eu p. 44 xn 
calice [kalis] c p. 69 xxvm 
calife Pudif] c p. 152 liXm 
c&liner Praline] n p. 96 xlvi 
calme Pcalm] a 54 
calomnie [kabmni] om 143; m 

234, p. 94 XLV 
calvitie [kalvisi] t 281, p. 156 

camarade Pcamara(!)d] e 69 
camaraderie [kamaradri] p. 18 n 
Camille Puuni:]] iU p. 162 iixv 
Camoens Puiinoe:s] s p. 162 


camp [ka] am p. 51 xvm, p. 56 

campagne [kapaji] gn 207, p. 162 


campe [kazp] am p. 56 xxi B 
campement Pcapma] am 131 
Canada [kanada] p. 18 n 
canaille [kana(!)j] t22 p. 60 xxm 
canal Pcanall p. 18 n 
cancan Pcaka] an p. 51 xvm 
cancer P^oseir] r 263 
canif [kanif] / 192 
canne [kan] o 54; n p. 57.xxn 



cantaloup [koitalu] p 249, p. 162 


cantique Pcatik] c p. 69 xxviii 
.^caoutchouc [kautSu] c 180, 340; 
tf c p. 162 liXVi 
cap [kap] a 54; p, 245, 250 p. 162 


Capetien Pcapesje] t 286 
capitaine Pi:apiten] ai p. 156 


capital P^pital] p. 18 n, p. 161 

captieuz P^apsje] t 284; p p. 98 

car [ka(i)r] c 4, 173; o 54; r 165 
carat [kara] t p. 117 uv 
carbone [karbon] P^arbom] o 111 
cardme [kar8:m] ^ 85, p. 36 vin 
caricature [karikaty:r] c p. 69 

Carlsbad [karlsbad] d p. 74 xxxv 
carme [kann] c p. 152 ixm 
camaval [kamaval] n p. 96 xlvi 
carr^ [kare] rr 169 
carrefour de PAbattoir P^aifuu: 

d9 1 abatwair] A 410 
carte [kart] r p. 104 l 
cas [ka] a 59; 8 273 
case [kaiz] a 60 
cassation P^asasj5] 8 p. 108 u 
casse P^a:s] a 60 
casser [kase] 88 167, 267 
cassis [kasis] 8 275 
Castille (la) [kastiij] iU p. 162 


cataracte Pcatarakt] p. 18 n 
cath6drale [katedral] h 209 

cathollcisme [katolisism] Pi:ato- 

lisizm] c 399 
catholique [katolik] c 399 
Caucase (le) [kokaiz] c p. 69 

xxviii; a p. 162 lxv 
cauchemar [koSmair] [koSmair] 

au, e p. 156 lxiv 
causerie [kozri] e 70, 393, p. 30 


caustique [kostik] c p. 69 xxvin 
caution [kosj5] au 102 
cave [kaiv] a 13 
Cayenne [kajen] ay p. 162 lxv 
_ffa y est [sa j e] y 153 
cc [k] 173, 176, 219; [ks] 176 
ce M e 66; c 267; 383, 385, 425 
ce bien est k mon frdre [s9 bje et 

a m5 freir] n 377 
ceci [sasi] c 267, p. 69 xxix 
c^dt^ [sesite] c 175 
c^de [s8(0d] h 87 
c^derai [sedre] 6 88 
c^dille [sedizj] 32 
ceinture [setyir] ein 135 
cela [s(a)la] c p. 69 xxix 
cela m'est ^gal [sala m et egal] t 

cdle [sel] h 87 
c^l^br^ [selebre] S 79 
cllerai [sehe] h 88 
celle [sel] e 91 
cellule [selyl] I p. 87 xun 
ce mus6e s'appelle le Mus^e [sa 

myze s apel la myze] M p. 153 

cens [sa!s] s 275 
cent [sa] c 267; p. 69 xxix 



centaure [satoir] au 112 
centidme [satjem] ti 293, p. 117 

centidmement [satjcmma] ti 293 
centime [satim] p. 161 XIV 
centimdtre [satime(:)tr] p. 161 

cent neuf hibouz [sa noev ibu] / 

p. 76 XXXVII 
cent onze [sa oiz] t 355 
centre [sditr] re 260; en p. 51 

cent un [sa de] £ 301, 355, 371, p. 

156 Lxrv 
cep [sep] p 250 
ce palais de justice s'appelle le 

Palais de justice [s9 pale da 

5ystis s apel b pale da 3ystis] 

P p. 153 Lxin 
cerder [serkle] 38 
cercueil [serkoeij] iZ p. 90 xuv 
cerf [seir] / 193 
cerfs [seir]/ 193 
cerf-volant [servola]/ 193, p. 162 


cerise [sariiz] s 268 

cerisier [sarizje] te p. 60 xxm 

certain [serte] c p. 69 xxix 

ces [se] [se] e 93 

Cesar [sesair] r p. 162 lxv 

cession [sesj5] c 175 

c'est [s e] 384 

c'est k dire [s et a di:r] p. 161 

c*est aujourdliui lundi le dix 

ao6t [s et osurdqi loedi la dis u] 

I, a 398 

c'est bon k numger [se bo a 

mase] n 378 
c*est le huit [s e la qit] e p. 141 


c'est le six [s e la sis] x p. 122 

c'est un enfant tr^s 6yeill6 [s et 
den afa tres eveje] t, n, s p. 141 

c'est un franc ^tourdi [s et db frak 
eturdi] tj c p. 141 lix 

ce temple des protestants s'ap- 
pelle le Temple des protes- 
tants [sa taipl de protesta s apel 
la taipl de pratesta] T p. 153 

cet hdtel de ville s'appelle l'H6- 
tel de ville [set atel da vil 
B apel 1 atel da vil] H p. 153 


cette fen^tre [set faneitr] e 394 
cette petite [set patit] e 394 
cette phrase est facile k lire et k 

comprendre [set fraiz e fasil a 

li:r e a kopraidr] e 395 
cette prison militaire s'appelle 

la Prison militaire [set priza 

milite:r s apel la priza inilite:r] 

P p. 153 Lxin 
ceux [s0] eu 114, p. 44 xn; x 315 
Ce vendredi matin [sa vadradi 

mate] 425 
Ceylan [sela] y p. 162 lxv 
ch [k] 185, 186, 219; [S] 182-184, 

329; silent 185 
chacun [Sakde] un 144, p. 56 




chaine [Sem] at p. 36 vm, p. 49 


chair Beir] ai 84, 123, 321 
chaise [Seiz] ai, S4, 123, 321; s p. 

109 LI 
Chald^e [kalde] cA p. 73 xxxm 
Chdlons [Sal5] on p. 55 xx 
Cham P^am] chp*73 xxxni 
Chamb^ry Baberi] p. 162 lxv 
chambre [Sa:br] am 131; ch 182 
chamelier [Samalje] e 71 
champ [Sa] am p. 51 xvin; ch p. 

72 xxxn 
champagne [Sapaji] am 131; gn 

207 J p. 162 LXV 
champs [Sa] ps 164 
Chanaan [kanaa] ch p. 73 xxxm 
chancelier [Sosalje] e 71, p. 30 v 
changeant [Sasa] an p. 51 xvm 
changement [Sasma] ge p. 80 


chanson [Sas5] on 141 
chant [Sa] ch p. 72 xxxn 
chantais [Sate] ai 84, 123 
chantait [Sate] ait p. 36 vm 
Chanteclair [Jatklezr] e p. 162 


chanter [S&te] an p. 51 xvin 
chantier [Satje] ti 293 
chaos [kao] ch 186; s p. 162 lxvi 
chaotique [kaotik] ch p. 73 xxxin 
chapelier [Saplje] 46; e 71, p. 30 v 
chaperon [Sapr5] 46 
charg6e [Sarse] 423 
chargera [Sarsara] e p. 30 v 
Charlemagne [Sarlamap] e 71, p. 
30 V, p. 162 lxv; ^ p. 81 xl 

Charles [Sari] s p. 162 lxv 
Charles-Quint [Sarb ke] e 71; qu 

Charon [kar5] ch, a p. 162 lxv 
charpentier [Sarpatje] ti 293 
chars k bancs [Sar a ba] s 367 
Chartres [Sartr] r p. 104 l 
chartreuz [Sartre] c p. 152 Lxm 
Charybde Pcaribd] ch p. 73 

xxxiii, p. 162 LXV 
Chasles [Sail] s 272 
chasse [Sas] a 65; cA 182, 329, p. 

72 xxxii 
chastet6 [Sastate] e 71 
chat [{a] ch 4, 182; a p. 21 m 
chat-huant [Sa qa] ^ p. 162 lxvi 
ch&tier [Satje] ^ 281; ^i 293 
chaud [So] d 189 
chauss^e des Minimes [Sose de 

minim]. M 410 
chef [Sef ] e 91 ; / 165, 192, p. 156 


chef-d'cBuvre [Se d oeivr] / 193, p. 

156 LXIV 
chef-lieu [Sef IJ0] / p. 76 xxxvi, 

p. 162 LXVI 
chemin [S(a)me] 10 
ch§ne [Sein] S p. 36 vin 
chenil [Sani] I 344 
chenille [Saniij] iU p. 90 xliv 
Cheops [keops] ch p. 73 xxxin 
Cher [Se:r] e 91; r 263, p. 156 


Cherbourg [Serbuir] g 205, p. 162 


ch^re [Seir] 426 

Cher Georges [Se:r sors] 426 



Cher Monsieur [Se:r masje] 426 
Cher Monsieur Belisle [Seir 

m3sJ0 beliCOl] 426 
ch^rubin [Jerybe] ch 184 
ch^tive [Setiiv] i 94 
cheval [Saval] a 54; Z 221 
chevalier [S(9)valje] ch p. 72 

cheval ombrageuz [Saval 5bra30] 

I p. 141 LIX 
chevauz [Save] [S(9)vo] x 315; au 

p. 39 X 
cheville [Saviij] iUp.90 xliv 
chdvre [Seivr] b 87 
Chez Re] e 80, p. 32 vn; 423 
chez euz [Jez 0] z 335, 358 
chien [Sje] en p. 53 xix; ie p. 60 

XXIII ; ch p. 72 xxxii 
chiens [SJe] en 135 
ChiU (le) [SiK] ch p. 72 xxxn; p. 

162 Lxv 
chimire [Simeir] ch p. 72 xxxn 
chimie [Simi] ch 184 
Chine [Si(i)n] ch 182 
chirologie [kirobsi] ch p. 73 


chiromancie [kiromasi] ch p. 73 

XXXIII, p. 162 Lxvi 
chirurgie [Siryrsi] ch p. 72 xxxn 
chirurgien [Siryrsje] ch 184 
choc Rok] c 178, 340, 341 
choeur [koeir] ch 186;^et^ p. 45 xin 

CBU p. 49 XVI 
Choisy-le-Roy [Jwazi la rwa] C, 

cholera [kolera] ch p. 73 xxxni 
chdme [Soim] 6 97 

ch6mer [Some] 6 98 
choquer [Sake] ch p. 72 
chorus [karyzs] s 275 
chose [So:z] o 101, p. 39 x; ch 

chou [Su] ou p. 45 xrv 
chouan [Swa] ouan p. 65 xxvi 
chouette [Swet] aue 156 
chouz [Su] X 315 
chrestomafhie [krestomati] t, Ih 

p. 117 Ln 
Chretien [kretje] ch 185; ti 294; t 

p. 117 Ln; en p. 162 urv 
chr^tienne [kretjen] ti 294 
chretient6 [kretjete] ien p. 65 


Christ [krist] ch 185; t 297, 301; 

st p. 156 Lxrv; t p. 117 ui 
christianisme [kristjanism] [kris- 

tjanizm] c 399 
Christiansand [kristjasa!d] d p. 

74 XXXV 
Christiansfeld [kristjasfeld] d p. 

74 XXXV 
Christophe Colomb [kristaf kal5] 

6 339 
chronique [kranik] ch p. 73 

chronologie Pax)nob3i] ch 185 
chrysanthlme [krizatean] ch 185; 

h p. 162 LXVI 
chuchoter [SySote] ch p. 72 xxxn 
xhuinter [Sqete] uin 162 
cbut [Syt] [Sit] 1 279, 298; u p. 156 

ci [si] 311 
Cic^ron [sisera] p. 162 lxv 




del [sjd] 6 91, p. 36 vm; c p. 69 


deux [sje] eup. 44 xn 

d-git [si 3i] i 95 

Ci-indus, Trois cents francs 

[si ekly, trwa sa fra] 431 
cil [sH] [si:j] U 224, 228; c p. 69 


cimetidre [simtjeir] 46; c p. 69 


dnq [se:k] q 165, 219, 252, p. 156 
Lxrv • 

dnq enfants [sek afa] q 346 
dnq h§ros [se ero] q 346 
dnq heures [sek ceir] q p. 141 ux 
dnq hommes [sek om] q 346 
dnq livres [se livr] q 346 
dnq-mars [sg mair] q, 8 p. 156 

dnq robes [se ra(!)b] q p. 156 

drconflexe [sirkSfleks] 29 
drconspect [sirkdspek] [sirkaspe] 

[sirkaspekt] ct 181, p. 162 

Lxvi; t 300; ect, 353 
drconspect en tout [sirkdspek a 

tu] [sirkospekt a tu] ect 353 
drconstance [sirkastais] on 141 
dre [siir] i 13; c p. 69 xxix 
drque [sirk] i p. 37 ix 
dselure [sizlyir] e 70, p. 30 vi 
Citeaux [site] x p. 122 lyu 
dtoyen [sitwajg] ay 156 
dtrouille [sitruCOj] ouiUe 226 
dvil [sivil] a 229; c 267 
dasse [klais] [klas] a 60, 65; e 69; 

p. 18 n; a p. 25 iv 

cl6 [kle] 193 

clef [kle]/ 193, p. 162 lxvi; e p. 

32 vn 
clefs [kle] e 80 
Cleop&tre pdeopaztr] d p. 162 


derc [kleir] r 166, 264; c 180, 340, 

p. 156 Lxrv 
client [klija] ien 135 
dimat [klima] [klima] a 64 
doner [klue] <m p. 49 xyi 
dub [klyb] b 171 
Clugny [klyni] ^ 204 
cobalt [kobalt] ( 299 
codicille [kodisil] iZZ 232 
coeur [koeu*] eu 118, p. 45 xm; r 

261; (Fw p. 49 XVI 
cognac [kojiak] c 178, 340, 341 
cogn6 [kojie] gm p. 81 xl 
cognition [kognisjS] gm 200 
coin [kwe] in 136; oi p. 62 xxrv 
coke [kok] k 218 
Colas [kola] a 59 
colore [kolezr] h 87, p. 36 vni 
colldge [kolezs] h 87 
coller [kole] U 167, 220 
Colomb [kal5] b 171, p. 156 

Lxrv, p. 162 Lxv; om p. 55 xx 
Colomb a err6 longtemps [kdl5 a 

ere lota] b p. 141 lx 
colonel [kobnel] I p. 87 xlui 
combien [k5bje] ien 162 
combien en demande-t-il [k5bje 

a damazd t il] n p. 141 lx 
combien y en a-t-il [kobje i on 

a t il] n 378 
comble [kd:bl] om p. 55 xx 



combustion P^5bystj5] ti 290 
comme [kom] o p. 43 xi 
commen^ons [komosd] g p. 69 


commotion P^comosjS] [komosjS] 

commun [komde] un 144, p. 56 


compact [k5pakt] t 296 
compagnie [kopajii] p. 161 XIV 
compagnon [k5paji5] ^ p. 81 xl 
compassion [kSposjo] a 60 
compendium [kopedjam] [k5pa- 

djam] en 137; um 145 
compose [kSpoiz] o 101, p. 39 x 
comprend-il [kSprcit il] d 362 
comprend-il ce qu'on dit [k5- 

prcit 11 89 k 5 di] (2 p. 141 ux 
comprenez [kSprane] n p. 96 


comprenons [kSpranS] e 71, p. 

30 V 
compte [koit] ow 141; p 247 
compter [kote] p p. 156 lxtv 
comptons [k5t5] om 141; am, on 

p. 55 XX 
concession [kosesja] a p. 108 li 
con^u [kosy] g p. 69 xxrx 
condamnable [kodonabl] m 237 
condamnation [k5danasj5] m 237 
condamner [kodane] am p. 162 


conditionnel [kddisjonel] t p. 117 

conduire [kddqiir] d 187 
confiance [k5fja:s] ian 162 
confidentiel [k5fidasjel] t 283 

congg [kose] on p. 55 xx 
congestion [kSsestjS] ti 290 
congrds [kdgre] a p. 162 lxvi 
conjuguant [k53yga] tia 156 
conqu^iir [kSkeriir] qu 254 
conquiert [k5kJ8:r] r 264 
Conrad [kdrad] d p. 74 xxxv 
^^^^onsanguinit^ [kdsagqinite] [k5- 

sdginite] gui 198 
'iconsdemment (kasjama] em p. 

156 liXiv 
conscience pcdsjais] ien 135, p. 

65 xxvi; p. 156 lxiv 
conseil [kdseij] e 91; eiZ 226 
conseiller [koseje] iU p. 90 xliy 
cons^uemment P^dsekama] em 

p. 156 LXIV 
consid^rablement [kSsiderabl^- 

ma] e 71 
consideration [kdsiderasjS] 428 
Considerations sur Phistoire de 

France [k5siderasj5 syr 1 i»- 

twair da frais] C, F p. 152 LXin 
consolation [k5s9lasj5] 1 162 
consomptif [k5s5ptif] p 248 
comsomption [k565psj5] 38; p 

248, p. 98 XLvm 
conspire [k5spire] on 44 
consul [k5syl] 2 221; c p. 152 


contact [k5takt] t 296 

conte [k5:t] on 141, p. 55 xx, p. 

56 XXI B 
content adj. [kdta] e 72 
content verb [koit] e 72 
contiguity [k5tigqite] gui 198 
convaincs [kove] c p. 71 xxxi 



convenable [kSvnabl] e 70 

coq [kok] q 4, 165, 219, 252, p. 

156 Lxrv 
coquin [koke] in p. 53 xix 
cor [ko:r] c 173 
corbeille P^orbe:]] eMe 226 
cordelier [kordalje] c p. 152 


corps [koir] r 166; p 247 
corps H corps [kor a kd:r] a 367 
correct [korekt] [korrekt] t 296, 

300, 353; ct p. 156 lxiv 
cortds [kortes] 8 275 
Cortez [kortes] z 267, p. 122 LVin 
cosinus [kosinyzs] s 269 
cdte [ko:t] d 4, 6, 29, 97, p. 39 x; 

cdte d'or [kot d oirj c, o 418 
cdtel6 [kotle] 6 98 
cotignac [kotijia] c p. 71 xxxi 
couenne [kwan] e 55 
couenneuz [kwane] e 55 
couleuvre [kuloeivr] eu p. 45 xin 
coup [ku] p 164, 249; ou p. 45 xiv 
coupe [kup] p p. 98 xlviii 
cour [kuir] r p. 104 l 
courant [kura] p. 161 XIV 
cour des Fontaines [ku:r de f5- 

t€(z)n] F 410 
courez [kure] ou p. 45 xiv 
courir P^uriir] 168 
couronne [kuron] nn 167 
courrai [kurre] rr 259 
courrier [kurje] r 262 
courrouz [kuru] x p. 122 Lvn 
Cours d'astronomie [ku:r das- 
[^ tranomi] C 404 

court [kuir] ^ 352 

courtil [kurti] iZ 230; 2 344 

coutelas [kutla] a 59 

coutelier [kutalje] e 71 

coiiter [kute] oil p. 49 xvi 

coutil [kuti] I 344 

convert [kuveir] ow p. 45 xrv 

couvre-pieds [kuvrapje] d p. 74 


crac [krak] c 178, 340, 341 
craie [kre] ai 84, 123; ate 90, 321 
craindre [krezdr] ain 14 
cravate [kravat] p. 18 ii 
crayon Pirejo] 46; ay 90; 2/ 154 
credo [kredo] e p. 162 lxvi 
cre6e [kree] e 89 
eresson [kraso] [kresS] e p. 163 

creuse Po-ezz] eu 4, 14, 114 
creuz [kro] eu 114, p. 44 xn; x 

crever [krave] e 4, 66, 67, p. 30 v 
eric [kri] c 180, 340 
cric-crac [krik krak] c p. 162 


Crim^e (la) [krime] p. 162 lxv 

crin [kre] in p. 53 xix 

ciise [kriiz] i 94 

crise de nerf s [kriiz da ne:r] / p. 

76 xxxvn 
cristal [kristal] s 267 
croc [kro] c 180, 340, p. 156 lxiv 
croc-en- jambe [krok a 3a:b] c 341 
crochets [kroSe] 419 
crocus [krokyis] 8 p. 108 li 
crolre [krwair] [krwair] a 62 
crois [krwa] oi 156 



croiz [krwa] [krwa] a 62; x 315 
croiz de renyoi Parwa do rcivwa] 

Cromwell [kramvel] w 306 
croup [krup] p 250, p. 156 lxiy 
croyez Pcrwaje] ay p. 62 xxrv 
Croyez k ma vive et sincere ami- 

ti^ ParwQJe a ma viv e seseir 

amitje] 427 
crucifiz [krysifi] x 315, p. 156 lxiy 
ct final 296 

cueillir [koejiir] ue p. 49 xvi 
cuiller (cuillidre) [kyjeir] [kqi- 

jeir] [kyljeir] u 121, uiU 226; r 

263; p. 156 lxiv 
cuir [kqiir] u 158; ui p. 64 xxv 
cuisine [kqizin] ui p. 64 xxv 
cuisinier [kqizinje] r 262 
culvre [kqiivrj ui p. 64 xxv 
cul [ky] I 223 

culbute [kylbyt] li p. 46 xv 
Curasao [k3rraso] a 57 
cure [kyir] c 173 
cuve [kyiv] u 120; c p. 69 xxvin 
cyclone [siklom] o 111, p. 39 x; c 

cygne [siji] c 175; gn 207 
cylindre [sileidr] c 267 
cymbale [sebal] c p. 69 xxix 
cypres [sipre] c p. 69 xxrx 
cyr [siir] c 175 
czar [gzair] [tsa:r] [tza:r] c 174, 

p. 162 Lxvi 

d [del [do] 22, 24; [d] 190; [t] 
362-364, 381 

dahlia [dalja] h 209 

daim [de] aim 135, p. 53 xix, p. 

Dalmatie [dalmasi] t 281 
damas [dama] a 59 
damasser [damase] a 59 
dame [dam] m 4, 233; d 187; a p. 

21 in 
damner [done] a 63, p. 25 rvr, p. 

156 Lxiv; am 132; m 237 
Damon [dam5] m p. 96 XLvn 
Danemark (le) [danmark] e, k 

p. 162 Lxv 
danger [dase] r 262 
dans [da] an p. 51 xvin 
dansant [dosa] an p. 51 xvin 
danse [dais] 8 4, 266 
danseuse [das0!z] eu 115, 127, 

326, p. 44 xn 
Dans les gardes franpaises [da 

le gard froseiz] D 401 
dans une tente [doz yn tait] s 335 
dard aigu [dair egy] d 380 
David [david] d 190; a, d p. 156 


Daz [daks] x 310 

dd [d] 42, 168, 187, 188 

de [da] e 4, 17, 66, 383 

de beaux boeuf s [do bo be] / p. 76 

d^blayer [debleje] ay p. 49 xvi 
de^ [dasa] d 50 
d6c^d^ [desede] S 79 
d^cembre [desa:br] 425 
- d^cemment [desama] em p. 156 


decemvir [desemviir] m 235 



de ce que je ne te le demande 

pas [da 8 kd 3 n9 1 la dmaid pa] 

d^chu [deSy] ch p. 72 xxxn 
d^damer [deklame] [deklame] 

declare [deklair] a p. 21 in 
de clerc k maitre [da klerk a 

meitr] c 341 
decorum [dekorom] um 145 
dtoet [dekre] et 92 
de^u [desy] g 176 
d^daigneuz [dedejie] ^ p. 81 xl 
de demain en huit [da damg fi 

qit] n p. 141 ix. 
dgdier [dedje] d 187 
dgfaire [defeir] / 191 
defaut [defo] au p. 49 xvi 
Defense du G^nie du christia- 

nisme [defaxs dy 5eni dy kris- 

tjanism] Z>, G 406 
deficit [defisi(t)l t 299; c, t 300; 

p. 117 LH 

de fond en comble [da f5t a 

k5:bl] p. 141 ux 
difunt [defde] un 144, p. 56 xxi 
difunte [defdsit] un 14 
d6g&t [dega] d p. 25 nr; t p. 117 

dlg^n^r^ [desenere] 4 79 
digoiit [degu] ad p. 45 xrv, p. 49 


de haut en bas [da o a ba] 47 
d^jH [desa] S 4, 79; d 28, 50 
dejeuner [desene] eu 114; [de- 

3oene] eu 118 
de la [da la] d, I 410 

d^labrer [delabre] [delabre] a 64 
de U deux sortes de devoir: les 

uns n^gatifs [da la de sort da 

davwair: lez & negatif] 420 
D^mie [delU] iU 232 
deliquescence [delik(q)esa!s] qu 

demi [d(a)mi] i p. 37 ix 
d^mocratie [demakrasi] t 281, p. 

demoiselle [damwazel] e 67 
d^mon [dem5] on p. 55 xx 
D^mosthdne [demastem] h p. 

162 Lxv 
Denis [dani] a p. 162 lxv 
dent [da] d 4; en p. 51 xvin, p. 

de part en part [da pa:rt a pa:r] 

t 382, p. 141 ox 
de part et d'autre [da pairt e 

d otr] t 382 
d^pens [depa] s p. 162 lxvi • 
de pied en cap [da pjet a kap] d 

de plus en plus [da plyz a ply] s 

de point en point [da pwet a pwe] 

depot [depo] p 245; i p. 117 lxv 
de profundis [de praf5di(0s] un 

142, p. 162 lxvi 
d^railie [deraje] iZ2 p. 90 xuv 
des [de] [de] e 28, 93; d 410 
dis [de] h 28 
des bas reliefs [de ba raljef] / p. 

des Callots [de kalo] C p. 153 lxiu 



Descartes [dekart] s 272 

des cheveuz gpais [de yayaz epe] 

X p. 141 LIX 

des dues et pairs [de dyk e peir] 

des Elzevirs [dez elzevin*] E p. 

153 liXiii 
desert [dezeir] r 264; 8 p. 162 


d^shabiller [dezabije] s 268, p. 

109 LI 
des habits [dez abi] h 208 
des haricots [de ariko] h 210, p. 

156 Lxiv 
des h^ros [de ero] h 210 
des heures [dez (B:r] h 208 
des histoires ^tonnantes [dez 

istwa:rz etona:!] s p. 141 Lix 
des homines [dez om] h 208 
d^shonneur [dezonoeir] s 268, p. 

109 LI 
desire [dezire] S 27 
des maitres Is arts [de me:tr ez 

air] s 367 
des manteauz ouates [de mdto 

wate] 371 
Desmoulins [demule] 8 272 
des oeufs [dez 0] s 319 
des oignons [dez 9ji5] 8 319 
d^sormais [dezorme] ai8 p. 49 xvi 
des oul-dire [de wi diir] 371 
des Plines [de plin] P p. 153 

des pores ^pics [de park epik] 3 

des priz 61ev^s [de priz elve] x 


desquels [dekel] [dekel] a 272 
des regards aimables [de rogairz 

emabl] a 381 
dessaisir [deseziir] e 81 
dess^cher [deseje] e 81 
dessein [dese] e 81; ein 135 
desseller [desele] e 81, p. 32 

desserrer [desere] e 81 
dessert [desen*] e 81, p. 32 vn; 

88 p. 162 LXVI 

desservir [deserviir] e 81, p. 32 

dessiller [desije] e 81 
dessin [dese] e p. 32 vn 
dessouder [desude] e 81 
dessous [d(a)su] [tsu] e 68, p. 30 

V, p. 156 LXIV 
dessus [d(8)8y] [tsy] e 68, 81, p. 30 

V, p. 156 LXIV 
d^su6tude [desqetyid] s 269 
des vers k sole [de veir a swa] s 

detail [deta!J] a 61 
de temps en temps [da taz a ta] 

47; 5 337,360,366 
d^troit [detrwa] t 295 
dette [det] e 18, 91, p. 36 vin 
deuil [doeij] eu 118, p. 45 xm; 

euU 226; p. 90 xliv 
deux [d0] a; 315 
deux k deux [dez a de] x 372 
deux enfants [dez of a] x 319 
deuxilme [dezjem] x 314, 317, 

319, p. 122 Lvn 
deuxilmement [dezjem (m)a] x 

p. 122 Lvu 



^euz-points [do pwe] 419 
^evelopper [devbpe] 6 89 
devenir [davni:r] e 67, 70, p. 30 


deviner [davine] 16 
devotieuz [devosje] t 284 
devotion [devosj5] [devosjS] o 

d'ezcellents ezerdces [d ekse- 

loz egzersis] 8 p. I4l ux 
dextre [d8(k)str] x 310 
diable [djaibl] [dja(Obl] a 64, p. 

25 IV 
diad^me [djadexm] m p. 94 xlv 
diagnostique [djagnostik] [djag- 

nostik] gn 200 
Dialogue des morts [djaloCOg de 

m9:r] D 404 
Diaz [dja:z] z 319 
Dieppe [djep] p. 162 lxv 
didte [dje(:)t] i^ p. 60 xxin 
dieu [dje] ieu 152; eu p. 44 xn 
dieux [dJ0] eu 114 
differentier [diferasje] ti 293; t 

p. 117 Lin 
difficile [difisU] % p. 37 ix;/ p. 76 


digestion [di38stj5] ti 290 
digne [diji] ^ p. 81 xl 
dignity [dijiite] gn 40 
digue [di(:)g] gu p. 79 xxxvin 
dilemme [dilem] mm p. 94 xlv; 

m p. 96 XLVii 
^diligemment [dilisama] mm p. 

94 xlv; m p. 96 XLvn 
dime [di(:)m] i 29, 95, p. 37 ix 
Diocl6tien [diaklesje] t 286 

Diogene [diosem] p. 162 lxv 
diplomatie [dipbmasi] t 281, p. 

156 LXiv 
dipl6me [diploim] 6 97, p. 39 x 
dipl6mer [diplome] 6 98 
dire [di:r] i 94 
direct [direkt] t 296; d p. 162 


disait-on [dizet 5] s 332 
discipline [disiplin] i p. 37 ix 
Discours sur Phistoire univer- 

selle [diskuir syr I istwair yni- 

versel] D p. 152 LXin 
dispenser [dispose] s p. 108 li 
distiUer [disti(I)Ie] iU 232, p. 156 


distinct [dist£:kt] [diste] t 300; 

ct p. 156 LXIV 
distinctement [distektma] c, t 

distinctif [distektifl c, i 300 
distinction [disteksjo] c, i 300 
distingua [distega] ua 156 
distinguons [disteg5] gu p. 79 


-4istribuons [distribii5] oun 162 
district [distri] [distrikt] ct 300 
Dites bien des choses de ma 

part H [dit bje de So:z da ma 

pairt a] 430 
dit-il [dit 11] 421 
dito [dito] p. 161 XTV 
dix [dis] X 213, 267, 313, 315, 

372, p. 156 LXIV 
dix chevaux [di S(9)vo] x p. 156 


dix enf ants [diz of a] x 372 



dix heures un quart [diz oe:r (% 

kair] s 370 
dix-huit [diz qit] x 314, 319, 371, 

p. 122 LVii, p. 156 LXiv 
dix-huitidme [diz qitjem] x 314, 

dixi^me [dizjem] x 314, p. 122 


dix-neuf [diz noef] x 314, 319, p. 

122 LVII, p. 156 LXIV 
dix-neuvidme [diz noevjem] x 

dix pommes [di pom] x 372 
dix-sept [dis set] x p. 121 Lvn, p. 

156 LXIV 
dix-septidme [dissetjem] x p. 

121 Lvn 
dix soldats [di solda] x 315 
dix sous [di su] x p. 156 lxiv 
docteur [daktoeir] 415 
dogue [dog] g 4 
doigt [dwa] oi 56; fir 205; t p. 117 


doigt6 [dwate] g p. 162 Lxvi 

doigts [dwa] gts 164 

doit et avoir [dwat e avwair] t 

Domitien [domisje] t 286 
dommage [domaxs] m 42 
dompter [dote] om 45, p. 55 xx; 

p 247, p. 162 LXVI 
dompteur [dotoeir] p 247 
Domremy [dSrami] om p. 55 xx 
don [do] d 7; on p. 56 xxi B 
done [do] [d5!k] c 181 
donnais [done] ais 90 
donnas [dona] a 59 

donn&t [dona] d p. 21 m 
donne [don] o 18 
donn6-je [doneis] 6 88 
donnent [don] e 72 
donner [done] n 42; nn 239 
donnes [don] e 72 
donnez-en [donez a] z 332 
Dordogne [dordoji] gn p. 162 


dort-elle [dort el] t 332 
dortoir [dortwazr] r 261 
dos [do] o 100, p. 39 x; s 164, 273 
dos H dos [doz a do] s 366 
dossier [dosje] o 100, p. 39 x 
dot [dot] o 105, p. 43 xi; e 298, 

p. 117 Ln, p. 156 Lxrv . 
doua [dwa] oua p. 62 xxrv 
douane [dwan] oua 156, p. 62 


Douay [due] ay 90 
Doubs [du] 6 172; &8 p. 162 lxv 
douce [dus] c p. 69 xxix 
douons [dw5] otum p. 65 xxvi 
Douvres [duivr] p. 162 lxv 
doux [du] ou p. 45 xiv 
douze [du:z] ou p. 45 xrv 
doyen [dwaje] y 154 
drap [dra] r 4; a 53; p 249 
Dresde [drezd] 8 271, p. 162 lxv 
drogue [dro(:)g] gue 197; gu p. 

79 xxxvni 
droite [drwat] oi p. 21 ni 
druide [drqi(!)d] d p. 152 Lxm 
du [dy] u 29; d 410 
dfi [dy] iX 29 
du blanc au noir [dy blok o 

nwair] c 341, p. 141 lex 



Dublin [dyble] p. 162 lxv 

du boeuf sal6 [dy boe sale] / 193 

due [dyk] c 178, 340, 341; d p, 

152 LXin 
Duels [dysiis] 8 274 
Ducroc [dykro] c p. 71 xxxi 
duel [dqel] t^ p. 64 xxv 
Dugas [dyga] a 59 

u Guesclm [dy gekle] s 272, p. 

156 Lxiv 
du haut en bas [dy ot a ba] ^ 354 
du mare de eafe [dy ma:r da 

kafe] c 340 
Dumas [dyma] a 59, p. 162 ucvi 
du mifhridate [dy mitridat] m p. 

153 Lxin 
Dumouriez [dymurje] z 318 
d'un [d de] un p. 56 xxi B 

d'un bout H I'autre [dde but a 

1 otr] t 354 
Duncan [d5ka] un 142 
d'un enfant [d den of a] 384 
Dunkerque [dSkerk] un 142, p. 

162 LXV 
d'un moment H I'autre [ddb 

mama a 1 otr] t 354 
duo [dyo] o 99, p. 39 x 
du plomb argentifdre [dy pl5 

arsatifeir] b p. 141 lx 
Duprez [djrpre] z 318 
Duquesne [dykem] 8 272 
dur [dyir] u 13 
du riz au lait [dy ri o le] 2; 359, p. 

141 LX 

dynastie [dinasti] ti 290; ^ p. 117 


dysenterie [disatri] 8 269 


e [e] [a] 22, 24; mute [9] 66-71, 
89; 155; sOent 72, 73, 77, 78; 
before a, o, u 202; silent and 
mute 74, 75; final 76; without 
written accent [e] 80, 81; [e] 
91-93; elision 384-387, 393- 

6 fermi [e] written i, e, ai 79 

S [e] 84-88 

% [e] 84r-86, 98 


eau p. 39 x 

-eau [o] 97, 102, 112, 126, 320, 

eau de Seltz [o da sels] z 267, p. 
122 LVin 

6blouir [ebluiir] 36 

^eaille [ekaij] a 61 

4cart [ekair] ^ p. 117 liv 

£chantillons sans valeur [eSatij5 
sa valoeir] 431 

€chee [eS8(k)] c 181, p. 162 ixvi 

tehees [eJeCk)] c p. 156 lxiv 

6cho [eko] o 99; c^ 186, p. 162 


Eclair [ekleir] r p. 104 l 
4elat§ [eklate] S 27 
Eclipse [eklips] p 245 
€eole [ekol] o 106; c 173, p. 19 n 
6conome [ekanom] o 111 
£eouen [ekwa] ov,en 162 
6coutez [ekute] au 128, 328 
^eraser [ekraze] a 319; a p. 25 iv 
6crasons [ekraz5] a 60 
6ereyisse [ekravis] i 89 



toiture anglo-normannique 

[ekrity:r agio narmanik] a, n 

toiture normanno-sazonne 

[ekrityir narmana saksan] n, 8 

-ect 92, 353 
toieil [ekoeij] ueU 226; ue p. 45 

toielle [ekqel] tee p. 64 xxv 
6cureuil [ekyroeij] euil 226 
Edda [edda] d p. 74 xxxv 
£den [eden] n 241, p. 156 lxiv 
£dimbourg [edebuir] 0f 205, p. 162 


£douard [edwa:r] d 189; ova p. 

62 XXIV 
Edmond [edm5] d p. 74 xxxiv 
-^en [ee] en 136 
effare [efare] e 81 
•-^ffectu^rent [efektqezr] li^ p. 64 

effemin^ [efemine] e 81 
effet [efe] e 81, p. 32 vn 
efficace [efikas] e 81 
effigie [efisi] ^ p. 80 xxxix 
effleuri [efloere] e 81 
efflorescent [efflaresa] ff 191 
effluent [efflya] ff 191 
effluve [efflyiv] ff 191 
effort [efoir] e81; o 105 
effrayer [efreje] e 81; 2^ p. 60 

effren6 [efrene] e 81 
effroi [efrwa] e 81, p. 32 vn 
effronterie [efr5tri] e 81 
4gaHt6 [egalite] 35 

£ginhard [esinair] d p. 74 xxxiv 
6glogue [eglog] gly gu p. 79 

^grener [egrane] 4 89 
£gypt (V) [esipt] p. 162 LXV 
ggyptiaque [esipsjak] t p. 117 

£gyptien [esipsje] i 286 
Eh bien, je m'en vais [e bje 39 

mave]E 397 
-ei [8] 84, 90, 122, 125, 320, 323 
-ei [c] 122, 125 
eider [ede:r] r 263 
-eil [eij] a 226 
-eiUe [8:j] iU 226 
-eim [e] 135 
-ein [e] 135 
£lgments de physique [elema da 

fizik] ^404 
el^ve [eleiv] h p. 36 vm 
Clever [elve] 35; c 46, 70, p. 156 

lxiv; i 89 
61dverais [elevre] b 88 
£lisabeth [elizabet] th 299 
£lise a une autre id6e en tSte 

[eliiz a 3m otr ide a teit] e 395 
elle [el] 386 

elle coud [el ku] d p. 74 xxxiv 
elle est fort en peine [el e fart a 

pen] t 350 
elle meurt ezpr^s [d moeir eks- 

elle part H regret [el pa:r a ragre] 

elle part aujourdniui [d paur 

03urdqi] t 380 
Elle raconte encore une histoire 



absurde [el rak5:t okozr 3ni 

istwair apsyrd] e 395 
elle recommence [el rakamais] e 

elles aiment [elz e:m] 6 p. 30 vi 
elles seraient invitees [el saret 

evite] t 351 
eloigner [elwajie] ^ p. 81 xl 
-eloquemment [ebkama] em p. 

156 LXiv 
-em [a] 131; [em] 134, 235 
embdter [abete] ^ 86 
embryon [abrio] yon p. 65 xxvi 
emeraude [emro:d] au 102 
Imeute [emoit] eu 326 
Iminemment [eminama] em p. 

156 Lxrv 
emm- [am] 134 
-emm- [am] 134 
Emma [emma] m p. 57 xxn, p. 

96 XLvn; mm p. 94 lxv 
emmagasiner [omagazine] em 

134; w p. 96 XLvn; mm 147 
emmailloter [omajate] m p. 96 


Emmanuel [emanqel] mm p. 57 
XXII, p. 94 XLv; m p. 96 XLvn 

emm^nager [omenase] m p. 96 

emmener [omne] em 134, p. 156 

-emment [ama] e 55; em 134 

Motion [emosj5] o 100, p. 39 x 

emp^cher [apeje] em 131 

empereur [aproesr] e 70 

empire [api:r] em 131, p. 51 


empire des Perses [apiir de pers] 

P p. 153 LXiii 
empire fran^ais [api:r frase] / p. 

153 LXIII 
emploi [aplwa] ew p. 51 xvin 
emprunt [aprce] un p. 56 xxi 
emprunte [aproBit] un 14, 144 
emprunter [aprdete] un p. 56 xxi 
en [a] 4, 17, 131, 383, p. 51 xviii, 

p. 56 XXI B 
-en [e] 135; [en] 133, 240 
en allant H pied [on alat a pje] t 

en avez-yous eu [on ave vuz y] 

n, s p. 141 Lix 
encens [osais] [asa] c p. 70 xxix 
enchanter [ajate] en, an 45 
encrier [akrije] [akrie] en 131 
endosser [adose] o 100 
en ete [on ete] n p. 141 ux 
enfant [ofa] an, en 131, p. 51 


enfer [ofeir] r 263, p. 156 lxiv 

Enfin, comment vous dire . . . 
nous avons peur! [afe, koma 
vu di:r . . . nuz avo poeir] 421 

Enfin, j'y suis, j'y reste [afe, 3 i 
sqi, 3 i rest] E 397 

Enfin on arriva [afe dn ariva] n p. 

141 LX 

enflammer [aflame] [aflame] a 

64, p. 25 IV 
enfouir [ofwiir] oui 156 
Enghien [age] ien p. 79 xxxvni 
en haut [a o] h p. 156 lxiv 
en hiver [an iveir] n p. 141 lix 
6nigme [enigm] gm p. 79 xxxvni 




enivrer [anivre] en 133, 147 

enjeux [550] eu p. 49 xvi 

En mains propres [a me pn>pr] 

-enn [an] 134 
ennemi [enmi] nn 146 
ennoblir [onobliir] en 133, p. 156 


ennoblit [onobli] nn p. 96 xlvi 
ennui [anqi] en 133, p. 156 lxiv; 

nn 147 
£noch [enok] ch 185 
enorgueillir [onorgoejiir] en 133, 

enorme [enorm] n 239 
en plein air [a plen e:r] n 375 
enquSte [okeit] gu 254 
enrdler [arole] 6 98 
enseigne [aseji] ei p. 49 xvi 
enseigner [asepe] ^ p. 81 xl 
ensemble [osaibl] en, em 131 
ensus [asys] s 275 
-ent of verbs t S51; e 391 
entendant [atada] an, en p. 51 


entend-on [atat 5] d 362 
enthousiasme [atuzjasm] [atu- 

zjazm] ia p. 60 xxiii 
entier [atje] ti 293; ie p. 60 xxm 
entidre [atjeir] ti 293; i^ p. 60 

entoure [atusr] ou 119 
entr'acte [atrakt] 387 
entrant [atra] an, en p. 51 xvin 
entre [a:tr(8)] e 387 
entrer [atre] en 131 
entresol [atrasol] s 269 

envers [aveir] r 264 

envers et contre tous [dv8:r e 

kStra tuis] 8 367 
envers euz [av8:r 0] s p. 141 


En ville [a vil] 431 

Envoi de [avwa da] 423 

en voilH neuf [d vwala ncsf] / p. 

envoyez I'y [avwaje 1 i] 384 
6panouir [epanwixr] oui p. 62 

6pargner [eparjie] ^ p. 81 xl 
6paules [epod] au 102 
6peron [epr5] 4 89 
6phod [efod] d 190 
£phraim [efraim] im 139; m 235 
spicier [episje] r 262 
^pinard [epinair] d p. 74 xxxrv 
6pizooti [epizoosi] [epizaoti] t 281 
epopee [epope] p p. 98 XLvjn 
^poque [epok] o 106 
spouse [epu!z] ou 119, p. 45 


6poux [epu] ou p. 45 xrv 
Epsom [epsom] m 235 
6quateur [ekwatceir] imz 156; gfu 

256; u p. 162 ixv, ucvi 
Equation [ekwasj5] t^ 156, p. 62 

XXIV ; gu 256, p. 101 xlix; w, 

a, t p. 162 Lxvi 
^questre [ek(q)e8tr] gu 257; u p. 

162 LXVI 
6qui- [ek(q)i] gu 257 
Equidistant [ek(q)idistd] gu 257 
Equinoze [ekinoks] u p. 156 

Lxrv, p. 162 LXVI 



equitable [ekitabl] qu 254, p. 101 


Equitation [ek(q)itasj5] qu 257; 

u, a, i p. 162 LXYi 
Equivalent [ekivala] qu 254, p. 

101 XLix; u p. 162 LXYI 
Equivoque [ekivok] qu 254, p. 101 

XLix; u p. 162 Lxvi 
-er [e] r 262, 347-349; final [er] 

Ernest [emest] t 297 
erratum [e(r)rat9m] u 113 
errer [erre] r 259 
erreur [erroeir] r 259 
-ers [e] 262 
-ert [eir] t 356, 380 
Is [es] s 275 
escalier [eskalje] 38 
esclaffer [esklaf (f)e] c p. 70 xxxf 
esclandre [eskladr] c 177; sc 276 
esclavage [esklava:3] c p. 70 xxx 
esclave [esklaiv] [esklaiv] a 64; 

c 177; 8 267 
esclavon [esklavS] c p. 70 xxx 
escrime [eskrim] c p. 70 xxx 
escroc [eskro] c 180, 340, p. 156 


escroc intelligent [eskro etelisa] 

espace [espa:s] [espas] a 14, 64, 

espErance [esperais] 38; an 131 
espErer [espere] e 91, p. 36 vni 
Espinasse [epinas] s 272 
espionnage [espjonaxs] io p. 60 


esprit allemand [espri alma] t 

esprit profond en tout [espri 

profs a tu] d 363 
essai [ese] e 81, p. 32 vii 
essaim [ese] aim 135 
Essai sur les moeurs [ese sy:r le 

moers] E 404 
essayer [eseje] y 154 
essentiel [esasjd] i 283, p. 117 

Lin; e p. 156 lxiv 
essor [esoir] [esosr] e 81, p. 32 vii; 

o 105, p. 43 XI 
essouffle [esufle] e 81 
I essuie-main [esqime] e 81, p. 32 

essuie-plume [esqi plym] 6 81, p. 

32 VII 
essuyer [esqije] e 81, p. 32 vn; 

uy 159, 160, p. 64 xxv 
est [e] 92; s 272; [est] 92; t 297 
est-ce [e:s] e p. 156 lxiv 
est-ce vrai [e s vre] e 385 
Esther [estexr] r 263 
Estienne [etjen] a 272, p. 156 


estime [estim] s p. 109 li 
estoc [estak] c 178, 340, 341 
estomac [estama] a 53; c 180, p. 

156 LXIV 
et [e] e 80, 92; t 355, p. 117 liv 
£tablissements Archambault- 

Belanger [etabllsmd arjabo 

belase] 424 
Etape [etap] e 69, p. 30 vi 
Etat [eta] t 295, p. 117 ltv 



et cstera [et setera] 1 299, p. 161 

M [ete] S 4, 6, 17, 27, 79; t 279 
^teint [ete] ein p. 156 lxiv 
4temit4 [etemite] ^ p. 32 vn 
dtes [et] ^ 15 
Stes-vous [et vu] 34 
Ethelred [etelred] d p. 74 xxxv 
4ther [ete:r] r 263, p. 156 Lxnr 
£tieime [etjen] ^i 294 
4tiez [etje] ^i 294 
^tioler [etjale] ti 294 
6tions [etj5] ti 294 
gtoffe [etof] o 107 
4toile [etwal] oi 156 
^trennes [etren] nn 146 
4troite [etrwat] [etrwat] oi 62 
4tudiant [etydja] ian 162 
-eu [y] e 78, 116; [0] [oe] 114, 115, 

117, 118, 122, 127, 320, 326; 

+final pronounced consonant 

[oe] 327; +ii, iUe [oe] 327; +«, 

t [0] 115, 326 
-efi [y] e 116; [0] [oe] 114, 117, 127 
Eugdne [03e:n] [ysem] Eu 1 16 
£ug6nie [03eni] [yseni] Eu 116 
eue [y] eii 116 
-euil [oeij] 226 
-euiUe [oeij] 226 
eihnes [y(Om] e 78, 116; e& 77, 

78, 116. 
-eun [de] eun 144 
eurent [yir] e p. 156 lxiv 
Europe [oerop] Eu p. 162 lxv 
europlen [oeropee] en 136 
europ6enne [oeropeen] n p. 57 


-eurt [oeir] ^ 356, 380 

-euse [01Z] 6ti 115 

-eute [0t] eu 115 

-eutre [0:tr] eu 115 

6vanoui [evanwi] oui p. 62 xxiv 

4vanouir [evanwiir] oui 156 

Evasion [evasj5] a 60 

6vea [eve(:)j] e p. 36 viii 

6v4nement [evenma] ^ 89 

^ventail [evata:j] ail 226 

ex- [eks] and popular [es] 310; 

initial followed by ce, ci, s 

[k(-|-s)] 311; before vowel, etc. 

[egz] [egz] 312 
exact [egza(kt)] [egzakt] t 296, 

300, p. 121 Lvn; ct p. 163 Lxvn 
exacte [egzakt] [egzakt] x 41 
exactement [egzaktama] [egzak- 

tama] e 71, p. 30 V 
examen [egzame] [egzame] [egza- 

men] [egzamen] x 41, 312; en 

137, p. 156 LXIV, p. 162 lxvi 
excavation [ekskavosja] x p. 121 


exc6dant [ekseda] a; 311 
exc6der [eksede] x p. 121 Lvn 
excellence [eksela:s] x p. 121 

excellent adj. [eksela] x 41; e 

72; X p. 156 lxiv; verb [eksel] 

e 72; x p. 156 lxiv 
exceller [eksele] x p. 121 Lvn 
except^ [eksepte] x p. 121 Lvn 
exception [eksepsjS] x 311, p. 121 


excds [ekse] x 311 
excessif [eksesif] x 311 



exciser [eksize] 2; 311 
excitant [eksita] x 311 
excitation [eksitosjS] x p. 121 Lvn 
exclamation [8(k)skL'imasj5] a; 310 
exclamer [eksklome] x p. 121 lvii 
exclure [cksklyir] x p. 121 Lvn 
excursion [ekskyrsjo] x p. 121 


exeat [egzeat] [egzeat] i 299 
executer [egzekyte] [egzekyte] x 

p. 121 Lvn 
exemple [egzapl] [egzGpl] x 41, p. 

121 Lvn 
exempt [egza] [egza] p 247; x 

312; p< p. 156 Lxiv 
exempter [egzate] [egzate] p 247, 

p. 156 LXIV, p. 162 Lxvi 
exemption [egzapsj5] [egzapsj5] 

exequatur [egzakatyir] qa p. 101 


exercise [egzersis] [egzersis] x 312 
exhibition [egzibisja] [egzibisj5] x 

ezhorter [egzorte] [egzorte] x 312, 

p. 121 Lvn 
exhumer [egzyme] [egzyme] x p. 

121 LVII 

exiger [egzise] [egzise] x 312, p. 

121 Lvn 
exiguity [egzigqite] [egzigqite] qm> 

exU [egzU] [egzil] iZ 229 
exiler [egzile] [egzile] x 312, p. 

121 Lvn 
exotique [egzotik] [egzatik] x p. 

121 Lvn 

expansif [ekspasif] x p. 121 lvii 
expatrier [e(k)spatrie] x 310, p. 

121 LVin 
expedier [8(k)spedje] x 310 
explorer [e(k)splore] x 310 
exprds [ekspre] x 41 
express [ekspres] [espres] s p. 

109 LI 
exprimer [eksprime] x 41 
exsangue [eksaig] x p. 121 Lvn 
exsuder [eksyde] x 311 
extenso [eksteso] en 137 
extirper [8(k)stirpe] x 310 
extraordinaire [ekstraordineir], 

old [ekstrordineir] x 41 
-ey [e] 84, 90, 122, 125, 320, 323 

f [ef] [f8] 22, 24; [f] 91; final [f] 

165, 342; [v] 305 
fable [fabl] 46; a 63, 65, p. 25 iv 
fabliau [fablio] [fabljo] [fablio] 

[fabljo] i 153 
fabrique [fabrik] qa 254 
Fabvier [favje] 6 172 
facade [fasa(i)d] q 32, 267, p. 70 


faces [fas] e 72 

facetie [fasesi] i 281, p. 156 


fac6tieux [fasesje] ^ p. 117 un 
facheux [faje] ch 182 
facile [fafiil]e69;/191 
facile H lire [fasil a li:r] e 392 
fa^on [faso] q p. 70 xxix 
facteur [faktcBzr] c p. 70 xxx 



factieuz [faksje] t 284 

faction [fak8J5] 1 162; c p. 70 xxx 

faience [fajais] a p. 156 lxiv 

faiUe [fa:jl a 61 

faim [fe] aim 135, p. 53 xix, p. 

156 lxiv; m p. 96 XLvn 
faire [fe:r] ai 68 

Faire panrenir [feirparvanin*] 423 
faisait [faze] a 68; at p. 30 v 
faisons [f9z5] ai p. 156 lxiv 
fait [fe] [fe] ai 4, 17, 84, p. 163 

Lxvn; [fe(t)] t 300 
falte [ferti] at 90, p. 36 vra 
faites-le [fet h] e 385 
faiz [fe] X p. 162 lxvi 
fanulle [fami:j] iZZ 46, p. 60 xxui 
faon [fa] o 103, p. 156 lxiv 
farceur [farsoeir] eu p. 45 xm 
fat [fat] [fa] a 54; t 298, 300, p. 

156 LXIV, p. 163 LXvn 
fatal [fatal] I p. 87 xun 
fatigua [fatiga] tui 156 
faubourg Poissonnidre [fobuu* 

pwasonjeir] P p. 153 Lxm 
faulx [fo] ; 223 
Faure [foir] au 112, p. 43 xi 
fausse [fo:s] e 69 
Faust [fo:st] au p. 162 lxv 
fauteuil [fotoe:j] euU 226; iZ p. 90 

faux [fo] X p. 122 Lvn 
Fayence [faja:s] y 154 
feindre [fe:dr] ein p. 53 xix 
feinte [feit] ein 14 
F61iz [feliks] x 310 
Fgliz Faure [feliks fo:r] F 396 
femme [fam] e 55; em 134, p. 21 

m, p. 156 lxiv; m p. 96 xLvn; 

mm 233 
femmelette [famlet] e 55 
fend [fa] en p. 56 xxi B 
F^nelon [fen(a)l5] on p. 55 xx 
fenStre [f (a)neitr] ^ 85, p. 36 vra 
fenil [fani] [fani:j] U 228 
fenouil [fsnuij] ouU 226 
fer [feir] r 263 
f era [fara] e 67 
ferblanc [ferbla] c 340, p. 71 


f ermet4 [fermate] e 393 
femiez [ferme] e 80 
fermier [fermje] r 262 
Ferrare [fe(r)rair] r p. 104 l, p. 

162 LXV 
Ute [feit] ^ 85, p. 36 vra 
fdter [fete] ^ 86, p. 36 vra 
fgtichisme [fetijism] ch p. 72 

feu [fo] eu 114, p. 44 xn 
feuille [foeij] eu 118; euiUe 226; 

i22 p. 90 xLiv 
feutre [foitr] eu 115, 127, 326, 

p. 44xn 
feux [fo] eu p. 44 xn 
f^vrier [fevrie] [fevrje] i 153 
ff [f] 191 

fiacre [fjakr] ia 152 
fianc6 [f jase] ian p. 65 xxvi 
fiddle [fidel] d 187 
fid4Ut6 [fideUte] p. 19 n 
fieffg [f jefe] / p. 76 xxxvi 
fier adj. [fjeir] r 263, p. 156 

lxiv; verb [fje] ie p. 60 xxin, 

r p. 156 LXIV 



Fiesque [f jesk] ie p. 162 lxv 

figue [fig] gue 33 

figure [figyir] ti p. 46 xv 

fil [fil] I 224; a 229 

filigrane [filigran] i p. 37 rs 

fiUe [fi(:)j] i 94; iZZ 226 

filleul [fijoel] eu p. 49 xvi 

fils [fi(i)8], old [fi] / 191; Z 223; « 

275, p. 163 Lxvi, Lxvn 
fil unique [fil ynik] I 344 
fin [fe] in p. 53 xrx, p. 56 xxi B; 

n p. 96 XLvn 
fine [fin] n p. 96 XLvn 
fini [fini] i p. 37 ix, p. 156 lxiv 
finir [finiir] 1 19; r 261 
finirons [finir5] i 19 
Finlande (la) [felaid] p. 162 lxv 
fiscal [fiskal] sc 276 
flambeau [flabo] am p. 51 xvni; 

m p. 96 XLvn 
flamber [flabe] am 131 
flamme [flaim] a 14, 63, p. 25 iv 
flanc [fla] c 179, p. 163 lxvi 
flanelle [flanel] n p. 96 xlvi, 

flegme [flegm] gmp. 79 xxxvm 
fleur de lis [floeir 6b li] e p. 30 v; 

s 273, p. 156 LXIV 
fleurs [fl(B:r] eu p. 45 xin 
fleuve [floeiv] eu 118, p. 45 xin 
flot [flo] o p. 39 X 
fiux [fly] X 315, p. 156 Lxnr 
foetus [fety(Os] ce 83, p. 32 vn 
foi [fwa] [fwa] oi p. 62 xxiv 
foin [fwe] oin 162, p. 53 xix 
f ois [fwa] ai 56 
fol [fall ; 221; o 105 

fol espoir [fal espwa:r] I 344 
foUe [fol] o 107 
follicule [folikyl] I p. 87 xlhi 
fonction [f5ksj5] t 285; an p. 55 


fond [f5] on p. 55 xx, p. 56 xxi B 
font [f5] on p. 55 XX 
fonte [f5:t] on 14, 46 
Fontenoy [f 5tnwa] oy 56 
force [fors] o p. 43 xi 
f orSt [fore] ^ 29 
formation [formosjo] a 60 
fort [fo:r] / 4; 76; r 264; t 352, p. 

117 LIV 

fort aimable [fo:rt ema(:)bl] 

[foirt emaCObl] t 381 
forte [fort] e 76, p. 30 vi; o 106 
fort et actif [fo:r e aktif] t 355 
fort et dur [foir e dyir] t 381 
fort et grand [foir e gra] t 380 
fort instruit [fort estrqi] t 336 
fosse [fo:s] o 100, p. 39 x 
fossette [foset] [foset] o 100 
fou [fu] ou p. 45 xrv 
fouace [fwas] oua p. 62 xxrv 
fouet [fwe] [fwa] ous p. 62 xxiv 
fougdre [fu3e:r] b 12 
foulard [fulair] ou p. 45 xrv 
Fould [fuld] d p. 74 xxxv 
Foulenay-auz-Roses [fulene o 

roiz] F, R 410 
fourml [fumi] iZ 230; 2 344 
Fox [foks] X 310 
foyer [fwaje] oy 56, p. 62 xxrv, 

p. 163 lxvi; y 154 
frac [frak] c p. 70 xxx 
fracas [fraka] a p. 25 rv 



fraise [freiz] s 268 

fraisU [frezi] U 230; I 344 

franc [frci] an 131, p. 51 xvni; c 

164, 179, 340, p. 163 lxvi 
franc(s) [frci] p. 161 XIV 
fran^ais [frose] ais p. 49 xvi; g 

p. 70 XXIX 
franc alleu [frok ale] c 341 
France [fra:s] an 131 
franc et net [frok e net] c 341 
franc ^tourdi [frok eturdi] c 341 
Franche-Comte [fraj k5te] p. 162 


frapper [frape] pp 167 
frayeur [frejoeir] eu p. 49 xvi 
fredonner [fradone] e 67, 392, p. 

frein [fre] ein p. 53 xix 
Fr^jus [fresyss] s 274 
frSre [freir] e 28 
fr^res [freir] e 72 
fret [fre] t p. 163 lxvi 
Friedland [friedla:d] d p. 74 

XXXV ; ie p. 162 lxv 
Fritz [frits] z 319 
froc [frok] c 165, p. 70 xxx 
froid [frwa] [frwa] oi 62; d 189 
froisse [frwas] oi 156 
froisser [frwase] ss 267 
fromage [fromais] a 12 
frontiSre [frotje:r] tib 293; t p. 117 


frotter [frote] U 167 
froufrou [frufru] ou p. 45 xiv 
fruit [frqi] u 158; ui p. 64 xxv 
fruitier [frqitje] ie 152; tie 293; ui 
p. 64 xxv 

fruitidre [frqitjeir] tib 293 
fuchsia [fyksja] ch p. 73 xxxiii, 

p. 163 LXVI 
fumer du maryland [fyme dy 

marila:d] m 400 
fun [fde] un p. 56 xxi B 
fusil [fyzi] U 230; I 344, p. 163 


fat [fy] H 121 

future [fytyir] w p. 46 xv 

g [se] [59] [go] 22, 24; 127; before 
a, 0, ii or consonant [g] 195; be- 
fore e, i, 2/ [3] 77, 201 ; final [k] 
[g] 205, 206; 365; silent 204, 
gage [gais] a p. 21 m 
gageons [gasS] ge p. 80 xxxrx 
gageur [gasoeir] e p. 156 lxtv 
gageure [gasyir] eu 77, 116; grew 
202; u p. 46 xv; ge p. 80 


gagner [gajie] o 63; ^ p. 81 xl 
gai [ge] ai 82, 124, 322, p. 32 vii, 

p. 49 xvi; ga p. 79 xxxvin 
gain [ge] ain p. 56 xxi B 
Galaad [galaad] d p. 74 xxxv, p. 

162 LXV 
Galat6e [galate] p. 162 lxv 
GaUlge (la) [galile] p. 162 lxv 
galimatias [galimatja] [galimatja] 

galop [galo] p 249, p. 156 lxtv 
galoper [galope] 109 
gamme [gam] a 54 



gangrdne [gagren] ga, qr p. 79 

gant [gaj g 4; an p. 56 xxi B; ga 

p. 79 xxxvin 
garantie [garati] tie 292 
garson [garsS] q 32, 176, 267; a 

54; fir 195 
gardien [gardje] ien 162 
gargotte [gargot] ga, go p. 79 

gargouille [gargu(0j] ga, go p. 79 

gamir [gamiir] r p. 104 l 
gars [ga:r] [ga] r 265 
Gascogne [gaskaji] gn p. 81 xl, 

p. 162 LXv 
gat4 [gate] ^ 195 
giteau [gato] eau 102 
Gaule (la) [go:l] au p. 162 lxy 
gaz [ga:z] a 60, p. 25 iv; z 316, 

gaze [ga:z] a 13, 60, p. 25 iv 
gazon [gaz5] a 60, p. 25 iv; z p. 

122 Lvni 
ge before a, o, w [3] 202 
geai [se] [se] e 77; ai 82, 124, 

geindre [seidr] ein p. 56 xxi B; 

ge p. 80 XXXIX 
gMe [3e(:)l] ^ 87; ^^ p. 80 xxxix 
gdlerais [selre] b 88 
g^mir [semiir] ^^ p. 80 xxxrx 
genime [3em] mm p. 94 xly; m 
■ p. 96 XLVii 

gendre [saidr] en p. 51 xviii 
gSne feem] n p. 96 XLvn 
generation [5enerasj5] a p. 25 iv 

gens [3a] [35:8] gr 201; 8 275; n p. 

gent [3a] [3a:t] t 300 
gentil [3ati] U 230; g p. 152 lxiii; 

I p. 156 LXiv 
gentilhomme [3atijam] U 230; I 

230, 329, p. 163 lxvi 
gentilshommes [satizam] [3ati- 

jom] U 230; I, s p. 163 lxvi 
gentiment [satima] ge p. 80 


Geoflfroy [sofTrwa] e 77 
g^ographie [3eagrafi] p. 19 11 
ge61e [30:1] ged 202 
gedlier [3olje] e 77, p. 163 lxvi; 

ged 202 
George [3or3] e p. 30 vi 
Georges [3or3] e 77; Geo 202, p. 

George Sand [3013 said] d p. 74 


Georges est riche [3ar3 e riS] a 

geranium [3eranjom] u 113, p. 

43 XI, p. 163 LXVI 
gerce [serse] ge p. 80 xxxix 
germaine [3ermen] ge p. 80 xxxix 
Gertrude [sertryd] Ge p. 80 


Gerusez [3eryze] z 318 

gesir [3ezi:r] s 269 

gestes [3est] ge p. 80 xxxix 

gg [g] 195; before e [g^] 203 

gibbosite [3ibozite] 66 p. 68 


gibeciere [3ipsje:r] gi p. 80 




gibier [sibje] gi p. 80 xxxix 
gibus [siby.'s] s p. 109 li 
gigantesque [sigatesk] ^ p. 80 


Gigogne [sigoji] Oi p. 80 xxxix 
gigot [5igo] gi p. 80 xxxrx; t p. 

GU Bias [5il blais] s 274 
gilet bile] et92; gi p. 80 xxxrx 
gingembre [sesaibr] gi, ge p. 80 


Girault [siro] I 223 

girouette [sirwet] ^ p. 80 xxxix 

gisant [3iza] s 269 

gisent [3i:z] 8 269 

gisons [5is5] [sizd] s 269 

gite [5i(:)t] i 95; gr 201; ^ p. 80 


Glascow [glazko] s p. 162 lxv 
gloire [glwair] g 195 
glorieuse [gbrJ0:z] eu 115 
glose [glo:z] o 101 
gn [ji] 195, 207, 329; [gn] 200, 

gnome [gnoim] [gno:m] gn 200 
gnostiques [gnastik] gn 200 
gnou [gnu] gn 200 
gobbe [gob] 66 p. 68 xxvn 
Goethe [goit] p. 163 lxvi 
gogo [gogo] go p. 79 xxxviii 
golfe [golf] op. 43 XI 
gomme [gom] go p. 79 xxxvin 
gond [g5] on p. 56 xxi B 
gonfler [g5fle] go p. 79 xxxviii 
Gonzague [g5zag] Go p. 79 


Goritz [gorits] z p. 122 Lvin 

gosse [gos] o 107 
Goth [go] t 301 
gouache [gwaS] otea 156 
gouleuz [gul0] I p. 87 xun 
Gounod [guno] d p. 74 xxxiv, p. 

163 LXVI 
goiit [gu] ou 119, 128; g 195 
gouvernail [guvema:]] a 61 
gr&ce [gra:s] d 58 
Gracques (les) [grak] p. 162 lxv 
graillon [graj5] a 63 
graisse [gr8:s] ai 84, 123, 321 
grammaire [grameir] mm 233 
grammatical [gra(m)matikal] 

mm 238; m p. 96 XLvn 
grammaticalement [gramatikal- 

ma] mm p. 94 xlv 
grand [gra] d 189; g 195 
grande [graid] an p. 51 xviii 
grandement [gradma] en 131 
grand et bien fait [gra e bje fe] d 

granit [granit] [grani] t 299, 300, 

p. 117 Lii, p. 163 LXVI, Lxvn 
grasse [gra:s] a 60 
grasseyer [graseje] ey 90, 125, 

159, 323, p. 36 viii, p. 49 xvi 
gratis [gratiis] 8 275, p. 156 lxiv 
grave [graiv] 28 
grec [grek] c p. 70 xxx 
greffier [gref je] ff 167 
grSle [greil] S 85 
greler [grele] S 86 
grenouille [gr9nu:j] ouiUe 226; 

e p. 30 v; p. 156 lxtv 
gresil [grezisj] [grezi] [grezil] U 

226, 228, 229 



grief [grief] / p. 76 xxxvi, p. 163 


gril [gri] il 230, p. 163 um 
Grimm [grim] imm 139 
Gringoire [gregwair] p. 79 

grise [griiz] p. 19 II ; 1 p. 37 dc 
Groenland [groela], popular 

[groenla] d p. 74 xxxiv; p. 162 


grog [gro(i)g] g 206 

grognon [gropo] ^ p. 81 xl 

gros [gro] o 100 

groseille [grozeij] HI p. 90 xliv 

grosse [gro:s] [gros] o 100 

grosseur [grosoe:r] eu p. 45 xin 

grossier [grosje] o 100 

gu before 6, i, y [g] 195, 196, 329; 

before i [gqi] 198; before a [gw] 

Guadalaxara [gwadalaksara] Gua 

Guadalupe [gwadalyp] Gt^a 199 
Guadalquivir [gwadalkivi:r] ua 

156; p. 162 LXV 
Guadeloupe [gwadlup] va, 156, 

p. 162 LXV 
Guam [gwam] Gvxi 199 
guano [gwano] v/i 156 
Guarda [gwarda] Gua 199 
Guarini [gwarini] Gvxi 199 
Guatemala [gwatemala] t^a 156; 

Guayaquil [gwajakil] Gua 199 
gu6 [ge] ^ 195, 329 
guenille [gamCOj] e p. 30 v; ^ p. 

79 xxxvni 

gudpe [g8!p] ^ 85 ; (^ p. 79 xxxviii 
-guer [ge] u 197 
guerilla [gerilla] UL p. 156 lxiv 
gu4rir [geriir] gu p. 79 xxxvni 
Guemesey [gemze] e p. 162 lxv 
guerre [ge:r] gu p. 79 xxxviii 
guet [ge] ^ p. 79 xxxvni 
guet-apens [get apa] t p. 163 


gueule [goel] [g0:l] eu p. 156 lxiv 
gueuse [g0:z] eu 14, p. 44 xii, p. 

49 xvi 
gueuz [g0] eu p. 49 xvi, p. 156 

guichet [gije] t p. 163 lxvi 
guide [gi(:)d] ^ 195, p. 79 

Guillaume [gijo:m] HI 224 
guillemets [gijme] 419 
Guise [gi:z] gu 195 
guitare [gitair] gu p. 79 xxxvni 
Guizot [gizo] [gwizo] gu 195, 

p. 163 LXVI 
gun [gee] un p. 56 xxi B 
Gunther [g5te:r] un 142 
guttural [gytyral] gu p. 79 


Guy [gi] Gu p. 79 xxxvni 
— Ouyane [gqi j an] uy p. 162 lxv 
Guyenne (la) [gqijen] uy p. 162 

Guyot [gijo] gu 195 
gymnase [5imna:z] ymn 140; gy 


gymnaste [simnast] g 201 
gymnastique [simnastik] m 234; 
^2/ p. 80 XXXIX 



As neither h aspiree nor h muette are pronounced (210), they are 
absent phonetically. But as neither elision nor linking take place 
before h aspiree, this fact is shown by writing all words containmg h 
aspiree with an inverted comma before the h, thus *h. 

Nevertheless an h more or less aspirate may be heard: !<> In cer- 
tain interjections: ha! haltel han! hop IHI hue I oh^I oho! 2o In 
words of an onomatopoetic origin, particularly when expressive of 
violent emotion :haleter, Han d'Islande, h61er, hennir, hurler. 3o In 
emphatic utterance: une haine effroyable; la houle s'enfle; c'est une 
honte! 4o Even in some words where no h is written: Baal [bahal]; 
fleau [fleho]; geant beha]; monstrueux [mostryhe], and sometimes in 
le onze [b h5:z] most probably due to analogy of la honte. But such 
cases do not appear to represent normal usages. Cf. Kr. Nyrop: 
Manuel phorUtique dufrangais parU, 2® 6d., traduite et remani6e par 
Emmanuel Philipot, Paris, 1902. 

h [aS] [(h)8] 22, 24; [h] 216, mute 
and aspirate 208-215; 309, 
312, 379, 390, 391 

habillons [abij5] ill p. 90 xltv 

habit [abi] t 295 

•hache [aS] ch 4; h 211 

•hachis [aSi] /i 211 

'hagard [aga:r] A 211 

*haie [e] A 211 

'haillon [aj5] a 63, p. 25 iv 

<haiUons [aj5] A 211 

'haine [en] h 211, p. 163 lxvi 

*hair [aiir] 33; h 211; i p. 156 


haleine [ale(:)n] ei p. 49 xvi 

*haler [ale] /i 211 

*haier [ale] h211 

*haleter [alte] /i 211 

'Halifax [alifaks] x p. 121 lvii 

*haUe [al]/i211 

'haUier [alje] h211 

'halte [alt] ^i 211 

<hamac [amak] c 178, 340, 341; 

A 211 
'Hambourg [abuir] g 205; H 211 

g p. 162 Lxv 
'hameau [amo] A 211 
'hanap [anap] p 250 
'hanche [&$] A 211 
'hangar [aga:r] A 211 
'hanneton [ant5] A 211 
*hanter [ate] A 211 
'harangue [araig] A 211 
*harasser [arase] A 211 
*hardes [ard] A 211 
*hardi [ardi] h 211 
'hareng [ara] h211 
'hargneux [arjie] A 211; ^ p. 81 


'haricot [ariko] h211 
'hamais [ame] A 211 
'Harold [arold] d p. 74 xxxv 
'harpe [arp] h211 
'harpon [arp5] A 211 



'hart [air] A 211 

'hasard [azair] A 211 

Mte [a:t] h 211; d p. 25 iv 

'haubert [oheir] h 211 

'hausser [ose] A 211 

*haut [o]h2n;tp. 117 liv 

'Haute (paifaite) considlration 

[oit (parfet) kosiderosjo] 428 
'hauteur [otoeir] eu p. 45 xiii 
'Havane [avan] H 211; a p. 162 

'Mve [aiv] h 211 

•Havre [aivr] [aivr] H 211 

'havresac [avrasak] [avrasak] 

'Hawa! [awai] p. 162 lxy 
'h^las [elais], old [ela] a 60, p. 25 

iv; 8 275; p. 163 lxvii; a, s p. 

Helvltien [elvesje] t 286 
'hennir [aniir], popular [eniir] e 

55; en 134, p. 21 iii, p. 156 

Lxiv, p. 163 Lxvi; h 211; nn 

p. 96 XLvi 
'hennissement [anisma], popular 

[enisma] en p. 163 lxvii 
'Henri [an] ^211 
H^rault [ero] I 223 
'h^raut (h^raut) [ero] h 211;^295, 

p. 117 liv; 
herbe [erb] c 91, p. 36 viii 
Herculanum [erkylanam] m 235 
hermds [ermeCOs] s p. 109 li 
Hermione [ermjan] o 111 
herolcomique [eroikamik] h 214 
heroine [erain] h 214 
herolque [eraik] ^214 

h^rolquement [eroikma] h 214 

hirolsme [eraism] [eroizm] A 214 

*h6ron [ero] h 211 

•heros [ero]/i211,214,p.l63LXVi 

•hdtre [e:tr] ^ 85; A 211 

heure [oeir] eu p. 45 xui, p. 161 

heureuse [oerozz] eu 115 
heureux [oero] [oro] [aro] eu 114, 

127, 326, p. 44 xii, p. 156 

Lxiv; X 315 
'heurter [oerte] h211;eupA5 xiii 
hex- 310, 312 
hexagone [egzagan] [egzagom] 

[egzagdn] [egzagom] [eksagom] 

o 111; X 312 
hexamdtre [egzametr] [egzametr] 

[eksametr] x 312 
hiatus [jatyis] s 275, p. 156 lxiv, 

p. 163 lxvi; linking or elision 

'hibou [ibu] A 211 
'hideuse [idezz] 6t« p. 44 xii 
'hideux [ide] h211 
hier [jeir] [i(j)e:r] ie 152, p. 60 

XXIII ; r 263, p. 156 lxiv; link- 
ing or elision optional 
'hi^rarchie [jerarSi] ^211 
Himalaya [imalaja] p. 162 lxv 
hippodrome [ipadrom] [ipodroim] 

hippopotame [ipopotam] p p. 98 


'hisser [ise] h211 

Histoires des croisades [istwair 

de krwaza(:)d] H 404 
hiver [iv8:r] r 263, p. 156 lxiv 



<hoUl [ala] d 50 
*Hollande [olaid] ff 211 
'homard [omair] A 211 
homme [am] mm 233 ; m p. 57 xxn 
<Hongrie [5gri] H 211 
honn^tet^ [onette] nn 146 
honneur [anceir] nn 239; eu p. 49 


honorable [anara(!)bl] n 146 

•honte [5:t] h 4t, 211, p. 163 lxvi 

hdpital [apital] 6 97, p. 43 xi 

'hoquet [ake] ^211 

Horatien [orasje] t 286 

Horatius [arosjys] ^ p. 117 un 

horrible [orribl] rr 168 

•hors [oir] A 211 

*hors d'ceuvre [or d oeivr] A 211 

*hors ligne [ar liji] A 211 

hosanna [oza(n)na] o 101 

hospice [aspis] o 110, p. 43 xi 

hostie [asti] ti 290 

hostile [astil] o 108, p. 43 xi 

hdtel [otel] 6 97, p. 43 xi 

•houblon [ublo] /i 211 

<houille [u:j] h 211 

'hourra [ura] A 211 

*housse [us] /i 211 

*houx [u] h 211; ou p. 45 xiv; 

X p. 122 LVii 
'huant [qa] uan 162 
•huche [yS] A 211 
Hudson [ytso] d p. 162 lxv 
*Hugo [ygo] H 211 
'huguenot [ygno] /i 211 
*Hugues [yg] p. 162 lxv 
huile [qifs)l] ui 4, p. 64 xxv 
huissier [qisje] ui p. 64 xxv 

*huit [qit] h 31, 211, 213, 371; t 

298, 302; p. 156 lxiv 
'huitaine [qiten] h 213 
*huit enfants [qit of a] ^p. 156 lxiv 
*huit heures [qit (B:r] t 302 
*huiti&ne [qitjem] h 31, 213, 215, 

317, 371, 390 
'huitidmement [qitjemma] A 213 
*huit jours [qi 3U!r] t p. 156 lxiv 
'huit poires [qi pwair] t 302 
Humbert [Sbezr] um 142 
humble [ceibl] um 4, 14, 144, p. 

56 XXI 
humblement [debbma] um 144, 

p. 56 XXI 
^huppe [yp] h 211 
'hurlement [yrbma] e 393 
*hurler [yrle] A 211 
'hussard [ysa:r] A 211 
'hussite [ysit] h p. 152 Lxm 
*hutte [yt] A 211 
'hyacinthe [jasezt] ya 152; y 154; 

A 211 
'Hyacinthe [jaseit] p. 162 lxv 
hygidne [isjein] i^ p. 60 xxin 
hymen [imen] [ime] en 133; n 

241, p. 96 xlvi, p. 156 Lxrv, 

p. 162 LXV 
hymne [imn] ymn 140, p. 156 

hjTpocrite [ipakrit] y 96 

i [i] 22, 24; 94, 120; [j] 153; 383, 

I [i] 94, 95 



-ia [ja] 152 

-iai [je] 152 

-ian [ja] 161, 162 

-iau [jo] 152 

ibidem [ibidem] p. 161 XIV 

ibis [ibi!s] 8 275 

ici [isi] i p. 37 ix 

idem [idem] em 134, p. 163 lxvi; 

p. 161 XIV; m 235 
idiome [idjo:m] o 14, 111 
idiote [idJDt] io 152 
idyUe [idil] yU 232, p. 156 LXiv 
-ie, -i6 [je] [je] 152 
-ieil [jeij] U 226 
-ieille [jeij] iU 226 
-ien [je] en 135, 136, 161, 162; 

[ja] en 135, Note 
— ient of verbs t 351 
— ieu [J0] 152 
if [if ]/ p. 76 XXXVI 
ignoble [ijiabl] ^ p. 81 xl 
ignorant [ijiora] ^ p. 81 xl; o p. 

(i)il [(i)j] U 226 
(i)ille [(i)j] iU 226 
il [U] [i] 31, 386, 389 
-a [j] [il] 91, 118, 127, 150, 155, 

224-227, 329; final [il] [i] [j] 

il conquiert ime province [il 

k5kje:r yn proveis] t 380 
il court au feu [il kuir o fe] t 356 
(il) coAte [(il) kut] ou p. 45 xiv 
ile [i(2)l] t 29, 95 
il 6crit ime r^ponse [il ekrit yn 

rep5:s] t 334 
il en a diz [ilonadis] x p. 121 lvii 

il est all6 auz Arts et metiers [il 

et ale oz a!rz e metje] A p. 153 

il est done arrive [il e d5k arive] 

il est fort et bien biti [il e foir e 

bje bati] t 352 
il est grand et beau [il e grd e 

bo] d p. 141 Lx 
il est llger et Itourdi [il e lese e 

eturdi] r 347 
11 est suspect k son parti [il e 

syspek a s5 parti] [il e syspe a 

85 parti] ect 353 
11 est venu vendredi le trois mars 

[il e vany vadrsdi la trwa 

mars] v, m 398 
il 6tudie le fran^ais [il etydi la 

f rose] / 399 
il extravaguait [il ekstravage] 

gua 197 
il faut ecrire [il fot ekri:r] t 333 
il faut essayer [il fot eseje] 1 350 
il harangua [il araga] gvxi 197 
ill- [il] 232 
-ill [j] [il] 42, 168; 91, 118, 127, 

150, 155, 224-227, 232, 329 
il Pa [i 1 a] 384 
il I'aime [il e!m] 388 
illegal [iUegal] II 168; %a 231 
illettre [illetre] I 43 
illimiti [illimite] II 168 
iUisible [ia)Uzi(:)bl] 1 43; %a 231; 

i p. 37 IX 
illusion [illyzj5] II 168 
illustre [illystr] U 168 
illustrer [i(l)lystre] iU 231 



n m'a dit: «Faites-le toujours» 

[il m a di: «fet la tusuim] /, F 

(il) meurt [(il) moeir] eu p. 45 xm 
il meurt avec courage [il moeir 

avek kuraisl t 356 
il ne salt pas [il na se pa] e 394 
il nous aime [il nuz e:m] s 332 
il rompt [il r5] om p. 55 xx 
ils [il] [i] 31, 389 
ils aiment [ilz e:m] n 244; e 391 
ils aimerent [ilz em8:r] n 244 
il salt [il se] [il se] ai 82, 124, 322, 
. p. 32 VII, p. 49 XVI 
ils chantent [il Sa:t] n 244 
ils chantdrent [il Sate:r] n 244 
ils content [il k5:t] e p. 30 vi 
ils haissent [il ais] i p. 156 lxiv 
il se conduit bien en classe [il 

sa kodqi bje a klais] n 378 
ils entendent [il ata:d] n p. 96 


il s'en va [il s a va] 384 

il serait bon qu'il arriv&t au- 

jourd'hui [il sare b5 k il ariva 

03urdqi] t 356 
ils se rendent en classe deux H 

deux [ilsaraidta kla:sd0z ado] 

dy X p. 141 Lix 
il s'est offert H le soigner [il s et 

ofeir a la swajie] t 356 
ils ^tudient bien [ilz etydi bje] s 

p. 141 LIX« 

ils excellent [ilz eksel] e p. 30 vi 
ils finirent [il finiir] n 244 
ils finissent [il finis] n 244 
ils querront [il kerro] rr 168 

il tient k cela [il tjet a sala] t 351 
il vainc [il ve] c p. 71 xxxi 
ilvient k temps [il vjet a ta] ^ 

il y a [il j a] 2/ 153 
il y en a [il i on a] 2/ 153 
n y a cinq ans [il j a sek d] q p. 

141 LIX 

il y en a neuf [il j on a noef]/ 194 

il y en a sept, huit, vingt [il j a 

a set, qit, ve:t] t 302 
im [e] 135; [im] 138 
image [imais] im 138; m p. 57 

imbecile [ebesil] im 135 
imbeciUitg [ebe8i(l)Ute] iU 232 
imbroglio [ebraljo] g 204 
-hnes [im] i 15 
imitable [imitabl] im 138 
imitg [imite] i p. 37 ix 
imm- [im] 138, 168, 238 
immacule [imakyle] imm 138; 

mm p. 94 xlv; m p. 96 XLvn 
immanent [immana] mm, 168 
immediat [i(m)medja] m 43; im 

p. 163 LXVI, LXVII 

immense [imais] imm 138; mm 

168, p. 94 xlv; m p. 96 XLvn; 

im p. 156 LXIV 
immeuble [i(m)m(B(!)bl] m p. 

96 XLVII ; im p. 156 lxiv 
immigration [imigrasj5]imm 138, 

imminent [i(m)mina] mm p. 57 


immobile [immobil] mm 168; im 
p. 156 LXIV 



immodeste [i(m)m3dest] mm p. 

57 xxii; im p. 156 lxiv 
immoler [imole] m p. 96 xlyii; 

im p. 156 LXIV 
immonde [immSid] m 43 
immoral [i(m)moral] mm 168, 

238; im p. 156 lxiv 
immortel [i(m)mortel] mm p. 94 

XLv; m p. 96 XLvn 
immune [iinm3ni] mm 168 
impartial [eparsjal] t 282 
impartiality [eparsjaGte] t p. 117 


impatiemment [epasjama] t 287 
impatience [epasjais] t 287 
impatient [epasja] t 287 
impatientant [epasjata] t 287 
impatienter [epasjate] t 287 
importun [epartce] un p. 56 xxi 
imposant [epoza] im 45 
impot [epo] t 295 
Lnprimes [eprime] 431 
impromptu [epr5pty] p 248 
in [e] 135, 243, p. 56 xxi B; 161; 

[in] 138, 146, 242 
inaction [inaksjo] n p. 96 xlvi 
inadequat [inadekwa] p. 117 liv 
inanim6 [inanime] n 146, 239 
inaper^u [inapersy] in 138 
inattentif [inatatif] n 146 
incognito [ekojiito] gn 40 
incomprlhensibilite [ek5prea- 

sibilite] 25 
inconstant [ekosta] in 45 
incorrect [ekorekt] t 296 
incroyable [8krwaja(:)bl] oy p. 

156 Lxrvr 

indemniser [edamnize] e 55 
indemnite [edamnite] e 55; m 234 
index [edeks] x 310; in p. 53 xix 
indigo [edigo] o 99 
indirect [edirekt] t 296 
in-diz-huit [e diz qit] t 299 
in-douze [e du:z] in 243, p. 163 


indult [edylt] t 299 

inegal [inegal] in 44 

inerte [inert] in 138 

ineptie [inepsi] ti 292; ^ p. 117 

Liii; in, t p. 163 lxvi 
inertie [inersi] ti 292; ^ p. 117 liii; 

inj t p. 163 Lxvi 
inexact [inegzakt] in^\t 296 
inexpugnable [ine(k)spygna(:)bl] 

in extenso [in eksteso] n 242 
in extremis [in ekstremis] n 242 
infect [efekt] t 296 
in-foUo [efoljo] in 243, p. 161 

ingredient [egredja] ien p. 65 


inhabile [inabil] h 39, 209; in 138; 

n p. 96 XLVI 
inhabitable [inabitabl] h 39 
inherent [inera] n p. 96 xlvi 
inhospitable [inaspitabl] h 39 
inhumain [inyme] h 39 
inimiti^ [inimitje] ti 293; ^ p. 117 


initial [inisjal] t 267, 282; in, t p. 

156 lxiv 
initiation [inisjasj5] ti 293 
initiative [inisjatiiv] i p. 37 ix 



initier [inisje] ti 293; t p. 117 un 
inn- [in] 138 

inni [inne] n 43; inn 138, 168; 

nn 239, p. 57 xxii, p. 156 Lxnr 

innocemment [indsama] n p. 57 


innocence [inosais] in 44; nn 239 
innocent [inosa] inn 138; nn 146 
innombrable [innSbrabl] n 43; 

in 44, p. 156 lxiv; inn 138; nn 

p. 96 xLvi 
innovation [inovosjS] n p. 96 

XLvii; in p. 156 lxiv 
innover [innove] nn p. 57 xxn 
in-octavo [inaktavo] n 242; in p. 

inodore [inadoir] n p. 57 xxn 
inoul [inwi] n p. 57 xxn; in p. 

156 Lxrv 
in pace [in pase] n 242 
in partibus [in partibys] n 242 
in petto [in petto] n 242 
in piano [in piano] n 242 
in-quarto [ekwarto] in 243; gu 

256; in, w p. 163 lxvi 
inquiet [ekje] qu 254 
in-seize [ese:z] in 243 
insomnie [esamni] m 234 
inspirer [espire] in 44 
instant [esta] in 38, 44 
in statu quo [in staty kwo] n 

instiller [esti(l)le] iZ 232 
instinct [este] in 135; ct 164, p. 

163 Lxvi; c p. 71 xxxi; n p. 

96 XL VII 
instruire [estrqiir] in 44 

instnsment [estryma] 38 
intact [etakt] 1 296 
intelligence [etelisam] { p. 87 

intelligent [etelisa] U 220 
intSr^t [eter8].<295 
interim [gterim] m 235 
inutile [inytil] in 44, p. 156 


invasion [eves j 5] a 60 

-io [jo] 152 

-ion [j5] 161, 162 

iris [iri:s] s 275 

iir- initial [irr] rr 168, 259 

irraisonnable [i(r)r8zona(!)bl] r 

p. 104 L 
irrationnel [irrasjonel] rr 168 
irr^condliable [i(r)rek96ilja!bl] r 

p. 104 L 
irregulier [i(r)regylie] r p. 104 l 
irreparable [irreparabl] rr 168 
irritable [irritabl] r 43 
irritant [irrita] rr 168 
irruption [irrypsjS] rr 168; r p. 

104 L 
Islam [islam] a 54 
islamisme [islamism] i p. 152 

Islande (P) [islazd] 8 p. 162 lxv 
Israel [izrael] s 271 
isthme [ism] t 301; Oi p. 156 

italien [italje] ien p. 65 xxvi 
item [item] m 235 
-ites [it] 1 15 
-itie [isi] t 281 
-iu [jy] 152 



J M [39l 22, 24; fel 217, 338 

Jacob [sakob] b 171 

Jacob est venue [sakab 8 vdny] 

6 339 
Jacques [zaik] j p. 86 xui 
jadis [sadis] [sadis], old [sadi] 

[sadi] a 64; s 275, p. 156 Lxrvr, 

p. 163 Lxvn 
j'ai [3 e] 31; at 82, 124, 322, p. 49 

xvi;j p. 86xLU 
Pai I'honneur d'Stre, Madame, 

votre trds dlvou6 et respec- 

tueux ami [3 e 1 anceir d eitr, 

madam, votr tre devwe e re- 

spektxiez ami] 429 
j'aime [3 eim] 384 
jais [58] j p. 86 XLH 
jalap [3alap] p 250 
j'allai [3 ale] at 82 
jalouse [3alu:z] ou p. 45 xiv 
jalouz [3alu] ou p. 45 xiv; x p. 

jamais [3am8] ais 90;i 217; <d p. 

36 vni 
jambe [sasb] am 131 
Japhet [3af8t] t 299 
jardin [sarde] j p. 86 xlh 
jardiner [sardine] r 262 
j'argu^ [3 argy] gue 197 
jars [sair] j p. 86 xui 
jase [3a:z] a 60 

j'assieds [3 asje] d p. 74 xxxiv 
jatte [3at] j p. 86 xlii 
jaune [30m] j 201 
j'aurai [5 ore] [3 ore] at 82; au, 

112, 126, 325 

je [39] e 66; 383, 385, 397 
Jean [3a] j 4, 217; e 78, 116, p. 

30 vi; an p. 51 xyin, p. 56 

Jean est petit [3a e pati] n 377 
Jean et Alexis [3a e aleksi] t p. 

141 LX 

Jeanne feain] e 78, 116, p. 30 vi; 

ea p. 163 lxvi 
je chantai [39 Sate] at 124, 321 
je chanterai [39 Satre] at 322 
je conduirai [39 kSdqire] at p. 49 


je confonds [39 k5f5] d p. 74 


je conjuguais [39 kSsyge] giM 197 
je courrai [39 kurre] rr 168 
je distinguai [39 distege] giui 197 
je dois aller [39 dwaz ale] s 333 
je donnerai [39 donre] at p. 32 


je faisais [39 f9Z8] at p. 156 lxiv 
je le crois [39 1 krwa] e 73 
je le donne [39 1 don] e 73 
je louerai [39 lure] e p. 30 vi 
je mangeai [39 ma3e] at 82 
je m'assieds [39 m asje] e 80 
je mords [39 mo!r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
je ne sais pas [39 n S8 pa] e 394 
Jenny Lind [38ni lind] [senni 

lind] d p. 74 xxxv 
je paierai [39 p8jre] e p. 30 vi 
je parlai [39 parle] at 322 
je parlerais [39 parlre] at 321, 

p. 32 VII 
je prevaux [39 prevo] x p. 122 




je r^pands [33 repa] d p. 74 


je romps [39 r5] p p. 157 lxiv 

Jersey [serze] s 271 

Jerusalem [seryzalem] em 134, 

Jerusalem est vaincu [seryzalem 

e veky] m 374 
je sais [3a se] [y 8b] ai 82, 124, 

322, p. 32 VII 
Jlsus [3ezy(is)] j p. 86 xm, p. 

156 LXIV 
J^sus-Christ feezy kri] feezy 

krist] s 272; « 301; «, st p. 156 

LXIV, p. 161 XIV 
jet [3e] j 217 

jeu [30] j 201 ; 6u p. 44 xn 
jeudi [30di] eu 114, p. 44 xn, p. 

49 XVI 
jeun [sob] eun p. 56 xxi B 
jeune [seen] eu 118, 127, 327, p. 

jeiine [30:11] ed 114, 127 
jeiiner [30ne] ed 114, p. 49 


jeunesse [3(Bnes] eu p. 44 xii 

jeiineur [30noeir] edi p. 49 xvi 

jeiineuse [30n0:z] edi p. 49 xvi 

(j*)eus [3 y] w p. 46 xv 

je verrai [39 verre] ai 82 

je viendrai [30 vjedre] ai 82 

Je vous embrasse tendrement 

(affectueusement) [39 vuz 

abras tadroma (afektxi0zma)] 

Je vous prie d'agreer I'ezpres- 

sion de ma consideration dis« 

tingu6e [33 vu pri d agree 
lekspr88J5 da ma kdsiderosjS 
distege] 428 

Je vous prie de croire k Pexpres- 
sion de mes meilleurs senti- 
ments [39 vu pri da krwa:r a 
lekspresjS da me mejceir sd- 

Je vous prie, Madame, d'agr6er 
I'ezpressionde meshommages 
respectueux [39 vu pri, ma- 
dam, d agree lekspresjo da 
mez oma:3 respektqe] 429 

Je vous serre cordialement la 
main [33 vu se:r kordjalmd la 
me] 427 

Je vous souhaite une bonne et 
heureuse annle [39 vu swet yn 
ban e cerozz ane] 430 

j'irai [3 ire] ai p. 49 xvi 

j'irais [3 ire] ai 321, 322 

Joab feoab] 6 171 • ' 

Joab Itait neveu de David [3oab 
ete nav0 da david] h 339 

Joad [3oad] d p. 74 xxxv 

joaillerie [3wajri] oaUle 226 

joaillier [3waje] oaiUe 226 

Job [30b] h 171 

jockey [3oke] [3oke] k 218 

joindre feweidr] in 136, p. 53 xix 
01 p. 62 xxiv; j p. 86 XLn 

joint [3we] j p. 86 xlii 

joU [3oU] [3CBli] j 201, 217 

jonc [35] c 179, 340; on p. 56 xxi 
B;j p. 86xLn 

jonquille feSkiCOj] j* p. 86 xm 

Joseph [sozef] J p." 86 XLn 



Josephine [sozefin] j p. 86 xui 
joiiai J3we] ova, p. 62 xxiv 
joiiant bwa] (yimn p. 65 xxvi 
jouer [swe] (me 156, p. 62 xxrv; 

j p. 86 XLii 
jouer auz tehees [3we oz eje] c 

p. 71 XXXI 
jouet [swe] otie 156 
joueur [swoeir] oueu 156 
joueuse [3W0!z] (meu 156 
joug bu] [3u(i)g] flf 205, 206, 365, 

p. 156 Lxiv, p. 163 Lxvii 
joulr bwiir] 36 
joujou [3U3u] <m 128, 328, p. 45 

xiv; j217 
jouons [3w5] ouon 162 
jour feuir] ou 119, p. 45 xiv 
Journal des Savants [3umal de 

sava] /, 5 406 
joumle [3ume] j p. 86 xlii 
joute but] j p. 86 XUI 
jouter [3ute] ou p. 49 xvi 
joyeusement [swajezma] e 393 
Joyeuse NoSl [3waJ0:z nael] 430 
joyeuz fewajo] j p. 86 xui 
judalsme bydaism] [sydaizm] j 

Judas [3yda] a 59 
Judith [sydit] ik 299 

juge [3yJ3] w 120 

juif [5qif] / 192; j p. 86 xui 

juillet [3yje(t)] [3ylje(t)] [zqi- 

je(t)] uOle 226, p. 163 lxvi 
juin [sqe] in 136, p. 53 xix; uin 

162; y p. 86xLn 
julep [3ylep] p 250 
Jules feyl] j p. 86 xlh 

Julien [sylje] j p. 86 xlii 

jumelles feymel] j p. 86 xlh 

Jupiter [3ypite:r] r 263 

jus [3y] « 273 

jusqu'a [3ysk a] 386 

jusqu'H la mort de Henri IV 

[3ysk a la moir d ari katr] H 

jusqu'alors bysk alair] 386 
jusque [3ysk(8)] e 386 
jusqu'en [sysk a] 386 
jusqu'ici [3ysk isi] 386 
juste [syst] j 217; w p. 46 xv 
jute [3yt] j p. 86 xoi 

k [ka] [ko] 22, 24; [k] 218, 255; 

final [k] 165, 343 
k^pi [kepi] k 218 
kilo [kilo] k 218 
kilograinme [kilogram] k 218 
kilometre [kibmetr] 22; k 218 
kiosque Pcjosk] k 218 
kirsch [kirS] sch 278 
Kleber [klebeir] r 263 
knout [knut] t 299 
Kremlin [kremle] m 235 

1 [el] [la] 22, 24; 91; final [1] 165, 
221, 344; liquid [j] 155, 224- 
228, 329; silent 223, 230 

la [la] a 31, 49, 385, 388, p. 21 
III, p. 87 XLiii; I 220; 410 

Hi [la] d 50 



La balle 6tait derridre une chaise 
au salon [la bal etc derjeu* yn 
Seiz o sal5] e 395 

la basse Bretagne [la bous bratap] 

. B410 

U Bastille [la bastiO)]] B p. 153 


I'abb^ de I'fple [1 abe da 1 epe] 

la Beotie [la bcasi] t 281 
la Biographie Didot [la biagrafi 

dido] B, D 403 
laboureur [laburoeir] ou p. 45 


la Bruydre [la bryjeir] B 410 
lac [lak] a p. 21 in; c p. 70 xxx 
PAcad^mie des sciences [1 aka- 

demi de sjais] A 404 
la caisse d'epargne [la keis 

d eparji] c, ^ p. 153 lxiii 
La campagne est belle et agre- 

able en juin [la kapaji e bel e 

agrea(i)bl a swe] e 395 
la cathedrale d' Amiens est ma- 

gnifique [la katedral d amje(n) 

e majiifik] s 368 
lacet [lase] [lose] a 64 
la chambre des lords [la Sa:br de 

bir] Z p. 153 LXIII 
la chambre des pairs [la Jaibr de 

peir] p p. 153 lxiii 
la chancellerie de la Legion 

d'honneur [la Jaselri da la 

le3J5 d onoeir] L p. 153 lxiii 
mche [la:S] ch 182 
la Chdvre et la Brebis [la S^zvr e 

la brabi] C, B 407 

la congregation de Saint-Lazare 

[la kagregosjS da selazazr] S, 

la c6te d'Or [la kot d on-] c, O 418 
la cour des Miracles [la kun- de 

mira:kl] M 405 
la Critique de l'£cole des 

f emmes [la kritik da 1 ekal de 

f am] C, £ 406 
lacs [lak] a 54; c 180 
la demande [la dma:d] e 394 
la Divine Com^die [la divin ka- 

medi] D, C 402 
I'administration des domains 

[1 administrosjd de dame(!)n] 

p. 153 Lxm 
I'administration des doiianes 

[1 administrosjS de dwan] p. 

153 Lxin 
Padministration des monnaies 

[1 administrasj5 de mane] p. 

153 Lxni 
Padministration des postes [1 ad- 
ministrosjd de past] p. 153 

la djmastie mirovingienne [la 

dinasti meravesjen] d, m 408 
la dynastie napol^onienne [la 

dinasti nap'aleanjen] d, n 408 
La Fayette [la fajet] y 154; ay p. 

163 Lxvi 
la fontaine des Innocents [la 

f5te(i)n dez inasa] / 405 
la Genisse [la senis] G 407 
la Geographie de Crozat [la sea- 

grafi da kraza] G, C 403 
La Guarda [la gwarda] Gva 199 



la guerre Idate entre eux [la 

g8:r eklat atr 0] e 392 
la hache [la aS] h 216 
la haie [la e] h 216 
la halle aux bles [la al o ble] h 

p. 153 Lxin 
la halle aux cuirs [la al o kqiir] 

h p. 153 Lxui 
la halle aux draps [la al o dra] 

h p. 153 LXin 
la halle aux poissons [la al o 

pwas5] h p. 153 LXin 
la harpe [la arp] h 216 
la Haute-Mame [la oitmam] 

H, M 410 
la Havane [la avan] H 410 
la Haye [la e] H 211 
la honte [la 5:1] h 216, 379 
laid [le] e 76 

laid animal [let animal] d 363 
laide [leid] e 76, p. 30 vi 
I'aigle de Meaux (Bossuet) 

[1 e(:)gl da mo (bosqe)] M, B 

p. 153 LXiii 
I'aigle de Patmos (saint Jean) 

[1 8(i)gl da patmos (se 3a)] P, 

J p. 153 Lxni 
Laissez la porte et la fendtre 

ouvertes [lese la part e la fneztr 

uvert] e 395 
lait [le] I p. 87 xun 
laiterie [letri] 46 
la Jeune Femme colore [la seen 

fam koleir] /, F 402 
la legation russe k Berlin [la 

legosjS rys a berle] r p. 153 


la Mare au diable [la ma:r o 
dja(:)bl] [la mair o djaibl] M 

Pambassade turque k Paris 
[labasa(:)d tyrk a pari] t p. 
153 LXin 

lame [lam] m 233 

Vkme [1 a:m] 388 

Lamennais [lamne] e p. 30 vi 

Pamifaut^e de Lon^es [1 ami- 
rote da loidr] L p. 153 lxiii 

lampe [la:p] am 131, p. 51 xvui 

la musle de Versailles [la myze 
da versa:]] V p. 153 lxiii 

Pan [1 a] an p. 56 xxi B; I p. 87 


PAncien Testament [lasje tes- 

tama] A, T 402 
PAnge de Pecole (saint Thomas 

d'Aquin) [la:3 <i9 lekal (se 

toma d ake)] A, T p. 153 lxiii 
Pange des tindbres (le diable) 

[1 as3 de tene(:)br (la djaibl)] t 

p. 153 LXUI 
langue [laig] an p. 56 xxi B 
langue d'oil [laig d ail] [la:g 

d o(:)i] U 229 
la Nouvelle-£cosse [la nuvel 

ekos] 422 
la Nouvelle Helolse [la nuvel 

eloiiz] N, H 402 
la Nouvelle-Orl^ans [la nuvel 

orlea] 422 
lanteme [latem] < 279 
Laon [la] o 103 
la onzidme [la 5zjem] 390 
la ouate [la wat] 215, 371 



la petite [la ptit] e 394 

la Petite Fadette [la patit fadet] 

P, F402 
lapis [lapi:s] s p. 109 u 
la place Saint-Marc k Venise [la 

plas semasr a vaniiz] c 340 
la porte Saint-Martin [la part se 

marte] S 409 
laps [laps] p 248; s 275 
I'archeveque Blanchet [1 arSavek 

blaSe] B 411 
la reforme de Sainte-Ther^se [la 

reform da seit tereiz] S, T 417 
la regie des tabacs [la resi de 

taba] Ty t p. 153 lxiii 
la reine d'Angleterre [la rem 

d agloteir] A 414 
la reine d'Espagne [la rem d e&- 

paji] E 414 
largement [larsama] e 393 
largeur [lar5oe:r] eu p. 45 xm 
la robe est rouge [la ra(!)b e 

ru:3] e 392 
La Rochefoucauld [la rajfuko] I 

223; d p. 74 xxxiv 
la Rochelle [la raSel] R 410 
I'Arsenal [1 arsanal] A p. 153 


Part oratoire [1 airt oratwair] t 

la rue de la Bruydre [la ry da la 

bryjeir] J5 410 
la rue de P^cluse [la ry da 

1 eklyiz] E 410 
larynx [lareiks] yn 135; x 310 
las [la] a 59; s 273; I p. 87 xliii 
la semaine [la sme(:)n] e 394 

lasser [lose] a 59 

lasting [la8te:g] (7 206 

Latium [lasjam] t 288 

la tour de Babel (c'est k dire, de 

la Confusion) [la tuir da babel 

(s et a di:r da la k5fyzj5)] By C 

p. 153 Lxui 
la tour de Londres [la tuir da 

l5!dr] L p. 153 LXin 
la tour des Vents k Athene [la 

tuir de voz a atem] V, A p. 

153 Lxin 
laudanum [lodanam] u 113; um 

p. 163 Lxvi 
Laure [la:r] au 112, 126, 325, p. 

43 XI, p. 49 XVI 
laurier [lorje] au 112, 126, 325 
Pautocrate de toutes les Russies 

[1 otakrat da tut le rysi] R 413 
Lauzun [lo3oe] un p. 56 xxi 
la vallee de la Vision [la vale da 

la vizjo] V p. 153 lxui 
lave [la:v] a p. 21 m 
. la Vieille roche [la vie(i) j roj] V 

la Vieille tante [la vje(i)j tait] V 

la yole [la jol] 371 
le [la] e 66, 383, 385, 391; I 410 
-le final 222, 260 
Peau [1 o] I p. 87 xmn 
le bas Canada [la ba kanada] C 

le Beam [beair] n p. 96 xlvi 
le boeuf gras [la bee gra] / 193 
le bon et le mauvais [la b5 e la 

move] n 377 



le bon sens [la b5 sa] 8 275 
le bourg est en fSte [la bu:rk et 

a feit] g p. 141 lix 
le Caire Ra keir] C 410 
le CamoSns [la kamoe:s] C 410 
le cap des Temp^tes [la kap de 

tapeit] T 405 
le Capitole k Totilouse trans- 
forme en hdtel de ville [la ka- 

pitol a tulu:z trasfdrme an 

otel da vil] C, T p. 153 Lxin 
le chant gregorien [la Ja gre- 

gorje] g 399 
le chapeau d'Henri [b Japo d ari] 

le ChUtelet [la Satle] C p. 153 

le chemin est court et facile [la 

Same e ku:r e fasil] t 352 
le ChSne et le Roseau [la ^em e 

la rozo] C, i2 407 
le cheval d'Henri [la S(d)val 

d ori] ^ 212 
le Cid [la si(Od] d 190; C 410 
le cinq mars [la se:k mars] q 346; 

5, s p. 156 Lxiv 
le Cirque [la sirk] C p. 153 lxiu 
Leclerc [lakleir] c p. 71 xxxi 
le coing est im fruit [la kwe et de 

fnii] g 365 
Pecole [1 ekal] 384 
PEcole des chartes [lekal de 

Sart] S 404 
le comptoir d'escompte [la k5- 

twa:r d eskoit] c, e p. 153 lxiii 
le comte de la Quiche [la k5:t da 

la giS] G 410 

le comte de Monte Cristo [la 

koit da mate knsto] Af, C 411 

le$on [l(a)s5] on p. 55 xx; f p. 70 


le Conservatoire de musique [la 
kaservatwair da myzik] C 404 

le Conservatoire des arts et me- 
tiers [la k5servatwa:r dez a:rz 
e metje] C 404 

le consulat de Smyme [la kasyla 
da smim] S p. 153 LXin 

le copeck est une monnaie russe 
[la kapek et yn mane rys] A; 343 

le convent des dominicains [la 
kuva de dominike] c, d p. 153 


le cri des hiboux [la kri de ibu] h 

lecture [lektyir] w p. 46 xv 
le czar Nicholas [la tsair nikala] 

AT 411 
le desert aride [la dezeir arid] t 

le deux points [la do pwe] le 420 
le Dictionnaire de I'Academie 

[la diksjane:r da 1 akademi] D, 

A 403 
le dix avril [la dis avri(l)] x p. 

156 LXIV 
le docteur Allard [la daktceir 

ala:r] A 411 
le due d'Enghien [la dyk d age] 

le due de Saint-Simon [la dyk da 

se simo] S 409 
le fait est reconnu [la fet e ra- 

kony] t 354 



le faubourg ext6iieur [la fobuir 

eksterjoeir] g 365 
Lefebvre [lafevr] h 172 
le Flatteur et TEnvieuz [la fla- 

toeir e 1 avjo] F, E 407 
le fl^au [Id fleho] h 216 
le Fran^ais [la frase] F 399 
le froid et le chaud [la f rwat e la 

So] d 362 
le g^n^ral Boulanger [la seneral 

bulase] B 411 
llger [lese] r 262; Z p. 87 xun 
leg^ret^ [leserte] e 393 
I'eglise de Saint-Pierre [legliiz 

da se pjeir] S 409 
PIglise des penitents gris [1 egli:z 

de penita gri] e, p, g p. 153 

pgglise Saint-Germain-des-Pr6s 
I [1 egli:z s€ jerme de pre] S 409 
I'lglise Sainte-Marie-auz-Neiges 

[1 egli:z seit man o neis] S 409 
r^glise Sainte-Marie-des-Fleurs 

[1 egli:z se:t mari de floeir] iS 

le Glossaire de du Cange [la 

gloseir da dy Icais] G, C 403 
Le grand oclan [la grat asea] d 

p. 141 LIX 

legs [le] [le(i)g] g 205, p. 156 lxiv, 

p. 163 Lxvii 
le guillemet fermant [la gijme 

fenna] 420 
le guillemet ouvrant [la gijme 

le harem attrayant [la arem 

atreja] m 374 

le haricot [la ariko] h 210 
le hasard [la azair] A 379 
le Havre [la aivr] [la aivr] t; 304; 

le hSraut [la ero] /i 214 
le hSros [la ero] K 210, 214, 216 
le huit du mois [la qit dy mwa] 371 
le huit Janvier [la qit savje] 1 302 
le huit mai [la qit me] t p. 156 


le huit mars [la qit mars] h 213 
Leibnitz [lebnits] z p. 122 LVin 
Leipsick [lepsik] i p. 162 lxy 
le Jerusalem dllivr6 [la sery- 

zalem delivre] [la zerysaJem 

deUvre] J 401 
le lion de Saint-Marc [la lj5 da 

se ma:r] c 340 
Le loup court encore [la lu ku:r 

okoir] t p. 141 LX 
le Louvre en mus^e [la lu:vr a 

myze] L p. 153 Lxin 
le Luxembourg en senat [la lyk- 

sabu:r a sena] L p. 153 lxiii 
le Midtre et le Valet [la me:tr e 

la vale] M, V 407 
le Malade imaginaire [la malad 

imasineir] M 401 
le Mans [la ma] M 410 
le marc et le franc sont des 

pidces d'argent [la mair e la 

fra s5 de pjes d arsa] c 340 
le march6 au charbon [la marje 

o Sarbo] m p. 153 Lxni 
le marchi aux fleurs [la marje 

o floeir] m p. 153 lxiii 
le ministre de I'interieur [la mi- 



nistr d9 1 gterjoeir] m, i p. 153 
le ministre des finances [la mi- 

nistr de finais] m, f p. 153 


le mont Saint-Michel [la m5 se 

miSel] S 409 
I'empereur de la Chine [1 aprceir 

d3 la Si(:)nl C 411 
'Le nabab est un richard [la nabab 

et cb riSair] &, t p. 141 lix 
TEncydopldie de Diderot [1 osi- 

klopedi da didro] ^, D 403 
lendemain [ladmg] [lanme] p. 

156 Lxrv 
le neuf aofit [la nocf u] / p. 76 


le neuf d^cembre [la noef de- 

saibr] / 194 
le neuf de pique [la noef da pik] 

/ p. 76 XXXVI 
le neuf du mois [la noef dy mwa] 

/ p. 156 Lxiv 
le neuf f^vrier [la noef fevrie] / 

p. 76 XXXVI 
le Nil [la ml] U 229 
le ndtre [la noitr] 6 97 
le Nouveau-Brunswick [la nuvo 

brSzvik] 422 
lente Wait] en p. 51 xvin 
le onze [la 5:z] 215, 371 
le onzi^me [la dzjem] 215 
Leopold [leopold] d 190 
le oui [la wi] 215 
le palais de justice [la pale da 

Systis] p, j p. 153 lxiii 
le Palais-Royal en tribunal [la 

palerwajal a tribynall P, R 

p. 153 lxiii 
le Paradis perdu [la paradi perdy 

le parlement d'Angleterre [la 

parlama d aglateir] A p. 153 


le p^re de mis^ricorde (Dieu) 

[la pe:r da mizerikord (dje)] 

D p. 153 Lxin 
le pdre du mensonge (Satan) [la 

peir dy mas5:3 (sata)] S p. 153 

le pr^au [la preho] h 216 
le premier [la pramje] 425 
le premier enfant [la pramjer 

ofa] r 347 
le premier et le deuzi^me [la 

pramje e la dezjem] r 347 
le president Falli^res [la prezidd 

faljeir] F 411 
le prince de Galles [la preis da 

gal] G 411 
le prince de la Paiz [la pr8:s da 

la pe] P 410 
le professeur Croizet [la prafe- 

soeir krwaze] C 411 
le Puy [la pqi] P 410 
le quai auz Fleurs [la ke o floeir] 

le renard et la cigogne [la ranair 

e la sigoji] d 364 
le rivage troyen [la rivais trwaje] 

le roi Alf onse [la rwa alf d:s] A 411 
le roi d'Angleterre [la rwa d agla- 

tejr] A 411 




le roi de Portugal [la rwa da por- 

tygal] P 414 
le Royaume-Uni de Grande- 

Bretagne et (d')Irlande [la 

rwajoim yni da gra:d brataji 

e d irlaid] 422 
les [le] [Ic] 6 93; Z 410 
le Sage (Salomon) [la sais (sa- 

lom5)l S p. 153 LXiii 
les Anglo-Saxons [lez agb saksa] 

A, S40S 
les Asiatiques [lez azjatik] A 399 
les bacclianales [le bakanal] b 

p. 152 LXIII 
les Basses-Pyrenees [le bospi- 

rene] B, P 410 
les b^nedictins [le benedikte] b 

les bons enfants [le b5z afa] s 

Lesbos [lesbois] s 274 
les calvinistes [le kalvinist] c 416 
les catholiques [le katolik] c 416 
les cheminees [le Smine] e 394 
les Commentaires de Cesar [le 

komateir da sezair] C 403 
les cordeliers [le kordalje] c 416 
les Deux Soeurs [le de soe:r] D, 

les dominicains [le dominike] (2 

le second et le troisi^me [la sag5 

e la trwazjem] d 363, p. 141 lx 
Les empereurs Marc Aur^le et 

Marc Antoine [lez aproeir 

mark orel e mark atwan] s, c, I 

p. 141 LEX 

le s^nat de Rome [la sena da 

rom] R p. 153 I4XII1 
les enfants [lez ofa] s 331 
les ennemis en fuite [lez enmiz a 

fqit] s 366 
le sens comun [la sa kamde] s 

le sentier escarps [la satje es- 

karpe] r 349 
le sept mai [la set me] t 302, p. ' 

157 Lxiv 
les Essais de Montaigne [lez ese 

da mSteip] ^, M 403 
les £tats-Unis [lez etaz yni] 422 
les Europ^ens [lez'oerapee] E 399 
les Fausses Confidences [le fos 

kofidais] f , C 402 
les Francs M^rovingiens [le fra 

merovesje] F, M 408 
les Gallo-Grecs [le gala grek] G 

les habits [lez abi] h 208 
les hardes [le ard] h 216 
les haricots [le ariko] ^ 210 
les heures [lez oeir] A 208 
les hommes [lez am] ^ 208 
les hommes, lesfemmes et les 

enfants [lez am, le famz, e lez 

ofa] 420 
les Huns [le de] un p. 56 xxi 
les huttes des sauvages [le yt de 

sovaisj h 379 
le Sieur [la sjoeir] p. 161 XIV 
lesion [lezj5] s p. 109 n 
le six mars [la sis mars] x p. 157 


les jansenistes [le sosenist] j 416 



les larmes auz yeux [le larm oz 

je] 8 370 
les legitimistes [le lesitimist] I 

les luth^riens [le lyterje] I 416 
les Moldo-Valaques [le molda 

valak] M, y 408 
les montagnes de la Lime [le 

mataji dd la lyn] L 405 
les nerfs de la guerre [le iie:r da 

la ge:r] / p. 76 xxxvn 
Les oiseaiix chantent [lez wazo 

Salt] L 396 
les onze enfants [le 5!z afa] 371 
les orleanists [lez arleanist] o 416 
les Pays-Bas [le pei ba] 422 
Pesplanade des Invalides [les- 

plana(i)d dez cvali(i)d] / p. 

153 LXin 
les Pr^cieuses ridicules [le pre- 

sjoiz ridikyl] P 401 
les prisonniers du Mont-Saint- 
Michel [le prizonje dy mdse 

miSel] S 409 
lesquels [lekel] [lekel] s 272 
les republicains [le repyblike] r 

les satumales [le satymal] s p. 

152 LXin 
Lesseps [leseps] p p. 98 xlviii 
les sodalistes [le sasjalist] s 416 
Pest W est] st p. 156 lxiv 
le steamer [la stimceir] r p. 104 l 
les Turcs Osmanlis [le t3rr]£ 

osmalis] T, 408 
le Styx [la stiks] a; p. 121 Lvn 
les uhlans [le yla] 371 

e Sund [la sde:d] d p. 74 xxxv 
e surplomb en est visible [la 

syrplS on e vizibl] 6 p. 141 lx 
es Vieux gardens [le vje gars5] 


es voltairiens [le volterje] v 416 
'etang est tout pr^s [1 eta e tu 

pre] g 365 
e tender [la tade:r] r p. 104 l 
e the&tre de la Porte-Saint- 

Mardn [la tea:tr da la part se 

marte] S 409 
e Tintoret [la tetore] T 410 
e trente et un octobre [la tra:t 

e OB oktobr] t, n p. 141 lx 
e uhlan [la yla] 371 
eunge [loeis] eun p. 56 xxi B 
eur [loBir] r 261; cu p. 45 xin; I 

p. 87 XLiii 
eur demande [loer dama:d] e 394 
^ve [leiv] b 87 
e velours [la vluir] c 394 
ever [lave] e 67, p. 30 v 
e Vieux celibataire [la vje seli- 

bateir] V 402 
e Vieux fat [la vjo fat] V 402 
e Vieux neuf [la vJ0 noef] V 402 
e vin et I'eau [la ve e 1 o] n 377 
e viogt aofit [la vet u] t p. 157 


e vingt juin [la vet sqe] ^ 302 
e vingt-sept mars [la ve set mars 

t p. 157 Lxrv 
e vdtre [la voitr] 6 97 
'exercice oral [legzersis oral] e 

le yacht [la iak(t)] [la jot] 371 



llialnt [1 abi] A 208 

llietire [1 ceir] h 208 

lliistoire [1 istwair] 388 

imomme ^ am] A 208 

llidtel des Ambassadeurs [1 otd 

dez abasadcBn*] A 405 
llidtel de yflle de Paris [1 aid da 

vil dd pari] P p. 153 Lxm 
lliyinen actuel [1 imen aktqel] n 

liaison [Ij8z5] iat 152 
liasse [Ijas] ia p. 60 xxm 
librairie Gamier Fr^es [libreri 

gamje freir] 424 
lichen [liken] n 241; cA p. 73 

liebig [Ubig] g 206 
U^ge [Ijeis] h 87 
lien [Ije] en 135; Z p. 87 xun 
Uer [Ije] ie 152 

lieu [1J0] eu 114, p. 44 xn; ieu 152 
lieutenant [Ijetna] eu 114 
lieux [lj0l eu 127, 326, p. 44 xn 
liftvre [Ijeivr] t^ 152 
ligne [Ujil ^ 207 
Pne de la Reunion [1 i(!)l da la 

reynjo] R 405 
LiUputien [Ulipysje] t 286, p. 117 

Lille [lil] iZZ 232 
limaille [lima:jl a 61 
limbes'[le:bl im 135 
limites [limit] t p. 37 ix 
limon [lima] tm 138 
limpide [lepi.'d] im p. 53 xdc 
lin [le] in p. 53 xrx, p. 56 xxi B; 

I p. 87 XLiii 

linceid [lesGe(:)j] [lescel] I p. 163 

liage [le:3] in p. 56 xxi B 
lingual [legwal] ua 156, p. 62 

xxiy; gua 199 
lingniste [l^gqist] gui 198, p. 156 


lion [lj5] ion p. 65 xxvi 
Uquation [lik(w)asj5] qu p. 101 

Uqu^fi^ [likef je] gu 255 
liqu^fier [likef je] qu 254 
liqueur [likoe:r] gu 254 
lis [liis] s 275, p. 156 lxiv 
Idsbonne [lizban] s 271 
lisible [lizi(:)bl] 8 319 
lisse [lis] i 18 
Ut [li] e 164; ; p. 87 xun 
litre [litr] i 94 
livre [U:vr] Z ^ 
11 [1] 43, 220 
local [lakal] Z p. 87 XLm 
loch [lak] ch p. 73 xxxm 
loge [la:3] o 106, p. 43 xi; Z p. 87 

logement [lasma] e 393 
loi [Iwa] [Iwa] oi 56, p. 21 m 
loin [Iwe] oin 162; in p. 53 xix; 

oi p. 62 XXIV 
I'Oint du Seigneur (J^sus- 

Christ) [Iwe dy sejiceir (sezy 

kri)] 0, Sy /, C p. 153 Lxin 
Londres [l5:dr] on p. 55 xx 
Londres, 19 juillet 1910 [ld:dr, 

diznoef sqije diznoef sa dis] 

long [15] Z 4, p. 87 XLni; gr 164, 365 



longe [15!3] on p. 56 xxi B 
long hiver [l5k iveir] [15 ivesr] g 

longue [ld:g] on 14, p. 55 xx 
longuement [l5gma] e 393 
loquace [lokwas] [lakas] qu 256; 

u p. 163 Lxvi 
loque [lak] qu 254 
loqu^le [lakqel] qu p. 101 xux 
POrateur romain (Cic^ron) [lora- 

toeir rome (siserS)] 0, C p. 153 


I'ordre de PAigle de f er [1 ordr d9 

1 e(i)gl da fe:r] A 404 
I'ordre de la Jarreti^re [lardr 

da la sartjeir] J 417 
I'ordre de la Legion d'honneur 

[1 ordr da la lesjod onceir] L404 
I'ordre de la Toison d'or [1 ardr 

da la twazS d o:r] T 404 
I'ordre de la Visitation [1 ordr da 

la vizitosjS] V 417 
I'ordre de I'Incamation [lardr 

da 1 ekamcisj5] / 417 
I'ordre de Saint-Benoit [lardr 

da se banwa] S^ B 417 
I'ordre du Mont-Carmel [lardr 

dy m5 karmel] Af, C 417 
lord Ruthven [loir rytven] /2 411 
lorgnon [brji9] ^ p. 81 xl 
lorsque [lors(a)k(a)] e 69, 389, 

p. 30 V 
lorsqu'il [lorsk 11] 386 
Loth [lot] th 299 
lotion [losjo] o 100 
lotus [bty:s] « p. 109 li 
I'on [15] on p. 56 xxi B 

loulUnes [Iwam] ovA 156 
louange [Iwais] ovrni, 162; ou p. 

62 XXIV 
louche [luS] Z p. 87 XLin 
lou^ [Iwe] oti^ 156 
loueur [Iwoeir] oueu 156; Z p. 87 


Louis [Iwi] <mi 156, 159, p. 62 


Louise [lwi:z] out 156, p. 62 xxrv 
Louis XIV et Charles X c^ld- 

brent [Iwi katorz e Jarl dis se- 

le(i)br] 415 
louons [lw5] cmon 162 
loup [lu] <m 119, 128, 328, p. 45 

xiv; p 249 
loupe [lup] ou 328 
lourd [luir] ow p. 45 xrv 
Lourdes [lurd] ou 128, 328, p. 45 


lourd et fort [luir e foir] d 380 
lourd et indigeste [lu:r e edisest] 

(2 364 
louve [luiv] ou 119, p. 45 xrv 
loyal [Iwajal] o^/ 56; ^ p. 60 xxni; 

I p. 87 XLni 
loyer [Iwaje] oy p. 62 xxrv 
lu [ly] u p. 46 XV 
Lucas [lyka] a 59 
lueur [Iqceir] uey. 160; Z p. 87 xmi 
lui [Iqi] m 158, 159, 160, p. 64 

XXV, p. 156 Lxiv 
lumbago [l5bago] um 142 
I'un [1 de] un p. 56 xxi B 
lunatique [lynatik] n p. 57 xxn 
lundi [Idedi] un p. 56 xxi; n p. 96 




lune [l)m] I 220; w p. 46 xv; n 

p. 96 XLvii 
Pun ou I'autre [1 de u 1 otr] n 378 
lut [lyt] t 298 
luth [lyt] th 299 
Luther [lyteir] r 263 
luth^rien [lyterje] Z 399 
lutrin [lytre] in 135 
lutte [lyt] w 18 
Luxembourg [lyksabu:r] g p. 162 


Luxeuil [lyscEijl a; 267, p. 122 


lyc^en [Usee] en 136 

Lydie [lidi] p. 162 lxv 

lynx [le:ks] x 310; i^ p. 53 xrx 

lyre [liir] t/ 96- 

Lys [liis] s p. 162 lxv 


m [em] [ma] 22, 24, [m] 129, 132, 
134, 139, 143, 233, 236, 373 
final [m] 165, 233, 373, 374 
followed by n 132, 143, 234 
sOent 237 

ma [ma] a p. 21 iii 

macadam [makadam] a 54; mp. 
94 XLV 

Ma chere Madame [ma Se:r mar 
dam] 426 

Machiavel [makjavel] ch p. 73 
xxxiii, p. 162 LXV 

magon [mas5] [mas5] a 64, p. 25 
IV ; f 176 

madame [madam] a 49, p. 21 ui; 
415, 423, 426, p. 161 XIV 

madame De Vire [madam da vi:r] 

6 394 
madame Leblanc [madam labia] 

e 74, 393, 394 
Madame Vv« Lafordt et Fils 

[madam voeiv lafare e fis] 424 
mademoiselle [madmwazel] 

[mamzel] 46; e 70, 394; m 

415, 423, 426, p. 161 XIV 
Madras [madrais] s p. 109 li 
Madrid [madri(d)] d p. 74 xxxiv, 

p. 162 LXV, p. 163 lxvi 
Maastricht [mastrik] S, t p. 162 


mage [ma:3] m p. 152 Lxni 
Magenta [maseta] en 137 
magister [masisteir] r 263 
magnanime [majianim] gn p. 81 


magnesie [majiezi] ^ p. 81 xl 
magnetisme [majietism] gn p. 81 


magnificat [magnifikat] gn 200 
magnifique [lAajiifik] gn p. 81 xl, 

p. 156 Lxrvr 
magnolier [magnolje] [manolje] 

mahometan [maometa] m 399 
mai [me] ai 90 
maigrir [megriir] 37 
maille [ma:j] a 61 
main [me] ain p. 56 xxi B 
mainte [me:t] ain p. 53 xrx ' 
maintenant [metna] ain 135; e 

maintien [metje] ien 162; H 294; 

ainf en, p. 53 xrx 



mals [mais] s 275, p. 156 lxiy 
maison [mez5] s 268, p. 161 XIV 
Maison Chagnon-Asselin [mezo 

Sajio asle] 424 
Mais oui [me wi] 8 p. 141 lx 
maitre [meitr] i 29; p. 161 XIV 
majordome [masdrdom] [ma- 

33rdo:m] o 111, p. 43 xi 
mal [mal] a 54 
malades [malaCOd] e 72 
Malaga [malaga] a p. 21 in 
malhetir [maloeir] h 39, 209; Ih 

44; eu p. 45 xin 
malle [mal] e 69, p. 30 vi 
malmener [maknane] m p. 94 

XLV, p. 96 XLvn 
malt [malt] t 299 
malthusien [maltyzje] m p. 152 

maman [mama] [mama] m 233, 

p. 96 xLvn 
mammelle [mamel] m p. 96 XLvn 
mammifere [ma(m)mife:r] mm 

p. 94 XLv; m p. 96 xlvii 
mammouth [mamut] th 299; mm 

p. 94 XLv; w p. 96 XLvn 
manchette [maSet] an 131 
mandat [mada] p. 19 ii 
Mandchourie [mdtSuri] d p. 162 


mangeaille [masaij] a 61 
mangeant [masd] an p. 51 xym; 

e p. 156 Lxiv 
mangeons [md35] ge p. 80 xxxix 
manoeuvre [manoe:vr] obu p. 49 


manquer de respect k quelqu'un 

[moke da respek a kelkde] 

[moke dd respe a kelkde] ect 

mansuetude [mcu3i)ety(:)d] uS p. 

64 XXV 
manuscrit [manyskri] t p. 117 

Liv, p. 161 XIV 
marais [mare] ais p. 49 xvi . 
marc [mair] r 166; c 180, 340 
Marc Antoine [mark atwan] c 

340, 341 
Marc AurMe [mark orel] c 341 
marc d'argent [ma:r d arsa] c 340 
marchand [marSa] p. 161 XIV 
marcher [mar^e] p. 19 n 
Marengo [marego] en 137, p. 162 


Marie coud k merveille [mari 
ku a merve(i)j] d p. 141 lx 

marin [mare] in p. 53 xrx 

marmite [marmit] p. 94 xlv; m 
p. 96 XLvii 

marmotter [marmote] m p. 94 


mars [mars] 8 275, p. 156 lxiv 
Marseille [marse:j] i p. 162 lxv 
Marseille, le 1^' mars 1912 [mar- 

se(:)j, la pramje mars diz noef 

sa du:z] 425 
marsouin [marswe] ouin 162 
marteau [marto] eau 102 
martial [marsjal] t 282, p. 117 

LHi, p. 156 Lxrv 
Martin [marte] in p. 53 xix 
martyr [marti:r] 38 
masse [mas] a 65 
masure [mazy:r] [mazyir] a 64 



mat [mat] t 298 

mAt [ma] d 58 

matelas [matla] [matla] a 59, p. 

25 IV 
m'a-t-elle vu [m a t el vy] 384 
matelot [matlo] e 70 
Maure [mair] au 112, 126, 325 
mauvais [move] [move] au 112, 

126, p. 43 XI, p. 156 Lxrvr 
mauvaise [m3ve:z] [moveiz] e 76 
Mayence [majais] y 154 
mayomiaise [majoneiz] y 154, p. 

156 LXiv 
maxillaire [maksileir] iU 232 
maximum [maksimam] u 113, 

p. 43 xi; um 145 
M.Blondel [masje blSdel] M 415 
me [ma] e 66; 383, 391 
Meauz [mo] eau p. 49 xvi 
m6daille [medaij] a 61 
m6decin [metse] [metse] S 89 
m^decine [metsin] [metsin] 6 89 
mediocre [medjokr] to p. 60 


m6dire [mediir] w p. 94 xlv 

m6dimu [medjam] ti 113 

Mehung [mde] p. 56 xxi 

mSle [me:l] S 85 

mSler [mele] S 86 

Melui [malde] un p. 56 xxi 

membre [maibr] p. 51 xvin 

mSme [meim] i 85 

mSmement [menmia] m p. 94 

XLV, p. 96 XLVII 

mdmoire [memwair] m p. 94 xlv, 

p. 96 XLVII 
M^moires de la Society de lin- 

gnistique [memwanr da la sch 
Bjete dd legqistik] If , iS 406 
Mdmoires de la Soci^t6 natio- 
nale des antiquaires de France 
[memwa:r da la sasjete nasja- 
nal dez atikeir da frois] M, S 
Memphis [mefi:s] em 137; 8 274 
m'en [m a] en p. 56 xxi B 
menacer [manaae] 16 
manage [mena!3] a p. 21 in 
mendiante [madjart;] ian p. 65 


mtoe [me(!)n] b 28, 87 

mener [mane] e 67 

m^nerez [menre] b 88 

m^nil [meni] U 230 

menu [many] c p. 30 v; t* p. 46 xv 

menuisier [manqizje] e p. 30 v 

mer [meir] 91, p. 36 vm; r 263 

m^re [me:r] h 87 

m^res [me:r] e p. 30 vi 

merinos [merina(:)s] 8 275, p. 156 


merle [merl] e 91 

merveilleuse [mervejeiz] eu p. 

44 XII 
Mes amities chez vous [mez 

amitje Je vu] 430 
mesdames [medam] [medam] 8 

mesdemoiselles [medmwazel] 

[medmwazel] 8 272 
messe [mes] e 91 
messieurs [mesje] [mesje] r 265, 

415, 424; e, r p. 156 Lxrv, p. 

161 XIV 



Messieurs Favreau et Delrue 

[mesJ0 favro e dairy] 424 
Messieurs Larousse & C^ [mesj0 

lams e kdpajii] 424 
Messieurs L. Tremblay Fr^res 

[mesj0 el tmble freir] 424 
metis [meti:s] 8 275 
mets [me] t p. 117 liv 
Mettemich [metemik] cA p. 73 

mettez le un avant le deux [mete 

la ce ava b de] 371 
Metz [me:sl z 267, 319 
meuble [moebl] eu 127, 327, p. 

49 XVI 
meubles [mcebl] eu 118 
meunerie [monri] eu p. 44 xn 
Meung [mde] eun 144, p. 56 xxi 

meunier [menje] eu 114, p. 44 xii 
meuni^re [monjeir] eu p. 44 xn 
meurtre [moertr] eu p. 45 xin; r 

p. 104 L 
Meuse [m0:z] eu p. 44 xn 
meute [m02t] eu 14, 115, p. 44 

Mexico [meksiko] x 310 
miauler [mjole] iau 152 
Michel [miSel] ch p. 72 xxxii 
Michel-Ange [mikel £1:3] ch p. 73 

xxxin, p. 156 LXiv, p. 162 


midi [midi] i p. 37 ix 
miel [mjel] I p. 87 xliii 
mienne [mjen] n p. 57 xxn 
mlette [mjet] ie p. 60 xxin 
mieuz [mj0] ieu p. 60 xxui 

mil [mi!j] [mil] I 224; U 226, 228 

milice [mills] i p. 37 ix 

milieu [milj0] [mij0] ieu p. 60 

xxni; m p. 94 xlv 
militaire [inilite!r] 16; i p. 37 ix 
miUe [mil] iU 232, p. 156 lxiv; i 

p. 37 IX 
Mille amities [mil amitje] 430 
Millet [mile] iU p. 162 lxv 
milliard [milja:r] HI 232 
miUion [milj5] iU 232, p. 163 


milord [mila:r] d p. 74 xxxiv 
Miltiade [milsjad] t p. 162 lxv 
mince [me!s] in 14 
minimum [minimdm] u 113, p. 

43 XI ; um 145 
ministre [ministr] i p. 37 ix 
minuit [minqi] t p. 37 ix 
minutie [minysi] t 281, p. 156 


minutieuz [minysJ0] 1 284, p. 156 

miracle [mirakl] [mirakl] a 14, 64 

mire [miir] i 94 

miroir [mirwair] at 56 

mis^re [mize:r] s 268, p. 109 u 

mitraille [mitra:]] a 61 

mixtion [mistj5] [mikstja] t 280; 
ti 290 

mixtionner [mistjone] [mikstjone] 
ti 290 

M^® Blondel [madmwazel bid- 
del] M 415 

mm [(m)m] 43, 146, 168, 233, 238 

TA^^ Blondel [madam bl5del] 
JJf 415 




mobile [mobil] I p. 87 XLin 
modMe [made(!)l] h p. 36 vin; 

m p. 94 XLV 
mod^lerai [madeb^] b 88, p. 36 


moelle [mwal] [mwel] oe 156, p. 

156 Lxiv 
moelleux [mwale] oe p. 62 xxiv 
moellon [mwal5] oe p. 62 xxiv 
moeurs [moers] [mGe:r] ceu 118; s 

275, p. 163 Lxvii; ceu p. 49 xvi 
moi [mwa] ot 56, 156, p. 21 ui 
moins [mwe] in p. 53 xix 
mois [mwa] [mwa] oi 62, 156, p. 

62 XXIV 
Molse [moi:z] p. 163 lxvi 
moiti6 [mwatje] t 279; ti 293 
Molocb [mobk] ch 185 
momerie [momri] m p. 94 xlv, 

p. 96 XLvii 
mon [m5] on p. 56 xxi B 
mon ami [man ami] [m5n ami] n 

monarchie [monarji] ch p. 72 

XXXII, p. 163 LXVI 

monarchique [manarSik] ch p. 72 


monarque [monark] n p. 57 xxii 
(Mon) cber ami [(m5) S^Ji* anii] 

Mon cber Delille [m5 Se^r dalil] 

Mon cber Jean [mo Jeir 3a] 426 
Mon cber Monsieur [md S^^^ 

m9SJ0] 426 
monosyllabe [monosilab] s 269 
monotone [monoton] o 111 

mon petit [m5 pti] e 74 

Mens [m5:s] s 274 

monseigneur [masejioeir] 415 

Monseigneur [mdeejicesr] p. 161 

monsietir [m(9)sj0] [mcesje] on 
68, 142; ieu 152; r 265; m 415, 
423, 424, 426; on, r p. 156 uay 

Monsietir [m(9)sJ0] p. 161 XIV 

monsietir De Vire [masj0 d vi:r] 

monsieur Ernest [m98J0 emcst] 

monsieur et cber confrere [ma- 
si0 e Seir kofreir] 426 

monsieur Leblanc [mdsi0 Ibla] 
c 74, 393, 394 

Monsieur le Directeur du Cre- 
dit Lyonnais [m9sJ0 la direk- 
toeir dy kredi Ijone] 424 

montagnard [m5tajia:r] gn p. 81 


montagneux [mdtaji0] ^ p. 81 xl 
monte [m5:t] on p. 55 xx 
Montreal [mdreal] t p. 163 lxvi 
montmient [manyma] m p. 94 

xlv, p. 96 XLvn 
morceau [marso] p. 18 n 
mortalite [martalite] 16 
mosquee [maske] o 110 
mot [mo] m 4, 233 
mot k mot [mat a mo] 47; t 337 
mot anglais [mo agle] t 360 
motif [motif] / p. 76 xxxvi 
motion [mosj5] [mosja] o 100 
mots [mo] o 99 
motus [moty:s] 8 p. 109 U 



mou [mu] ou p. 45 xiv 
mouille [mu:jl ouiUe 226 
moiirir [muri:r] 168 
mousse [mus] ou 18, p. 46 xrv 
moyen Imwaje] y 154; oy 156, 
p. 156 LXiv; yen 162; en p. 53 


moyenne [mwajen] n p. 57 xxii 
tat [my] l2 p. 46 xv 
muant [mqa] turn p. 65 xxvi 
mue [mqe] ti^ p. 64 xxv 
muet [mqe] rie 160 
mugissement [mysisma] e 393 
multitude [myltityd] w p. 46 xv 
Munich [mynik] ch p. 73 xxxiii, 

p. 162 Lxv 
mur [myir] w 29, p. 46 xv; r 261 
miir [myir] H 29, 120 
munnure [myrmyir] u 121, p. 46 

xv; m p. 94 xlv, p. 96 XLvn 
munnurer [myrmyre] p. 156 ixrvr 
muse [mysk] c p. 70 xxx 
muse [my:z] 8 p. 109 li 
museum [myzeom] u 113; um 

145, p. 156 LXIV 
myope [mjop] yo 152 
myosotis [mjazatiis] s p. 109 u, 

p. 156 LXIV 
myrtille [mirtil] Ul 232 
myst^re [mistesr] y 96 


n [en] [na] 22, 24; [n] 129, 240; 
final [n] 129, 165, 234, 241, 
375-378; mouUl^ [ji] 207; si- 
lent in -erU 244 

nabab [nabab] h 171 
nagea [nasa] gea 202 
nagu^re [nage:r] gu p. 79 xxxviii 
naif [naif] i 33; / p. 76 xxxvi 
nain [ne] ain p. 56 xxi B 
naivete [naivte] e 70, p. 30 vi 
nanan [nana] [nana] n 239 
Nantes [nait] an p. 56 xxi B 
Napoleon [napalc5] 36 
nappe [nap] a 54; pp 245 
Narbonne [narbon] nn p. 96 


narguant [narga] gu p. 79 xxxvin 

nasse [na:s] [na:s] a 64 

nation [nasj5] [nasjo] t 267, 285, 

p. 117 Liii; a p. 25 IV 
navrer [navre] o 63 
ne [na] e 66, 383 
Necker [nekeir] A; 218; r 263 
n^e [ne] 6 89 
nef [nef] / p. 76 xxxvi, p. 156 

negligeons [neglisd] ge p. 80 

negociait [negosje] iai p. 60 xxiii 
negociant [negosja] ian 162 
neige [neis] ei 90, 125, 323; ge p. 

80 xxxrx 
Nemrod [nemrod] m 235; d p. 74 


nenni [nani], popular [neni] en 
55, 134; p. 163 lxvii; nn p. 96 


nerf [neir] [nerf]/ 193, p. 156 lxiv 
nerf de boeuf [neir da beef] / 193 
nerfs [neir] / 193, p. 156 lxiv 
Nesle [ne:l] s 272 




n'est-ce pas [n e s pa] 384 

net [net] [ne] e 91; t 298, 300, p. 

156 Lxiv 
nette [net] tt 279 
nettoyer [netwaje] [netwaje] oy 

p. 62 xxrv 
neuf [n(Ef]/4, 191, 192, 305, 342, 

p. 156 lxiv; eu 118, 127, 327, 

p. 45 XIII 
neuf ans [ncev a] / p. 156 lxiv 
neuf a table [ncef a tabl] / 342 
Neufbourg [noebuir] / 193 
Neuf Brisach [nee brizak] / 193 
neuf cents francs [nee sa f ra] / p. 

76 xxxvn 
Neufch&teau [noeSato] / 193 
Neu(f)ch&tel [neSatel] [noeSatel] 

eti 114; / 193 
neuf enfants [ncev of a] / 194, 305; 

[noef afa] 342 
neuf francs [noe fra] / p. 156 


neuf hameauz [ncev amo] / p. 

neuf heures [noev oe:r] / 305, p. 

156 LXIV 
neuf homards [noe 3ma:r] / 194 
neuf homines [noev om] / 194 
neuf livres [noe liivr] / 194 
neuf mille [noe mil]/ p. 76 xxxvii 
neuf personnes [noe person] / p. 

neuf soldats [noe solda] / p. 156 


Neuilly [noeji] ew 118; euil 226 
neutre [neitr] m 115, 127, 326, 
p. 44 XII 

neuvi^me [noevjem] eu p. 44 xn 
New-York [noe jork] ew p. 163 


Ney [ne] ey 90, 125, 159, p. 36 vm 
nez [ne] e 80, p. 32 vn; s 164, 318, 

Nez H nez [ne a ne] 2 p. 141 lx 
nez aquilin [ne akile] z 359 
ni [ni] t 4, 94; n 4, 239 
niais [nje] iai 152 
Nicolas [nikola] a 59 
nidce [njes] vk 152 
Niger [niseir] r p. 104 l, p. 162 


Nil [ml] I 224 

nn [n] 43, 239 

noble [nabl] o 106 

noble animation [nobl animosjd] 

noble ardeur [nobl ardoeir] e 73 
noce [nos] o 106 
Noel [noel] c 33; / 221 
noeud [ne] eu 127, p. 44 xn; obu 

326, p. 49 XVI 
noir [nwair] oi p. 21 ni 
noire [nwair] oi p. 62 xxrv 
noisette [nwazet] [nwazet] oi 64 
noix [nwa] oi 62, p. 62 xxrv 
nombril [n5bri] U 230; I 344 
nominatif [nominatif] np. 96 xlvi 
non [n5] on p. 56 xxi B 
nonante [nona:t] n p. 96 xlvi 
nonnain [none] n p. 96 xlvi 
nonobstant [nonopsta] n p. 96 


nonsens [n5sa] [nSsais] 8 p. 109 



nord [noir] r 166; d p. 74 xxxrv 
nord-est [iiar(d) est] t 297; d 

nord-ouest [ii3r(d) west] t 297; 

(2 363 
nos [no] 8 273 
nos intentions [noz etasj5] t p. 

117 m 
nostalgic [nastalsi] o 110 
notiez [natje] ti 291 
notion [nosjd] [nasjo] o 100 
notions [notj5] ti 291 
notre [notr] o 106; re 260 
ndtre [no:tr] d p. 39 x 
Notre-Dame [notr dam] p. 161 

notre oncle [natr d:kl] e 73 
Notre-Seignetir [notr sejioeir] p. 

161 XIV 
noueux [nw0] oiieu 156 
nouons [nw5] ouan 162 
nous aimftmes [nuz emam] d 51 
nous aimons [nuz em5] s 332 
nous attendons une lettre [nuz 

atadoz yn letr] s 334 
nous briguons [nu brig5] giu> 197 
nous contractions [nu kotraktjd] 

tp. 117 LII 

nous dimes [nu di(:)m] i 95 
nous eihnes [nuz y(i)m] eu 116 
nous gfttions [nu gatj5] ^ p. 117 

nous irons ensemble [nuz ir5z 

OSQlbl] 8 p. 141 LIX 

nous le savons [nu 1 sav5] e 73 
nous liguAmes [nu ligam] gvd 

nous mangeAmes [nu masam] e 

nous mangeons [nu ma35] e 77 
nous parldmes [nu parlam] d 51 
nous sommes k table [nu somz a 

tabl] 8 334 
nouveau [nuvo] eau 102, 126, 

324; ou p. 46 xiv 
nouvel [nuvel] I 221 
nouvel an [nuvel a] I 344 
novembre [novaibr] 425 
noyau [nwajo] oy p. 62 xxiv 
nuage [nqais] im 4, 160 
nuance [nqais] uan p. 65 xxvi 
nuee [nqe] ui 160 
nuit [nqi] t 295 

nuit et jour [nqit e suir] 47; 1 354 
num^ro [nymero] p. 161 XIV 
nun [nee] un p. 56 xxi B 
nuptial [nypsjal] t 282, p. 156 


nuque [nyk] q 254 

Nuremberg [njn^bejr] g p. 162 


nymphe [neif] ym 135, p. 53 xix; 
ph 191 

o [o] 22, 24; [o] [o] 97-113; silent 

6 [o] 97, 98; [o(i)] 397; [o] 97 
-oaille [waij] ail 226 
oasis [3azi(!)s] [oazi(:)s] 36; 8 

obedience [obedjais] ien 135 
ob6issance [obeisais] 36 



objet [obse] o 104; p. 43 xi; e p. 

36 vin 
objet important [obse eporta] t 

obliquity [ablik(q)ite] qu 257 
Observations sur I'Esprit des 

lois [opservosja sy:r 1 espri de 

Iwa] 0, ^ 406 
observer [opserve] h 170, p. 98 

XLViii, p. 156 Lxiv; 8 267 
obstacle [opstakl] [apstaikl] h 

170, p. 98 XLVIII ; c p. 70 xxx 
obtenir [optonisr] b 170, 246, p. 

98 XLVin, p. 156 Lxrvr 
obus [oby(i)s] [oby(i)s] s p. 163 


occasion [okas j 5] a 60 
occiput [oksipy(t)] t 299 
oc6an [osea] o 110, p. 43 xi 
octobre [Dkto(:)br] o 108, 425, p. 

Oder [odeir] r p. 104 l 
odeur [odoeir] ew p. 45 xni 
6 Dieu [o dj0] 6 397 
odorat [odoira] tp. 117 uv 
6 douleur [o duloeir] 6 397 
-oe [e] 83; [0] [oe] 114, 117, 118, 

122, 127, 320, 326; [wa] 156 
-oe [wa] 156 

oectun^nique [ekymenik] 83 
oedipe [edip] 83 
ceil [oe(0jl <b 127, 327, p. 45 

XIII, p. 49 xvi; iZ 226, p. 90 

XLIV, p. 156 LXIV 

-ceil [oeij] U 226 

ceil de boeuf [oe:j da boef] cdl 226 

ceil de chat [oc:j da S^^] ceil 226 

oeillade [cejad] <biU 226 

-<Bille [ce:]] iU 226 

oeill^re [oeje.'r] ceil 226 

oeillet [ceje] eu 127, 327, p. 45 

xin; ceil 226 
oesophage [ezofa:5] ce 83 
-<BU [0] [ce] 114, 117, 118, 

122, 127, 320, 326 
OBuf [cef] ceu 118, p. 45 xin;/ 192, 

p. 156 Lxrvr 
oeuf k la coque [oef a la kdk] / 

342, p. 76 xxxvi, p. 141 ux 
OBufs [0] (Bw 114, p. 44 xn; / 193, 

p. 156 LXIV 
oeuf s d'autruche [0 d otryS] / p. 

76 xxxvn 
OBuvre [ce:vr] eu 118, p. 45 xin 
officier [ofisje] r 262 
ofifrir [ofriir] 37 
ohg [ahe] h 216 
oho [oho(i)] h 4 
oh que oui [o ka wi] 390 
-oi [wa] [wa] 62, 156 
-o! [wa] 156 

oignon [op5] i p. 156 lxtv 
-oin [we] 136, 161, 162 
-oir [wair] oi 56 
-oire [wair] oi 56 
Olympe [ale:p] ym p. 53 xix 
-om [0] 141, p. 55 xx; [om] 143, 

234, 237 
t ma jeunesse [o ma scenes] 6 

ombre [5:br] am p. 55 xx 
ombrelle [5brel] om p. 55 xx 
-ome [oim] [om] 106, 111 
omnibus [amnibyB] om 143; s 



275, p. 163 Lxvi; m p. 94 xlv, 

p. 96 XLvn 
omnipotent [omnipata] o 108, p. 

43 xi; <m 143; m 234 
omniscience [omnisjais] om 143; 

8 p. 109 LI 

omniscient [omnisja] m 234 
omnivore [omnivoir] om 143 
-on [5] [on] 141, 146, 161; [a] 

on [5] 386; p. 56 xxi B 
on accourt aussitdt [5n aku:r osi- 

oncle [5:kl] 46; on 141, p. 55 


onction [5ksj5] on p. 55 xx 

-one [om] [on] 106, 111 

on en a assez [5n on a ase] n p. 

141 LIX 
onereiix [onera] n p. 57 xxii 
onomatop€e [anamatope] n 239 
on perd [5 peir] d p. 74 xxxiv 
on recommence [5 rkamSis] e 

onyx [oniks] x 310 
onze [5iz] 31, 215, 371, 390; on 

p. 55 XX, p. 56 XXI B 
onzi^me [ozj&m] 31, 215, 371, 

opiat [opia(t)] t 299 
opium [apjam] um 145; m 235 
oracle [orokl] [arakl] a 64 
orage [orais] ge p. 80 xxxix 
orageuz [orase] g 201 
orchestra [arkestr] ch 186 
orchestral [arkestral] ch p. 73 


orchestration [arkestrosja] ch p. 

73 xxxin 
orchestre [arkestr] ch p. 163 


orchide [orkid] ch p. 73 xxxm 

-ord [oir] 356, 364, 380 

ordre [ordr] re 260 

oreille [oresj] iU 226, p. 90 xliv 

orf^vre [orfeivr] o 108 

orgue [org] o p. 43 xi 

orgueil [orgoB(:)j] ue 118, 127, 

327, p. 45 xiii; il 226 
orgueilleux [orgceje] ill 226, p. 

90 xliv; ue p. 49 xvi 
orient [orja] ien 135, 162 
-ort [oir] t 356, 380 
orteil [orteij] iZ p. 90 xltv 
ortie [orti] ti 292 
OS [os] [ozs] 8 275; (pi.) [o] [ois] 

8 p. 163 LXVI 

osciller [osile] [osije] iU 232, p. 

oseille [oz&(:)j] o 101 
oser [oze] o 101, p..39 x; « 319 
Ostrogoth [ostrogo] t 301 
ate [oit] 6 97 
ater [ote] 6 98, p. 39 x 
-otie [osi] t 281 
ou [u] p. 46 XIV 
-ou [u] 28, 119, 122, 128, 320, 

328; [w] 158 
oft [u] 28, 119, 122, p. 46 xiv 
-oft [u] mi 119, 122, 128 
-oua [wa] 156 
-ouan [wa] 161, 162 
ouate [wat] oua 156, 215, 371, 

390, p. 62 XXIV 




-oue [we] 156 

-ou6 [we] 156 

-ouen [wa] 161, 162 

ouest [west] t 297, p. 156 uav 

-oueu [w0] [woe] 156 

oui [wi] 4, 31, 156, 215, 371, 390, 

p. 62 XXIV 
oul-dire [wi diir] 215, 371, 390 
-ouil [uzjl a 226 
-ouiUe [u:j] iU 226 
otii, madame [wi madam] m 

otii, mademoiselle [wi madmwar 

zel] m 415 
otii, monsieur [wi mosje] m 415 
-ouin [we] 161, 162 
ouir [wiir] oui 156 
-ouon [w5] 161, 162 
-ourd [uir] 356, 364, 380 
ours [urs], old [uir] s 275, p. 163 


-ourt [uir] t 356, 380 
outil [uti] U 230, 344 
ouvrier [uvrije] 37 
oft y a-t-il [u i a t il] y 153 
Oxford [oksfoir] d p. 74 xxxrv 
oxygdne [oksisen] x 310 
-oy [wa] 56, 156 
ozone [ozon] [ozozn] [ozon] [ozom] 

p [pe] [pa] 22, 24; [p] 245, 248; 
final 249, 250; 345; followed 
by n, s, t 251; silent 247 

pacha [paja] p p. 152 lxiii 

paf [paf ] a 54 

paganisme [paganism] [paga- 

nizm] p p. 152 Lxm 
page soixante-neuf [pais swa- 

sat noef] / p. 76 xxxvi 
paillasse [pajas] ill 224 
paille [pa(:)j] a 61, p. 25 iv; iU 

224, 225, 329, p. 156 lxiv 
pain [pe] ain 135, p. 54 xix, p. 

56 XXI B 
(pain-)bis [pe bi] s 273 
paix [pe] ai 84, 123, 321; x 315 
paix tmiverselle [pez yniversel] 

pAle [pa:l] d 19, 58 
pAleur [poloezr] d 19 
palper [palpe] p p. 98 XLVin 
palpitant [palpita] p p. 98 XLVin 
pampre [pazpr] p p. 98 xlviu 
Panama [panama] p. 19 u 
Pandectes [padekt] c p. 70 xxx 
panier [panje] [pajie] ni 207 
panorama [panorama] an 146 
paon [pa] o 103, p. 156 lxiv 
papa [papa] a p. 21 in; p p. 98 

pape [pap] p p. 98 XLvm 
papier [papje] p 245 
Papier d'affaires [papje dafesr] 

papillon [papij5] p p. 98 XLVin 
paquets [pake] ets 92 
paragraphe [paragraf] p. 19 n 
parapluie [paraplqi] p p. 98 


parasol [parasol] s 269 

pare [park] c p. 70 xxx 

parce que je ne me le demande 



pas [pars ka 3 na m la dmazd 

pa] 6 75 
par-dessus [par dasy] e 994 
pareil [pare:]] eiZ 226 
pareiUe [pareCOj] ei 90, 125, 323 
parent [para] en 131 
parenthdse [paratezz] 419 
parfum [parfde] 38; um 144, p. 

56 XXI 
Paris [pari] i p. 37 ix 
Paris est la capitale [pari e la 

kapital] 8 p. 141 lx 
Paris est une belle ville [pari et 

yn bel vil] « 368 
parisien [parizje] ien 162 
parla [parla] a p. 21 ni 
parlait [park] 37; ait 90 
parlement anglais [parlmat agle] 

parler [parle] r 262 
parler franc et net [parle frok e 

net] c p. 141 Lix 
paries [pari] e 72 
paroisse [parwos] oi 156 
part [pazr] a 4, 19 
partageons [parta35] ge p. 80 


partial [parsjal] t 282, p. 156 


partiality [parsjalite] t 282 
partie [parti] tie 292 
partiel [parsjel] t 267, 283 
partir [partiir] a 19, p. 19 n 
partner [partneir] r 263 
parvenu [parvany] e 71, p. 30 v 
pas [pa] V 4, 245; a 4, 59, p. 25 
iv; 8 273 

pas ^ pas [paz a pa] 47; 8 337, 

Pascal [paslcal] 8c 276 
passage [pasazs] p. 19 n 
passage des Panoramas [posazs 

de panorama] P p. 153 Lxm 
passe [pazs] a 60 
passer [pase] a 59, 65; «« 267 
passif [pasif] a 65 
passion [pasj5] a 60 
pftte [pazt] d 4, 58, p. 25 nr; e p. 

30 VI 
pater [patezr] r 263 
pathos [patozs] s 275 
patiemment [pasjama] t 287 
patience [pasjazs] ien 135, 162; 

t 280, 287, p. 117 Lin; en p. 

51 xvni 
patient [pasja] t 287, p. 157 Lxrv 
patienter [pasjate] t 287 
patriarchal [patriarkal] ch p. 73 


patriarche [patriarj] ch 184 
patrie [patri] e 69 
patte [pat] U 279; e p. 30 vi 
Paul [pol] au 112, 126, 325, p. 

49 XVI 
Paul et Alice [pol e alis] t 355 
pauvre [pozvr] au 102, p. 39 x 
pauvre animal [povr animal] e 

pavot [pavo] < p. 117 ltv 
pay6 [peje] [peje] j/ 224 
payer [peje] [peje] 46; aj/ 90, 321, 

p. 157 Lxrv; y 154 
peau [po] eau 102 
pecheur [pejoezr] eu p. 45 xm 



p^cheur [peSoeir] ch p. 72 xxxn 

peigne [peji] gn 4, 207 

peine [pe(:)n] ei 90, 125, 323, p. 

157 Lxiv 
peinture [petyir] ein 135, p. 54xix 
pellicule [peUkyl] I p. 87 xliu 
pendant [pada] en 45 
pende [pa:d] en p. 56 xxi B 
Pennsylvanie [pesilvani] [pasil- 

vani] en 137; s 270 
penser [pose] s p. 109 li 
pensum [pesom] u 113; en 137; 

Mm 145; en, wm p. 157 lxiv 
pente [pa:t] en 14; 46 
pentiltidme [penyltjem] ti 293 
perpa [persa] f 176 
per^t [perse] f p. 70 xxix 
perCevoir [persavwair] ce p. 70 


perd-U [pert U] d 362, 381 
perd-il son temps [pert il s5 ta] 

d p. 141 LEX 

perdre [perdr] d 187; re 260 
perdriz [perdri] x 315 
perdrons [perdro] 38 
perdront [perdrS] 37 
pdre [peir] p 7; ^ 28, 87 
peremptoire [peraptwasr] p 248, 

p. 98 XLViii 
peres [pesr] e p. 30 vi 
peril [peril] [periij] U 228, 229; 

I p. 157 LXIV, p. 163 Lxvii 
p6ripetie [peripesi] t 281, p. 157 


Perrault [pero] I 223 

persil [persi] U 230; I 344, p. 163 



Personnelle [persanel] 431 
persuader [persqade] s p. 109 li; 

p. 157 LXIV 
perte [pert] e 91 
peser [poze] e p. 30 v 
petit [p(3)ti] e 74, 76 
petit k petit [patit a pati] t 47, 

petite [patit] e 76, p. 30 vi 
peu [po] eu 4, 17, 114, 127, 326 
peuple [poepl] eu 118, 127, 327, 

p. 45 xin, p. 49 xvi; le 222 
peur [poeir] eu 4, 117, p. 45 xni; 

r 165, 261, p. 104 l 
peureuz [pcero] eu p. 44 xn ' 
Peveril du Pic [pevaril dy pile] P 

ph [f] 191, 329; followed by n, 9, 

Pharamond [faram5] d p. 74 


phare [fair] a 13; p^ 191 
pharisien [farizje] p 399 
PhSdre [fesdr] Ph p. 76 xxxvi 
ph^niz [feniks] x p. 121 lvii 
philosophe [Bhzoi] ph 191, 329, 

p. 157 LXIV 
Phoeb6 [febe] <b 83, p. 32 vn 
phonographe [f onagraf] ph 40 
pht(h)isie [ftizi] ph 251 
pht(h)isique [ftizik] ph 251 
physiognomonie [fizjagnomani] 

physique [fisik] y 96 
piano [pjano] o 99; ia 152 
piauler [pjole] iau 152 
pidce [pjes] h 87 



pied [pje] e 80, p. 32 vn; ie 152 
pied k terre [pjet a tezr] d 333, 

pieds [pje] e 80; (28 164 
pieu [pJ0] ieu p. 60 xxm 
pieuz [pJ0] eu 114, p. 44 xn 
pigeon [pisS] e 77; ^c p. 80 xxxix 
pin [pe] in p. 54 xix 
pinade [pinakl] n p. 96 xlvi 
pince [pe:s] in p. 56 xxi B 
pingouin [pegwe] ouin p. 65 xxvi 
pioche [pjoj] io p. 60 xxm 
pion [pj5] p p. 98 XLVin 
pipe [pip] p p. 98 XLVin 
piqdre [pikyir] f2 p. 46 xv 
pire [piir] i 4, 94 
piste [pist] i 94 
pistil [pistil] il 229 
pitiS [pitje] i^ 152; ti 293 
^$a [plasa] q 176 
place [plas] a 65; e 391 
place de PEstrapade [plas da 

1 estrapad] Ey p. 153 Lxni 
place de la Concorde [plas da la 

kSkord] C 410 
plage [pla:3] a 13 
plaideur [pledoe:r] eu p. 45 xni 
plaisir [plezizr] r 261, p. 104 l 
plante [plait] an p. 51 xviu 
plat [pla] a 53 
plitre [plad^r] d 58 
ld6nipotentiaire [plenipotosjesr] 

t p. 117 LHI 

plomb [pl5] ow 141; 6 171, 339, 

p. 163 Lxvi 
pUmgeons [pl53d] geo 202 
plooger [pl53e] cm p. 55 xx 

pluie [plqi] ui 160 

plus [plys] [ply] 8 275 

plus ou moins [plyz u mwe] 8 337, 

plusHiue-parf ait [plys ka parf e] 

8 p. 109 LI 

pneu [pne] p p. 98 XLVin 
pneumatique [pnematik] p 251 
pneumatologie [pn0matab3i] p 

p. 98 XLvni 
pneumonic [pnomoni] p 251 
podle, poile [pwail] [pwa(i)l] 4; o^, 

oi 62, 156, p. 25 IV, p. 163 lxvi 
podl6e [pwole] o^ p. 62 xxiv 
po^lette [pwalet] o^ p. 62 xxiv 
poSlier [pwolje] o^ p. 62 xxiv 
podte [poezt] p. 19 n 
poids [pwa] [pwa] oi 62, p. 62 

xxiv; d p. 74 xxxiv 
poignard [pwajia:r] [pajiazr] oi p. 

poignet [pwajie] [pajie] ^ p. 81 


poing [pwe] oin 162 

point [pwe] 419 

point d'exclamation [pwe del^is- 

klamasj5] 419 
point d'interrogation [pwe d &• 

te(r)rogasj5] 419 
pointe [pwejt] oin 14, p. 65 xxvi 
point et virgule [pwe e virgyl] 419 
point exclamatif [pwet ekslda- 

matif ] t 354 
point interrogatif [pwet eteroga- 

tif] t 354 
points suspensifs [pwe sysposif] 




pointure [pwgtyir] in 136 

poire [pwa:r] oi 56 

pois [pwa] oi 62 

poison [pwazd] oi p. 21 m, p. 157 


poisson [pwas5] oi p. 157 lxiv 
Poitiers fewatje] ti 293; t p. 117 

poiz [pwa] oi p. 62 xxrv 
p61e [po!l] 6 15 
pollen [polen] n 241 
Pollux [polyks] x 310 
poltron [paltrS] 38 
Polymnie [polimni] ymn 140 
polysyllabe [polisilab] s 269 
pomme [pom] o 107 
pompe [p5:p] am p. 55 xx; p p. 

98 XLViii 
Ponsard [posair] d p. 74 xxxiv 
pont [p5] on p. 56 xxi B 
pontife [p5tif] p p. 152 Lxm 
Pont-Neuf [p5 noef]/ p. 76 xxxvi 
popularite [popylarite] 35 
pore [poir] 105; r 166; c 180 
port [po:r] o 13; 76 
porte [port] e 76, p. 30 vi; o 106 
porte-feuille [porta foe(:)i] e 393 
portez [porte] 2 318 
portez armes [porte arm] z 359 
portier [portje] ti 293; t p. 117 

portiere [portjeir] ti 293 
portiez [portje] ti 291 
portion [porsjS] 1 162, 285; ti 291 
Port-Said [poirsaid] d p. 74 


pose [po:z] o 101, p. 39 x 

positif [pozitif] o p. 39 X 
position [pozisjd] o 101, p. 39 x 
poss^dera [posedra] S 88 
poste [post] o 106; 8 267 
Poste restante [post restazt] 431 
postiche [postiS] o 110 
post-scriptum [posCts) kriptom] 

um 145; 1 300; w p. 94 xlv, p. 

96 XLvn; t, u p. 157 lxiv 
pot [po] o 4, 6, 17, 97; t p. 117 uy 
pot ii eau [pot a o] < 354 
pot ii fleur [pot a flceir] < 354 
pot ^ Peau [pot a lo] 47 
pot au feu [pot o £0] t 354 
pot au lait [pot o le] t 354 
pot auz roses [pot o roiz] t 354 
poteau [poto] o 109 
potentiel [potosjel] t 283 
potion [posjo] o 100, p. 39 x 
pouce [pus] (m 119 
pouding [pude:g] g 206 
poulailler [pulaje] [pulaje] a 64 
pouls [pu] 1 223, 344, p. 157 lxiv; 

OM p. 46 xrv 
pour demain [pu(!)r dame] e 394 
Pour la couronne [pu(!)r la ku- 

ron] P 401 
pour prendre cong6 [pu(:)r prazdr 

ko3e] p. 161 XIV 
pour rendre visite [pu(!)r ra:dr 

vizit] p. 161 XIV 
pp [p] 42, 168, 245 
Praslin [prale] s 272 
prScedemment [presedama] em 

p. 157 LXIV 
precieuse [presjezz] eu 127, 326, 

p. 44 xui 



preemption [preapsjo] p 248 
pr^f^re [prefere] e 79, p. 32 vn 
prefix [prefiks] x 310 
prendre [praidr] e 391; en p. 51 

prendre le voile (de I'ordre) de 

Sainte-Claire [pra:dr la vwal 

da 1 ordr da seit kleir] S, C 417 
prendre I'habit (de Pordre) de 

Saint-Franpois [pra:dr 1 abi 

da 1 ordr da se fraswa] S, F 417 
presbytdre [prezbiteir] « 271 
pr^s^ance [preseais] s 269 
presence [prezass] en 131 
pr^sentez armes [prezate arm] z 

prSsomptif [prez5ptif] p 248, p. 

98 XLViii 
pr^somption [prez5psj5] p 248 
pr^somptueuz [prezoptqe] p 248 
presque [preska] e 69, 387, p. 30 v 
presqu'ile [presk il] 387 
PressS [prese] 431 
presupposer [presypoze] s 269 
prdt a partir [pret a partizr] t 337 
prfite [preit] i 85 
prater [prete] i 86 
pr6t6rit [preteri(t)] t 299, p. 163 

prtoe [preitr] i 85, p. 36 vni; r 

p. 104 L 
pr^trise [pretriiz] i p. 36 vin 
preuve [prcBiv] eu p. 45 xni 
Priam [priam] am 132; m 235 
prier [prie] [prje] i 153 
(PriSre de) faire suivre [prieir 

da fezr sqizvr] 423 

primatie [primasi] (p. 117 un 
primitif [primitif] i p. 37 dc 
principaute d'Orange [presipote 

d orais] O p. 153 LXin 
printemps [preta] p 245 
pris [pri] 76 

prise [priiz] e 76, p. 30 vi 
prison d'£tat [priz5 d eta] £ p. 

153 Lxm 
Privas [priva] a 59 
priz [pri] X 315 
procds [prose] c p. 70 xxix 
prochain [praje] ch 182 
prochaine [prajen] in 146 
proclamer [praklome] [praklame] 

profil [prafil] U 229 
PrognS [pragne] gn 200 
projet [prose] e< 92 
prompt [pro] jrf 164, p. 157 LXiv; 

prompte [pr5:t] 46 
promptitude [prStityd] p 247; 

am p. 55 XX 
promtilguant [promylga] gua 197 
pronom [prond] om p. 55 xx 
prononciation [pronSsjosjd] on 

p. 55 XX 
prophetie [profesi] t 281, p. 117 

propitiatoire [propisjatwazr] t p. 

117 un 
proprete [proprate] e 393 
proscrire [proskriir] c 177; sc 276 
prose [pro:z] o 101 
prospectus [prospekty:s] 8 275, 

p. 163 Lxvi 



protestant [protesta] p 399 
provenir [provniir] n p. 96 xlvi 
providentiel [providosjel] t 283 
prudemment [prydama] e 55; em 

134, p. 21 III, p. 157 Lxiv 
prune [pryn] u p. 46 xv; n p. 96 


psalmiste [psalmist] p 251 
psalmodier [psalmodje] p 251 
psaume [pso:m] p 251 
Psyche [psiSe] p 251; ch p. 72 

psycologie [psikobsi] p 251 
psycologue [psikobg] p 251 
Ptol6m6e [ptoleme] P 251 
pu [pyl u 4, 120 
public [pyblik] c 255 
publique [pyblik] qu 255 
puer [pqe] we 160 
pu6ril [pqeril] U 229 
puis [pqi] wi 159, p. 64 xxv; s 

273; p. 157 lxiv 
ptdsque [pqisk(9)] e 69, 386, p. 

30 v; ui p. 64 xxv 
puisqu'elle [pqisk el] 386 
puits [pqi] s 273 
pulluler [pylyle] U 220 
pun [pde] un p. 56 xxi B 
punch [poij] un 142, p. 157 Lxrv 
pupille [pypU] iU 232, p. 157 


pur [pyir] u 4, 120 
puritain [pyrite] p 399 
pusillanime [pyzi(l)lanim] iU232, 

p. 157 LXIV 
Puvis de Chavannes [pjrvd d Ja- 

van] s 274 

pyramide [pirami(:)d] y, i p. 37 


pythagorien [pitagorje] p p. 152 


pythonisse [pitonis] p p. 152 

q [ky] [ka] 22, 24; [k] 127, 219, 
252, 254, 346; final 165 

qu [k] [kw] [kq] 252-258, 329; be- 
fore a [kw] 256; before a, o, t* 
[k] 255; before e and i [k] 255; 
Dsq] before e and i 257 

quadrag6naire [k(w)adra3en8:r] 
qu p. 101 XLix 

quadrangle [k(w)adra!gl] gu 256 

quadrat [k(w)adra] qu p. 101 


quadrille P^adriij] iU p. 90 xuv; 

gw p. 101 XLIX 
quadrupdde [k(w)adrype(i)d] qu 

256; ua p. 62 xxnr 
quadruple [kadrypl] u p. 163 


quadrupler [k(w)adryple] qu 256, 

p. 101 XLIX 

quai [ke] [ke] at 82, 124, 322, p. 

163 Lxvi; qu p. 101 xllx 
quai auz fleurs [ke o flcezr] 405 
quai de PHorloge [ke dd 1 orhisl 


qualite [kalite] qu 255 

quand [ka] gw 219, 254; an p. 51 


quand irez-vous [kat irevu] (2 
362, p. 141 Lix 



quantidme [katjem] ti 293 
quantity [katite] an 131 
quarante [karait] gu p. 101 xlix 
quart [kair] qu 254; ^ p. 117 liv 
quarte P^art] gu 254 
quartier [kartje] ti 293; t p. 117 


quarto P^warto] qu 256 
quartz [kwa:rts] ua 156; qu 256 
quasi Okazi] qu 254, p. 101 xlix 
quatrain [katre] qu 254 
quatre [katr] e 46; ^t^ 254 
quatre ennemis [katr enini] e 

quatre-temps [katra ta] e 71 ; gti 

p. 101 XLIX 

quatre-vingt-cinq [katr ve seik] 

t, q p. 157 LXiv 
quatre-vingt-dix [katra ve dis] 

quatre-vingt-diz-huit [katr ve 

diz qit] t 303 
quatre-vingt-onze [katra ve 5:z] 

371; « p. 141 LX 
quatre-vingt-sept [katra ve set] 

< p. 141 LX 

quatre-vingt-six Pcatr ve sis] t, x 

p. 157 LXIV 
quatre-vingt-un [katra ve oe] t 

303, 371, p. 157 LXIV 
quatri^me [katriem] [katrjem] i 

quatuor [kwatqoir] qu 256, p. 

163 Lxvi 
qu'avez-vous [k ave vu] 384 
que [ka] e 66, 75, 383; gu 219, 


Quebec [kebek] c p. 70 xxx 
que j'aie [ka 3 c(i)i] [ka 3 e] aie 

quel [kel] qu p. 101 xlix 
quelque [kelkCa)] e 387 
quelques-uns [ke(l)k(9)z 6b] p. 

quelqu'un [kelk 6b] 387; tin p. 56 


quel velours P^el volu:r] e 394 
qu'entend-on [k atdt 5] d p. 141 


querir P^eriir] 168 

questeur [kqestcezr] qu 257 

question [kestjd] ^ 279, 280, 290 

questure [kqestyir] qu 257 

quSte [keit] qu 254 

que tu subjuguasses \kB ty syb- 

3ygas] gua 197 
queue [ke] ew 114, p. 44 xn, p. 

49 XVI ; qu 254, p. 101 xlix 
queussi-queumi [kesi kemi] qu 

p. 101 XLIX 

qui [ki] qu 219, 253, 254, 329 
quibus [k(ii)ibys] qu p. 101 xlix 
quiddit6 [k(q)iddite] dd 188; gu 

p. 101 XLIX 

quietisme [kqietism] qu p. 101 


quietude [kqietyd] qu 257, p. 101 


qu'il aimAt [k il ema] d 51 
(qu'il) eat [k il y] w p. 46 XV 
qu'U finit [k il fini] i 95 
qu'U m [k il fi] i 95 
quille [ki:j] qu 254 
quillon [kij5] qu p. 101 xlix 




qu'il parlAt [k il parla] d 51 
qu'il punit [k il pyni] t 95 
qu'ils eussent [k ilz ys] eu 116 
qu'il vogu&t [k il vaga] gud 197 
Quimper [kepeir] r p. 104 l 
qu'in [ke] in p. 56 xxi B 
Quinatilt [kino] I 223 
quincaillerie [kekajri] qu 254 
quinine [kinin] u p. 163 lxvi 
quinquennal [kqekqenal] qu p. 

101 XLIX 

quinquet [keke] gu 254 
quinquina [kekina] qu p. 101 


quinte [keit] qu 254, 255; in p. 

56 XXI B 
Quinte-Curce [kqet kyrs] Qu 

quintette P((i[)etet] mn p. 65 

XXVI ; qu p. 101 XLIX 
quinteuz [kete] gu 254 
quintidi [k(q)8tidi] qu p. 101 


Quintilien [kqetilje] Qu 257; uin, 

ten p. 65 xxvi 
quintuple |k(q)etypl] in 136; uin 

p. 65 XXVI ; gw p. 101 xlix 
quiproquo pdproko] qu 254 
quoique |kwak(a)] e 386 
quoiqu'on [kwak 5] 386 
qu'on [k 5] on p. 56 xxi B 
quotidien [kotidje] u p. 163 lxvi 
quotient [kosja] o 110, p. 43 xi; 

t 287, p. 157 Lxiv; qu p. 101 

qu'un [k de] un p. 56 xxi B 
qu'unze [k de:z] p. 56 xxi B 

r [er] [ra] 22, 24; [r] 91, 94, 105, 
112, 118, 126, 259, 265, 356, 
380, 381; +consonant 166, 
264; final 165, 261, 262, 295- 
298, 347-349 
rabbin [rabe] && p. 68 xxvn 
Rabelais [rable] ai p. 49 xvi 
raccomoder [rakomode] cc p. 69 

raccroc [rakro] c 340, p. 71 xxi; 

cc p. 69 xxvin 
raccrocher [rakroSe] cc p. 69 

Rachel [raSel] ck p. 72 xxxn 
rachitique [rajitik] ch p. 72 xxxn 
racier [rokle] a 63 
radoub [radub] h 171 
raidir [rediir] r p. 104 l 
raille [ra:j] a 63 
raillerie [rajri] a 63, p. 25 iv 
railway [relwe] [relwe] w 308 
raison [rezo] [rezd] s p. 109 li 
ramener [ramne] e 70, p. 30 vi 
rampant [rapa] am 131 
rampe [raip] am p. 51 xvni 
rang [ra] g 365; an p. 56 xxi B 
rang 61ev6 [rok elve] [ra elve] g 

rang infime [rok efim] g 365 
Raoul [raul] I 221 
rappelee [raple] ^ 89 
rapt [rapt] p 248; « 299 
rare [rair] [rair] r 4, 259; a 49 
rarete [rarte] r p. 104 l 
faser [raze] s 319, p. 109 u 



rasibus [razibys] s p. 109 li 
rat [ra] a 53, p. 21 ni; t p. 117 


r^telier [ratalje] e 71 

ration [rosjo] t 2S5 

rationnel [rosjonel] ^ p. 117 Lin 

Ratisbonne [ratizbon] 8 271 

raviver [ravive] v p. 118 lv 

rayon [rejo] ay 90; y p. 60 xxin 

-re final 260 

reaction [reaksjo] c p. 70 xxx 

rebus [rebyzs] s 275 

recemment [resama] em 134, p. 

recent [resa] c p. 70 xxix 
Recevez, Monsieur, les meil- 
leures amities de votre bien 
d^voue [rasve, masje, le me- 
joeirz amitje da votr bje de- 
recevoir [r9s(a)vwairl c 175 
recif [resif] / p. 76 xxxvi 
recipient [resipja] c p. 70 xxix 
reciter [resite] c p. 70 xxix 
recognition [rekognisja] gn 200 
Recommandee [rakomade] 423 
recompense [rek5pa:s] 23 
repu [rosy] f 32, 267 
recueil [r8kce(i)j] t^ 118 
recueille [rakoeij] ueiUe 226 
reddition [reddisjS] dd 188 
r^dempteur [reda(p)toeirl p 248 
redemption [reda(p)sj5l p 248 
redingote [radegot] in 135 
refaisant [rafaza] ai 68 
reflux [rafly] x p. 163 lxvi 
refrogn6 [rafrojie] gn p. SI xl 

regard [raga:r] r p. 104 l 
regardez [ragarde] p. 19 n 
regardez les cerfs-volants [ra- 

garde le servolal/p. 76xxxvii 
regnait [rejie] ^ p. 81 xl 
Regnard [ranazr] g 204, p. 81 xl 
Regnaud [rano] g 204 
Regnauld [rajio] e, I p. 162 lxv 
T6ga6 [rejie] e 79 
rdgne [reji] gn 207, 329 
r^gner [rejie] gn 4 
regrets [ragre] e p. 30 v 
Reims see Rbeims 
rein [re] ein p. 54 xix, p. 56 xxi 

reine [rem] ei 20, p. 36 vm 
reineclaude [renglozd] [renkloid] 

reine de France [rem da fra:s] e 

rettre [reztr] et 90, 125, p. 49 xvi 
rejeter [raste] e 70, p. 30 vi 
rejoindre [raswezdr] oin p. 65 

XXVI ; j p. 86 xLii 
rgjouir [reswiir] oui 156; j 217 
relaps [ralaps] s 275 
relapse [ralaps] p 248, p. 98 


relieur [raljoeir] e p. 30 v 
reliure [raljyir] iu 152 
remarque [ramark] r p. 104 l 
remdde [rame(:)d] b 87 
remerciait [ramersje] iai 152 
rempart [rapair] r p. 104 l; t p. 

117 LIV 

remplir [rapliir] em 131 
remuant [ramqa] uan 162 




remuons [remq5] iion p. 65 xxvi 
Renaud [rano] d p. 74 xxxrv 
rendre [rasdr] r p. 104 l 
rdne [rem] ^ p. 36 viii 
renfort [rafoir] t 295, p. 117 uv 
renne [ren] e 20, p. 36 vni 
repartie [raparti] ^ p. 117 lh 
repute [repet] b 28 
r6p6t6 [repete] i 79, p. 32 vn 
repond-elle [repot el] d 362, p. 

141 LIX 
Repondez, s'il vous plait [rep5de, 

s il vu pie] p. 161 XIV 
repondit-il [repodit il] 421 
reps [reps] p 248 
r^publique romaine [repyblik 

romen] r p. 153 Lxni 
requiem [rekqi(j)em] e 80; m 235; 

reserve [rezerve] p. 157 lxiv 
resignation [rezijiosjS] a p. 157 


resoudre [rezu(i)dr] s 319 

respect [respe(k)] [respekt] ect 
92, 253, 353, p. 157 uav; ct 
181; t 300; c p. 36 vin 

respecter [respekte] 38 

respect humain [respek 3mae] ect 

respirer [respire] 38 

ressemble [rasaibl] e p. 30 v 

ressembler [rasable] e 68, p. 157 


ressentir [rasatiir] e 68, p. 157 


ressortir [rasortiir] e 68 
ressource [rasurs] e p. 157 lxiv 

restaurant [restara] [restora] au 
112, 126, 325, p. 43 xi, p. 49 


rester [reste] 38; e 91 
restez encore [restez akoir] z 336 
rSsultat [rezylta] ^ p. 117 liv 
resume [rez3ane] m 233 
resumption [rez5psj5] um 142 
rets [re] tp. 117 mv 
revanche [r(8)va:S] ch p. 72 xxxn 
rdve [reiv] ^ 85, p. 36 vra 
revenir [ravnizr] 46; 6 67 
revenu [r(8)vny] w p. 46 xv 
r^ver [reve] i 86, p. 36 vm 
revdtir [r(8)vetisr] i p. 36 vm 
revolver [revolveir] e 80, p. 32 

vii; r 263; v p. 118 lv; e, r p. 

Reynauld [reno] d p. 74 xxxrv 
rez [re] e 80 
rez-de-chauss6e [retjose] z p. 

R(h)eims [re:s] eim 135, p. 54 

XIX ; s 274; p. 157 lxiv, p. 162 


Rhin [re] in p. 54 xix 
rhinoceros [nnaserozs] 8 275 
rhododendron [rodadedro] en 137 
rhum [rom] u 113; um 145; m 

235; p. 163 lxvi 
Richard [rijair] d p. 74 xxxrv 
Richelieu [riSaljo] e 71, p. 30 v 
rien [rje] en 135; ie p. 60 xxin 
rien accepter [rjen aksepte] n 375 
rire [rirr] r p. 104 l 
rive [riiv] v 4; i 94; v 304 
riz [ri] z 318, 359 



robe [ro(:)bl o 4, 104, 106, p. 43 

xi; h 4, 46, 170 
roc [rok] o 105, p. 43 xi; c p. 70 


Roch [rok] ch p. 162 lxv 

roche [roj] 46 

Roger [rose] r 262 

rognon [n)ji5] ^ p. 81 xl 

roi [rwa] [rwa] oi 62, p. 25 iv, p. 

62 XXIV 
roi de France [rwa d fra:s] e 394 
rdle [rod] 6 97, p. 39 x 
romance [romais] o 109 
Rome [rom] o 111, p. 43 xi 
rompre [rSipr] om p. 55 xx 
romps [r5] p 247 
Romulus [romylyis] s 274 
rond [r5l d 164, p. 74 xxxiv; r 

259; on p. 56 xxi B 
ronde [r5:d] on p. 55 xx 
ronron [roro] r p. 104 l 
rosbif [rosbif] [rozbif] / p. 76 

XXXVI ; s p. 157 lxiv 
rose [ro:zl s 4, 268, 316, 317, p. 

109 Li; o 13, 101, p. 39 x 
rosier [rozje] o 101 
Rosny [roni] s 272 
rossignol [rosijiol] o 110 
Rothschild [rotSild] d p. 74 xxxv 
rdti [roti] 6 97, p. 43 xi; ^ 281, p. 

117 LU 

Rotterdam [raterdam] am 132; 

Rouen [rwa] ouen p. 65 xxvi 
rouet [rwe] oue 156 
rouge [ru!5] ge 4, p. 80 xxxix; 

au 19, 119 

rougeaud [ru3o] <m p. 49 xvi 

rongeur [rujoejr] 19 

roux [ru] ou p. 46 xiv 

royal [rwajal] 46; oy p. 62 xxiv 

royaume [rwajoim] oy p. 62 xxiv 

rr [(r)rl 43, 168, 259 

made [rqa(:)d] zwi p. 64 xxv 

Rubens [rybeis] en 137; s p. 162 


rude [ry(:)dl d A; u 121 

rue [ry] e 69, 391 

rue [rqe] i^ p. 64 xxv 

rue de Rivoli [ry da rivoli] R 410 

ruelle [rqel] tie 160, p. 64 xxv 

rueuse [rqoiz] tieu 160, p. 64 xxv 

mine [rqin] ui p. 64 xxv 

Ruisdael [rqizda:!] s, e p. 162 lxv 

misseau [rqiso] ui p. 64 xxv 

rumb [roib] b 171 

run [roe] un p. 56 xxi B 

rupture [ryptyzr] u p. 46 xv 

rural [ryral] r p. 104 l 

mse [ryzz] s 268, 319, p. 109 u 

rustre [rystr] r p. 104 l 

Ruyter [rqiteir] r p. 104 l 

s [es] [s8] 22, 24; [s] 92, 93, 100, 
110, 170, 266, 267, 269, 274, 
280, 381; final [s] 275; silent 
272, 273, 368, 369; of final cs, 
rs 367; [z] 101, 105, 106, 118, 
268, 270, 271, 317, 319, 366, 370 

sabbat [saba] && p. 68 xxvii; t p. 
117 LIV 

sable [sa:bl] [sa(!)bl] a 64, p. 25 rv 



sabre [sabr] [sabr] a 64 
saccade [saka(i)d] cc p. 69 xxvin 
saccader [sakade] cc 173 
saccager [sakase] cc p. 69 xxvin 
saccharin [sakarg] cc p. 69 xxvni 
sa fen^tre [sa fneitr] e 394 
Sa Grandeur [sa gradoeir] Sj G 

412, p. 161 XIV 
Sa Grandeur I'^vdque de Mar- 
seille [sa gradoeir levesk da 

marseijl S, G, M 413 
sain [se] ain p. 54 xix 
saint [se] « 409; p. 161 XIV 
Saint-Cloud [se klu] d 189 
saint Denis [se dani] s 409 
sainte [se:t] ain p. 56 xxi B; p. 

161 XIV 
saint Francois [se f raswa] s 409 
Saint-Gaudens [se godeis] s 274, 

p. 162 Lxv 
Saint-Germain-l'Auzerrois [se 

Serme 1 okserwa] x 267 
saint Luc [se lyk] c p. 70 xxx 
saint Marc [se mark] c 178, 340, 

Saint-Marc k Venise [semazr a 

v(8)niiz] c p. 141 LX 
Saint-Marc Girardin [se mair 

sirarde] c 340 
saint Martin [se marte] s 409 
Saint-Ouen [set wd] oiien p. 65 


Saint-P6tersburg [se peterzbuir] 

gr 205; 5 271 
Saint- Quentin [se kate] qu 254 
Saint-Roch [serak] ch p. 73 

XXXIII, p. 162 LXV 

saints [se] p. 161 XIV 

Saint Thomas d'Aquin [sS tama 

d ake] qu 254 
salade [sala(i)d] p. 19 u 
saletS [salte] e 70, 393 
salle [sal] p. 19 ii 
Salut amical [salyt amikal] 427 
samedi [samdi] e 70, 393, p. 30 


Sa Majesty [sa maseste] S, M 

412; p. 161 XIV 
Sa Majesty Britannique [sa ma- 

Seste britanik] Sy M, B 414 
Sa Majesty Catholique [sa ma- 

Seste katolik] S, M, C 414 
Sa Majesty Fiddle [sa maseste 

fidel] S, M, F 414 
Sa Majesty imp6riale [sa ma- 

Seste eperjal] /S, M 413 
Sa Majesty la reine [sa maseste 

la rem] 5, M 413 
Sa Majesty la reine d'Angleterre 

[sa maseste la rem d agbteir] 

S, M, A 413 
Sa Majesty le czar [sa maseste 

b tsair] /S, M 413 
Sa Majesty Pempereur Napo- 
leon m [sa maseste 1 aprceir 

napoleS trwa] S, M, N 413 
Sa Majeste le roi [sa maseste la 

rwa] S, M 413 
Sa Majeste le sultan Abdtil 

Medjid [sa maseste la sylta 

abdyl medjid] S, M, A 413 
Samson [sas5] m 236 
Sanchez [sajes] [sajez] z p. 122 




sanctifier [saktifje] c p. 70 xxx 
sanctuaire [soktiiesrl c p. 70 xxx 
sandwich [sadwitj], English [sand- 

witS] w 157, 308, p. 62 xxiv; 

d p. 74 XXXV 
sang [sa] an 131, p. 51 xviu, p. 

56 XXI B; gr 365 
sang et eau [sa e o] ^ 365 
sang humain [sak 3mae] g 365 
sang impur [sak epy:r] [sa epyir] 

fir 365 
sanglier [sagKe] gl p. 79 xxxvin 
sangsue [sasy] g 204 
sans date [sa dat] p. 161 XIV 
sans le chien [sa 1 Sje] e 394 
sans lieu ni date [sa 1J0 ni dat] 

p. 161 XIV 
Sadne [so:n] a 57, p. 162 lxv; md 

103, p. 39 X 
Sa Saintetg [sa sette] S 412; p. 

161 XIV 
Sa Saintetg le pape Pie IX [sa 

sette h pap pi noef] 5, P 413 
satiety [sasjete] ti 293; t p. 117 


sauce [so:s] au 102, p. 39 x 
saucisse [sosis] au 102 
saucisson [sosis5] au 102 
sauf [sof 1 / 165, 192 
saurai [sore] [sore] au 112, 126, 

p. 43 XI 
saurais [sore] [sore] au 112, 126, 

p. 43 XI 
saussaie [sose] au 102 
saut [so] t 295; au p. 39 x 
sauter [sote] au 102 
savoir [savwair] 124, 322 

savon [say5] on p. 55 xx 

sc [s] c 175, 277, 329; before e, t, 

y [s] 277; before a, o, u and 

conspnants [sk] 276 
scandale [skadal] sc 276 
scarlatine [skarlatin] sc 276 
sceau [so] eau p. 39 x; sc p. 71 

sc^lerat [selera] c 175; sc 277 
sceleratesse [selerates] sc p. 71 


sceller [sele] sc p. 71 xxxi 
scenario [senarjo] sc p. 71 xxxi; 

ri p. 96 XLVi 
scdne [sein] c 175, 267; sc 277, 

329; ^ p. 36 vni 
sc6nique [senik] sc p. 71 xxxi 
scepticisme [septisism] [septi- 

sizm] sc 277, p. 71 xxxi 
sceptique [septik] sc p. 71 xxxi 
sceptre [septr] sc 277, p. 71 xxxi 
sch [S] [sk] 182, 185, 186, 278, 329 
schah [Sa] s p. 152 Lxm 
schema [skema] sch 278 
Schiller [Silesr] r 263 
schisme [Sism] [Jizm] sch 186, 

278, 329 
schiste [Sist] sch 186, 278 
Schleswig [Jlezvig] g 206 
sc(h)olaire [skoleir] sch 186, 278; 

sc 276 
sc(h)olastique [skolastik] sch 

186, 278 
scholie [skoli] sch 186 
scie [si] sc 277, p. 71 xxxi 
sciemment [sjama] sc p. 71 xxxi; 

mm p. 94 xlv 




science [sjais] ten 135, 162; c 175, 
267, p. 157 Lxnr; s p. 109 li 

sdentifique [sjatifik] ien p. 65 
xxvi; sc p. 71 XXXI 

sder [sje] sc p. 71 xxxi 

sdntillant [s§tija] sc p. 71 xxxi 

scintille [seti:j] sc 277 

scintiller [s8ti(l)le] [setije] tU 

scion [sj5] sc p. 71 xxxi 

sciure [sjysr] iu 152; sc p. 71 


scrutin [skryte] sc 276 
sculpteur [skyltoeir] sc 276; p 

247, p. 157 Lxiv, p. 163 lxvi 
Scylla [silla] c 267, p. 162 lxv; 

Scythes [sit] c 175 
se [sa] e 66, 383 
sec [sek] c p. 70 xxx 
second [sago] [zgd] c 174, p. 157 

second 6tage [s8g5t etais] d 363 
secundo [sagSdo] un 142 
seigle [se(:)gl] ei 90 
seigneur [sejioeir] gn 207 
sein [se] ein p. 54 xix 
Seine [sein] ei 20, 90, 125, 323, 

p. 36 VIII 
seize [seiz] ei 90, 125, 323 
sel [sel] I 221 

Selim [selim] im 139; m 235 
selon eux [solo 0] n 335, 378 
semblant [sabla] em 131 
semble [sa:bl] em 14 
sembliez [sablie] [sablje] i 153 
s'en [s a] en p. 51 xvin 

sens [sa] [sais] s 275, p. 157 

Lxrv; en p. 51 xvni 
sens commun [sa komde] s p. 157 

sept [set] p 247; « 302 
sept arbres [set arbr] t 302 
septembre [se(p)td:br] em 131; p 

248, 425 
sept enfants [set ofa] pt p. 157 


septentrion [se(p)tatrjd] p 248 
septentrional [se(p)tatrJ9nal] p 

p. 98 XLVin 
septidme [setjem] ti 293 
sept plumes [se pl3an] t p. 157 

sept pommes [se pom] t 302 
septuagSnaire [septqasenezr] p 

sera [sora] r 259 
s6rail [sera:j] U 224 
serf [serf] / p. 76 xxxvi 
serious [sorjo] e p. 30 v 
sert-il [sezrt 11] t 381 
serviteur [servitoeir] eu p. 45 xni 
ses [se] [se] e 93 
Ses Majest^s [se maseste] 8, M 

Seth [set] th 299 
seuH [soeCOj] eu 13, 118, p. 45 

seul [soel] eu 4, 117; I 221 
seul habit [soel abi] I 344 
sdve [seiv] «; p. 118 lv 
shako [Sake] k 218 
si [si] s 4, 31, 266; i 4, 94, 389 
sibyUe [sibil] iU 232 



sieur [sjoeir] eu 118; p. 161 XIV 
Sieyds [sjejes] s 274 
sifflera [siflara] e 71 
signal [sijial] ^ p. 81 xl 
signet [sine] [sijie] g 204 
signifie [sijiifi] [sinifi] gn p. 157 


s'il [s U] 31 

s'il en est ainsi [s 11 an et esi] Z, n, 

t p. 141 LIX 
silez [sileks] x 310 
s'ils viennent [s 11 vjen] 389 
s'il va [s 11 va] 389 
s'il vous plait [s U vu pie] p. 161 

simple [se:pl] im 135, p. 19 n, p. 

54 xrx, p. 157 lxiv 
Sinai [sinal] p. 163 lxvi 
sine qua non [sine kwa nan] qu 

p. 101 XLIX 

sire [slir] i p. 37 rx 

sirop [siro] p 249 

six [sis] s 266; x 267, 313, 315, 

sixain [size] x 314, p. 122 Lvn 
six amis [slz ami] x 319 
six chaises [si ^eiz] x p. 157 lxiv 
six et dix [sis e dis] x p. 157 lxiv 
six heros [si ero] x 315 
six hetires [slz oeir] x p. 157 lxiv 
six heures et demie [slz Ge:r e 

daml] s 370 
six hommes [siz am] x 372 
six-huit [sis qit] x p. 122 lvii 
sixidme [slzjem] x 314, p. 122 

six ou sept [sis u set] 47 

six pommes [si pom] x 315 

six-quatre [sis katr] x p. 122 Lvn 

six soldats [si salda] x 372 

sixte [slkst] x 310 

Sixte- Quint [slksto ke] e 71 

social [sosjal] o 110; ia 152; c 175 

society [sosjete] o 110 

sceur [soe:r] eu 118, p. 45 xni 

soi [swa] oi 56, 156, p. 21 in 

sole [swa] [swa] oi 56, 64 

soif [swaf] / 192 

soif ardente [swaf ardait] / p. 76 


soin [swe] in p. 54 xrx 

soir [swa:r] oi 56 

soit [swat] [swa] t 300, p. 163 


soixante [swasait] x 267, 313 
soixantaine [swasaten] x 313 
soixante-dix [swasait dis] 213 
soixantidme [swasatjem] x p. 

122 LVII 
soldat [salda] a 53 
soleil [sole(gj] eU 226, p. 157 

lxiv; ei p. 36 vin; il p. 90 


solennel [salanel] e 55; en 134 
solennit^ [solanite] nn p. 96 


sommeil [some:]] e 91; il p. 90 

sommeiller [someje] ei p. 36 vm 
sommets [same] ets 92 
sommite [somite] m p. 57 xxn 
sonmambule [somnabyl] om 143; 

somnolent [sonmola] om 143 




Son Altesse [sdn altes] S, A 412 
Son Altesse P^lecteur de Saze 

[s5ii altes 1 elektoezr da saks] S, 

A 413 
Son Altesse royale [s5n altes 

rwajal] S, A 413; p. 161 XIV 
sonde [s5:d] on p. 56 xxi B 
son dernier avis [s5 demjer avi] 

r 347 
Son £mmence [s5n einina:s] Sy E 

Son £minence le cardinal de 

Retz [s5n emina:s h kardinal 

da res] S, E, R 413 
Son Excellence [s5n eksela:s] p. 

161 XIV 
songe [s5!3] on 14 
songea [s53a] e p. 157 Lxrv 
sonnette [sonet] n p. 57 xxn 
sonore [sana:r] n p. 96 xlvi 
sort [soir] r 166; o p. 43 xi; < p. 

117 LIV 

sortie [sorti] tie 292; i p. 117 Ln 
sot [so] [sot] t 300 
sotie [soti] t 281 

sotte [sot] o 107, p. 43 xi; tt 279 
sou [su] ou p. 46 XIV 
souhait [swe] t 295, p. 117 liv 
softl [su] I 223, 344; 012 p. 46 xiv 
soulever [sulve] I p. 87 xliii 
Soulier [sulje] p. 163 Lxvn 
souliers neufs [sulje noef] / p. 76 

Soult [suit] t 299 
soumission [sumisjo] m p. 94 xlv 
sourcil [sursi] il 230; I 344, p. 

163 Lxvi 

sourd [suir] ou p. 46 xiv; d p. 74 


sourd & toutes les demandes 
[su:r a tut le damazd] d p. 141 


sourde [surd] ou p. 46 xrv 
sourd et muet [su:r e mqe] d p. 

141 LX 

sous-entendu [suz atady] p. 161 

sous le pont [su 1 p5] e 394 
sous un toit [suz ce twa] a 335 
soutenir [sutnizr] e 70 
soutien [sutje] ti 294; < p. 117 Ln 
souvenir [suvnizr] e 46; n p. 96 


souverain [suvre] e 46, 70, p. 30 


spalt [spalt] t 299 

specimen [spesimen] [spesime] 

en 133; n 241, p. 157 Lxrv 
specimen k desirer [spesimen a 

dezire] n 376 
sphinx [sfe:ks] a; 310 
squale [skwal] qu 256, p. 101 


square [skwa:r] ua 156; qu 256 

ss [s] 267, 329 

St final 297 

stabat mater [stabat mate:r] r 

stagnant [stagna] gn 200 
stagnation [stagnosjS] gn 200 
stathouder [statudeir] r p. 104 l 
station [stosjd] a 60; ^ 285 
Strasbourg [strazbuir] s 271; a, g 

p. 157 Lxiv 



Strict [strikt] t 296 
strontium [strSsjom] t 288 
Stuart [stqair] i^a p. 64 xxv 
stuc [styk] c p. 70 xxx 
style [stil] y 96 
su [sy] w p. 46 XV 
sua [sqa] ua 160, p. 64 xxv 
suaire [sqeir] t/a p. 64 xxv 
suant [sqa] uan p. 65 xxvi 
suave [sqasv] tui 160, p. 64 xxv 
subit [sybi(t)] t 299, 300, p. 163 


subordonner [sybordone] h 44 
substantiel [sypstdsjel] t 283, p. 

117 LIII 

sue [syk] c p. 70 xxx 
successeur [syksesoeir] cc 176, p. 

70 XXIX 
succinct [sykse] [syksekt] t 300; 

c p. 71 XXXI, p. 163 Lxvi 
succion [syksjo] cc p. 70 xxrx 
succulent [sykyla] cc 173 
succursale [sykyrsal] w p. 46 xv, 

p. 161 XIV 
Sucre [sykr] w p. 46 xv 
sud [sy(:)d] d 190, p. 157 Lxrv, 

p. 163 Lxvi 
sud-est [syd est] t 297 
sud-ouest [syd west] t 297 
suerent [sqeir] w^ 160 
sueur [sqoeir] ueu 160, p. 64 xxv 
Suez [sqes] [sqeiz] z 316, p. 163 


suggerer [sygsere] [sygsere] 38; 

gg 203, p. 157 lxiv 
suggestion [sygscstjo] gg 203; ti 

290; t p. 117 Lii 

suif k vendre [sqif a voiidr] / p. 

suinter [sqete] uin 136, 162 
suis-je [sqi:3] e 69 
suivant [sqiva] p. 161 XIV 
suivre [sqiivr] ui 160 
suj^tion [sy3esj5] t 285 
sun [sob] un p. 56 xx? B 
suons [sq5] turn 162 
superbe [syperb] p 245 
supplice [syplis] pp 245 
supputer [sypyte] m p. 46 xv 
supr6matie [s3rpremasi] ^ p. 117 

LIII, p. 157 LXIV 

sur [syir] w p. 46 xv 

siire [syir] tl p. 46 xv 

sur le pont [syr la p5] e 394 

sur les une heure [syr le yn ceir] 

sumom [symS] om 141, p. 55 


sur-plomb [syr plo] b 339 
suspect [syspekt] [syspek] [syspe] 
ct ISl; t 300; eat 353; p. 163 


suspense [syspais] 5 267 
Suzanne [syzan] z p. 122 Lvin 
suzerain [syzre] z p. 122 Lvin 
syllabe [silaCOb] [silla(:)b] y 96; 

U 168; a p. 21 m 
Sjrmpathie [sepati] ym 135; th 

279, p. 117 Lii 
Sjrmptdme [septoim] p 248, p. 98 


Sjrntaxe [setaks] yn 135 
Sjrnthdse [seteiz] yn 135 
systdme [siste:m] h 87 



t [te] [ta] 22, 24; 92; 118; 170; [t] 
[s] 162, 267, 279-303; final 
295-303, 350-356, 381, 382; 
silent 295, 300-303, 350-356 

ta [ta] a p. 21 iii 

tabac [tabaj a 53; c 180, p. 157 


table [ta(!)bl] a 65; e 69, 391; le 

tableau [tablo] hi 37; eau p. 39 x 
tac [tak] c p. 70 xxx 
tAche [taiS] d 15, 19, 58 
t&cher [taSe] d 19 
tachygraphe [takigraf] ch p. 72 


tact [takt] c p. 70 xxx; t 296, p. 

117 Lii, p. 157 LXIV 
taille [ta!j] a 61 
tailletir [tajceir] [tajcesr] a 64 
taire [teir] ai 84, 123, 321 
Talleyrand [ta(l)leral iU 232 
Talmud [talmyd] d p. 74 xxxv 
tandis [tadi] s p. 157 lxiv 
tandis que [tadi(s) k(9)] s p. 109 


tante [tait] an 4, 14, 131, p. 56 

XXI B; e 46 
taon [ta] [t5] a 57; o 103 
tape [tap] p 4, 245 
tard [tair] d p. 74 xxxiv 
tarif [tarif] / p. 76 xxxvi 
tas [ta] a 59, p. 25 iv; t 4, 279 
tasse [tais] a 65, p. 25 iv 
tasser [tose] a 59 
titons [tats] d p. 25 IV 

tauz [to] X p. 122 Lvn 
te [ta] e 66, 383, 391 
technologie [teknabsi] ch 185, 

p. 73 xxxin 
te deum [te deam] e 80, p. 32 vn; 

um 145 
teinte [te:t] ein 4, 135, p. 56 

tel [tel] I 221 
t^l^phone [telefan] [telefom] o 

111, p. 43 XI 
tellement [telma] 46 
temp^te [tapeit] em 131 
temple [taipl] em p, 51 xvm 
temps [ta] em 131; < 279; ps p. 

157 LXIV 
tenacity [tanasite] e 67 
tenir [taniir] e 67; r 261 
tenture [tatyir] en 131 
Terre-Neuve [teir noeiv] 422 
terrible [teribl] rr 169; r 259 
terrine [terin] rr 167 
territoire [teritwair] oi p. 62 


tertLo [tersjo] tp. 117 un 

tes [te] [te] e 93 

tdte [teit] S 4, 20, 29,84, p. 36 viii 

tette [tet] e 20, p. 36 vm 

texte [tekst] x 310 

th [t] h 209, 279, 329 

thaler [taleir] r p. 104 l 

th6 [te] h 209 

theatre [teaitr] i, d 30; th 279, 

th#&tre de Paris [teaitr da pari] 

P p. 153 LXin 
theme [term] th 279 




fh^ocratie [teokrasi] t 281 

Thiers [tjeir] r 264 

Thomas [toma] a 59, p. 25 rv 

thorax [toraks] x 310 

thym [te] ym 135, p. 157 lxiv 

-ti [sj] [tj] [ti] 110, 280, 281, 28^ 

291, 293, 294 
-tia [tja] ti 294 
-tial [sjal] t 280, 282 
tiare [tjair] ti 294 
tic [tik] c p. 70 XXX 
-tie [si] [ti] t 280, 281, 292 
-tie [tie] t 293 
-tid [tje] t 293 
-tiel [sjel] t 280, 283 
-tidme [tjem] ti 293 
-tidmement [tjemma] ti 293 
tien [tje] ti 294 

-tien [sje] t 280, 286; [tje] t 294 
tienne [tjen] ti 294 
tient [tje] en 135, p. 54 xrx, p. 

157 LXIV 
-tient [sje] t 280; [sja] 287 
-tier [tje] t 293 
tiers [tjeir] r 166, 264 
-tiers [tje] t, ti 293 
tiers #tat [tjeirz eta], s 366 
-ties [ti] t 281 
-tieuse [sjoiz] ^ 280, 284 
-tiez [tje] ti 291 
tige [tii3] i 94 
tilleul [tijoel] I p. 157 lxiv 
timidite [timidite] i p. 37 ix 
tinssiez [tesje] in 45 
-tio [tjo] ti 294 
-tion [sj5] t 280, 285 
-tions [tjo] ti 291 

-tium [sjom] ^ 280, 288 
tirelire [tirliir] i p. 37 rx 
tiret [tire] 421 
tiret (de separation) [tire da se- 

parosjS] 419 
Titien [tisje] t 286, p. 117 Lin; 

t, en p. 162 lxv 
titiUer [titia)le] iU 232 
toast [tost] [to!st] 57; t 297; a p. 

157 LXIV 
tocsin [tokse] c p. 70 xxx 
toi [twa] oi 56, 156 
tombe [t5!b] om 141 
tombeau [t5bo] om p. 55 xx 
tome [to:m] o 14, 111 
tondre [t5:dr] cm p. 56 xxi B 
topaze [topaiz] [topaiz] a 64; 2 p. 

122 LVin 
tort [toir] o 4, 104 
toste [tost] o 110 
tat [to] ^ p. 39 X 
total [total] o 109 
tdt ou tard [tot u tair] 47 
Toulon, 7, rue Saint-Georges, le 

18 ao&t 1911 [tul5, set, ry se 

3or3, la diz qit u diz nGef sol Siz] 

tour [tuir] ow 4, 119; « 7 
toumesol [tumasol] s 269 
toumevis [tumavis] e, 8 p. 163 


toumez s'il vous plidt [tume s il 

vu pie] p. 161 XIV 
tous [tu(:)s] [tu] 8 275, p. 157 

Lxjv, OU p. 46 xrv 
tousse [tus] ou 119, 128, 328, p. 

46 XIV 




tout [tu(t)] (m 4, 17, 119, p. 46 


Tout k vous [tut a vu] 427 

toute [tut] ou p. 46 xiv 

tout le monde [tu 1 m5:d] e 73 

toux [tu] X 315; ou p. 46 xrv 

traine [tresn] at 90, p. 49 xvi 

traineau [treno] at 90 

trait d'union [tre d ynj5] 34, 419, 

tramway [tramwe] [tramwe] w 

157, 307 
tranquiUe [trakil] iU 232, p. 157 

Lxiv; i p. 37 IX 
trans before a vowel [traz] 270 
transaction [trazaksj5] 5 270 
transatlantique [trazatlatik] s 

transept [trase(pt)] s 270; t 299; 

p p. 98 XLviii 
transi [trasi] s 270 
transiger [trazise] s 270 
transir [trasiir] s 270 
transit [trazi(t)] s 270; t 299 
transitif [trazitif] s 270 
transition [trazisjS] s 270 
transsubstantier [tras3rpstdsje] 

ti 293; « p. 117 liii 
Transylvanie [trcLsilvani] s 270 
travail [trava(i)j] a 13, 61; U 155, 

225; ail p. 157 lxiv 
travaille [travaij] a 12, 61, 65; e 

travailler [travaje] ill 225 
trema [trema] 33 
tremper [trape] em 131 
trente-neuf [trait ncef] / 194 

trds habile [trez abil] 8 336, p. 

141 LIX 

tr^sor [trezoir] s 268 
triage [triais] [trija:3] i 153 
tric-trac [trik trak] c p. 70 xxx 
tril [tri] [triij] U 228 
trimestre [trimestr] p. 161 XTV 
triple [tripl] 37 
triste [tiist] i 94 
tristement [tristama] e 393 
triumvir [triomviir] [trijomviir] 

trois [trwa] oi p. 62 xxrv 
trois un de stute [trwaz 6b da 

sqit] 371 
trompe [troip] om 4, 141 
tromper [trSpe]. om 141 
tronc [tro] c 179, 340 
trdne [troin] 6 97 
trdner [trone] 6 98 
trop [tro] [tro] o 99; p 249 
trop Iclatant [trop eklata] p 345 
trop en avant [trop on ava] p, n 

trop Itroit [trop etrwa] p p. 141 


trop hardi [tro ardi] p p. 141 lx 
trottoir [trotwair] r 261; « 279 
trou [tru] ow p. 46 xiv, p. 49 xvi 
trouvaille [truvajj] a 61, 65; aiUe 

troyen [trwaje] oy p. 62 xxrv 
Troyen [trwaje] en 135 
true [tryk] c p. 70 xxx 
tt [t] 42, 168, 279 
tu [ty] u 17 
tua [tqa] tia p. 64 xxv 



tu aimes [ty eim] e 391 

tuant [tqfi] uan 162 

tu arguSs [ty argy] gvs 197 

tube [tyb] u p. 46 xv 

tubulaire [tybyleir] up. 46 xv 

tu chatieras [ty Satira] t 281 

tu donnes [ty don] e p. 30 vi 

tuer [tqe] tie IGO 

tueur [tqoesr] ixeu, 160, p. 64 


tueuse [tqeiz] ueu 160, p. 64 


tu fatiguas [ty fatiga] giui 197 
tuile [tqi(i)l] ui p. 64 xxv 
tuileries [tqilri] wi p. 64 xxv 
tulle [tyl] u p. 46 xv 
tumulte [tymylt] u p. 46 xv 
tuons [tqo] tion 162, p. 65 xxvi 
tu paries [ty pari] e p. 30 vi 
tu peux [ty po] x p. 122 Lvn 
turc [tyrk] u 121; c 255 
turf [tyrf] / p. 76 xxxvi 
turque [tjo-k] qu 255 
tu sais [ty se] [ty se] ai 82, 124, 

322, p. 32 VII 
Tusculum [tyskylom] m 235 
tu tords [ty toir] d p. 74 xxxiv 
tu t*y es mis [ty t i 8 mi] 384 
tuyau [tqijo] [tyjo] 46; uy 160, 

p. 64 xxv 
typhus [tifyis] s 275 

u [y] 22, 24; [q] 158; pronounced 
after g 197; silent after g 197; 
silent 202 

ft [y] H 120, 121 

-ua [wa] 156; -uA [qa] 158, 160 

-uan [qa] 161, 162 

ubiquite [ybikqite] qu 257 

ue [oe] [0] 117, 118, 122, 127; [qe] 

[qe] 158, 160; after c and g [oe] 

[0] 320, 326 
-u6 [qe] 158, 160 
-ud [qe] 158, 160 
-ueil [oe:j] U 226 
-ueille [oe:j] iU 226 
-ueu [q0] [qoe] 158, 160 
-ui [qi] 158, 160; +i [qij] 159 
-uiUe [yij] [qiij] iU 226 
-uin [qe] 136, 161, 162 
-urn [5] 142; [&] 144; [om] 145, 

-ftmes [ym] H 15 
un m 4, 17, 144, 146, 161, 386, 

p. 56 XXI B 
-un [5] 142, 161; [de] 144; [on] 

un ancien ami [den osjen ami] n 

unanime [ynani:m] n p. 57 xxii 
un arabe [oen ara(!)b] a p. 153 


un arc-en-ciel [den ark a sjel] n, 

c p. 141 LIX 

un avis important [den avi gporta] 

un banc k dos [de bd a do] c p. 

141 LX 

un beau manage [de bo marjass] 

un bel angora [de bel dgora] a 





un boulanger intelligent [de bu- 

lase etelisa] r 349 
un cerf diz-cors [de seir di koir] / 

p. 76 xxxvn 
un charmant homme [oe Sannat 

om] t 331 
un cosaque [de kozak] c p. 153 


un court espace [oe kurt espais] t 

un dedale [de dedal] d p. 153 


un demi-litre [de dmi litr] e 394 

une [yn] u 121 

une ancienne 61dve [yn osjen 

eleiv] c 392 
une autre ann§e [yn otr ane] e 

Une bonne ann6e [yn bon ane] 

une bouteille de cognac [yn bu- 

teij da kojiak] c 400 
une cheminee [yn famine] e 394 
une demi-livre [yn dami liivr] e 

une demoiselle [yn damwazel] e 

une dryade [yn dria(Od] d p. 152 


une faim excessive {yn fe ekse- 

siiv] m 373, p. 141 lx 
une mggdre [yn meseir] m p. 153 


un enfant [oen afa] n 375 
une petite [yn patit] e 74, 393, 394 
Une poign^e de main {yn pwajie 
(pojie) da me] 427 

une robe de florence {yn r9(:)b 

da florais] / 400 
une robe de madras [yn r9(:)b 

da madrazs] m 400 
une semaine [yn same(!)n] e 394 
une sirdne [yn «ir8(:)n] 8 p. 152 

une statue en carrare {yn staty 

a karair] c 400 
un et deux font trois [de e de f 5 

trwa] n p. 141 lx 
un ^tre actif [den eitr aktif] e 73 
Une A^eille maitresse {yn vjeCOj 

metres] V 402 
un excellent homme [den eksdat 

om] t 350 
un faune [de fom] / p. 152 LXin 
un fort argument en sa faveur 

[de fa:rt argymat a sa favoezr] 

i p. 141 Lix 
un fort athldte [de fart atlet] 1 352 
un froid accueil [de frwat akoe:]] 

d 362 
un gar^on indolent [db gars5 

edola] n p. 141 lx 
un grand homme [de grat am] d 362 
un hermds [den erme(!)s] h p. 153 

imiforme [ynif arm] n 239 
un illustre Parisien [den ilystr 

•parizje] P 399 
union [ynja] p. 19 n 
un Irlandais [den irlade] / 399 
univers [yniveir] r 264 
university [ymversite] 16 
un joug intolerable [de 3uk eto- 

lera(:)bl] g p. 141 lix 



Tin Manage dans le monde {de 

marja:3 da h moid] M 402 
tin mentor [ce metoir] m p. 153 


tin mgtre d'angleterre [de m8(:)tr 

d agbteir] a 400 
tin missel [de misel] m p. 152 

tin noble venitien [de nabl ve- 

nisje] V 399 
un nom anglais [ob n5 agle] m 

p. 141 LX ■ 
tin nom illustre [de n5 illystr] m 

un OBuf dtir [den oe dyir] / 193 
un OBuf frais [den oe fre] / 193 
un OBuf g&te [den oef gate] / p. 76 


un OS [dBn ois] [den os] 8 p. 156 

un'parfum exquis [de parfde ek- 

ski] m 373 
un phaeton [de faet5] p p. 153 

un pore-epic [de porlc epilc] c p. 

141 LIX 

un pot de biSre [de po d bjeir] e 

tm riche Americain [de riS ame- 

rike] A 399 
tm sat3rre [de satiir] s p. 152 Lxm 
un savant allemand [de sava 

alma] a 399 
im succes inattendu [de syl^sez 

inatady] s 366 
tm tartufe [de tart3rf] t p. 153 


un triton [de tritd] t p. 152 Lxin 
un un mal fait [den de mal fe] 371 
un verre de bidre [de ve:r da 

bjeir] e 394 
tm vieillard infirme [de yJ8Ja:r 

efirm] d 364 
unze [deiz] un p. 56 xxi B 
~uon [q5] 161, 162 
Urgent [yrsa] 431; < p. 117 liv 
XJrsule \yT8y\] t* p. 46 xv 
us [yis] [y] s 275 
-fttes [yt] ll 15 
-utie [ysi] t 281 
utile [ytil] t* p. 46 xv 
Uxelles [ysel] a; 267, 313 
-uy [qi] 158, 160 

V [ve] [va] 22, 24; [v] 304, 338 
vache [vaS] ch p. 72 xxxn 
vadUer [vasile] iU 232 
vade-mecum [vademekom] um 

vaille [vaij] a 61 
vaincre [verier] cr 37; c 255 
vaincrez [vekre] ain 135 
vaincs [ve] cs 164, c 179 
vaincu [velsy] c 255 
vainquant [veka] qu 255 
vainquez [veke] gu 255 
vainquis [veki] gu 254, 255 
vainquons [vek5] qu 254, 255 
valet [vale] v p. 118 lv 
valse [vals] a p. 21 in 
valu [valy] v p. 118 lv 
valve [valv] v p. 118 lv 



vanille [vani(!)j] ill p. 90 xuv 

vase [vcRz] a 60 

vasistas [vajsistazs] 8 275, p. 157 


Vaud [vo] d p. 74 xxxrv 
vaudeville [vodvil] iU 232 
Vaugelas [vosia] a 59 
vauz [vo] au p. 49 xvi 
veau [vo] eau 102, p. 39 x 
veille [ve(Oi] iU p. 157 lxiv 
veilleuse [v8J0!z] e 91; ei p. 36 

vin; ill p. 90xLiv 
veine [vein] ei 90 
Velasquez [velaskes] z 267 
vende [vaid] en p. 56 xxi B 
vend^en [vadee] en 136 
vendetta [vedetta] en p. 157 * 

vendredi [vadradi] en 131; e 

venez [vane] z 318 
Veniat [venjat] tp. 117 m 
Venise [voniiz] i p. 37 rx 
V6nitien [venisje] t 286 
vent [vd] v 4, 304, p. 118 LV 
Venus [venyis] s 274 
ver [ve:r] e 13; r 263 
Vera Cruz [vera kryiz] z 319 
verdict [vedi(k)] [verdikt] t 300 
verger [verse] r 262 
verglas [vergla] a 59 
vergogne [vergoji] ^ p. 81 xl 
vermeil [verme(:)j] il p. 90 xliv 
vermout(li) [vermut] th 299; t p. 

vers [vejr] r 166, 264 
Versailles [versa: j] a 61; tZZ p. 90 

XLTv; V p. 118 Lv; atU p. 162 


vers les une heure [ver le yn oe:r] 

8 369, 371 
vers un endroit [ver d^(n) adrwa] 

vert [veir] r 166; t p. 117 mv 
verte [vert] e 91, p. 36 vin 
verveine [vervc(i)n] v p. 118 lv 
vestiaire [vestje:r] iai 152; ti 290 
v6te [veit] i 85 
v6tir [vetiir] 6 86 
veto [veto] c 80 ^ 

veuf [voef] / p. 76 xxxvi 
veuf en secondes noces [voef a 

sdgSid nos] / 342 
veuiile [vceij] euiUe 226; iS p. 90 


Veuillez accepter, Madame, I'as- 
surance de ma parfaite et af- 
fectueuse consideration [voe- 
jez aksepte, madam, lasyra:s 
da ma parfet e afektqoiz kdsi- 
derasjo] 429 

Veuillez accepter, Madame, mes 
salutations respectueuses [voe- 
jez aksepte, madam, me saly- 
tosjS respektqoiz] 429 

Veuillez agrler, cher Monsieur, 
avec tons mes remerciements, 
I'assurance de mes sentiments 
bien devours [voejez agree, 
Se:r masje, avek tu me romer- 
sima, lasyra!s dd me scitima 
bje devwe] 428 

Veuillez agr^er. Monsieur, I'as- 
surance de mes sentiments 



distingu6s [voejez agree, mos- 
J0, 1 asyrais da me satima dis- 
tege] 428 
veuillez entrer [voejez dtre] z 333 
Veuillez me rappeler au bon sou- 
venir de [voeje mo raple o bo 
suvniir do] 430 
veuve [voeiv] eu 127, 327, p. 45 

xni; V 304; p. 161 XIV 
veux [v0] ei* p. 44 xn 
viande [vjaid] ian p. 65 xxvi 
vicomte [vikSit] p. 161 XIV 
vicomtesse [vikotes] p. 161 XIV 
victoire [viktwa:r] oi 56 
vie [vi] e 69; i 94 
vieil [vjeij] ieiZ 226 
viellard [vjejair] d p. 74 xxxrv; 

ZZ p. 90 xLiv 
vieille [vjeij] ettte 226; iXi p. 157 


vieillir [vjeji;r] iW p. 90 xliv 
viendra [vjedra] ien p. 65 xxvi 
viemie [vjen] v p. 118 lv 
viens [vje] en 135, p. 54 xrx 
vif [vif 1 i 94 

vif-argent [vif ar3a]/p. 76 xxxvi 
vif 6clat [vif ekla] / 342 
vigoureux [viguro] go p. 79 


vil [vil] I 165; il 229 
vilain [vile] v p. 118 lv 
viUage [vil(l)a:3] m 232 
viUe [vil] m 232; i p. 37 ix 
Villeneuve-le-Comte [vilnceiv la 

k5:t] 7, C 410 
Villmain [vilme] iJtX 232 
vin [ve] in 17, 135, p. 56 xxi B 

vinaigre [vineigr] n p. 96 xlvi 
vin de Champagne [ve d S^P&J^l 

vindicte [vedikt] c p. 70 xxx 
vingt [ve] g 205, 213; i 302; gt p. 

157 LXIV 
vingt chevauz [ve Savo] t p. 157 


vingt-deux [vet de] t 303, p. 157 


vingt et un [vet e de] i 303 
vingt hommes [vet om] i 302 
vingt-huit [vet qit] i p. 157 lxiv 
vingtieme [vetjem] ii 293; i p. 

117 ui 
vingt-neuf [vetnoef] i 303, p. 

157 Lxrv 
vingt soldats [ve solda] t 302 
vingt-trois [v€t trwa] t 303 
vinssions [vesjd] in 45 
violence [vjolais] en 131 
violette [vjolet] io 152 
violon [vjol5] io p. 60 xxin 
virgule [virgyl] 419 
vis [vis] s 275, p. 163 lxvi 
vis-i-vis [viz a vi] s p. 163 lxvi 
Visigoth [vizigo] t 301 
vitre [vitr] 37 
vitrine [vitrin] i p. 37 rx 
vivace [vivas] v 304 
vivant [viva] v p. 118 lv 
vivat [viva] [vivat] t 300 
vivre [viivr] t; p. 118 lv 
vizir [viziir] z 316 
VOBU [v0] ew p. 44 XII 
VOBUX [v0] ew 114, 127; (m 326 
voguons [vogo] ^ p. 79 xxxvin 




voiUl [vwala] d 50 

voiUl le factetir [vwala 1 faktoezr] 

voir [vwair] v 304 

Voir tome m, chapitre IV de 
I'ouyrage [vwair toim trwa, 
Sapitr katr da 1 uvrai's] 415 

voisin [vwaze] oi 156 

voix [vwa] X 315 

volailie [volaij] aiUe 226; I p. 87 


voUtii [volatil] U 229 
volontiers [volatje] ti 293 
volontiers k mes ordres [valStje 

a mez ordra] 8 369 
voltairien [volterje] v 399 
volubilis [valybiliis] a p. 163 


vont [v5] cm p. 56 xxi B; v p. 118 


Vosges [vo:3] [vois] s 272, p. 162 

LXV, p. 163 LXVI 

Vos Majest^s [vo maseste] F, M 

votre [votr] o 106; v p. 118 lv 
vdtre [voitr] v p. 118 lv 
Votre amie aff ectionn^e [vatr ami 

afeksjane] 429 
Votre ami sincere (fiddle) [votr 

ami sese:r (fidel)], 427 
Votre bien sincere [votr bje se- 

seir] 429 
Votre Majesty [votr maseste] F, 

Votre tout d6vou6 [votr tu 

devwe] 427 
vouloir [vulwazr] v 304 

vouons [vw5] ouon p. 65 xxvi 
vous aimAtes [vu2 emat] d 51 
vous aimez k lire [vuz emez a 

liir] z 357 
vous allez k Paris [vuz alez a 

pari] z 357 
Vous avez €t6 au pare [vuz avez 

ete o park] «, z p. 141 ux 
vous avez eu [vuz avez y] a, z 333 
vous divagu&tes [vu divagat] 

Vous en avez assez [vuz on avez 

ase] 8f fij z p. 141 lex 
vous 6tes [vuz et] 15 
vous le dites [vu 1 dit] e 73 
vous mourrez [vu murre] rr 168 
vous navigu&tes [vu navigat] guA 

vous parl&tes [vu parlat] d 51 
Voyage autour du monde [vwa- 

jai3 otuir dy m5:d] V 404 
voyageur [vwajasoezr] ge p. 80 


voyelle [vwajel] 2/154 

voyez-le [vwaje la] e 385 

vrai [vre] ai 82, 90, p. 36 vm; v 

vraisemblable [vresablabl] s 269 
vu [vy] t* p. 46 XV 
vun [v<3e] un p. 56 xxi B 


w [dubl ve] [dubl va] 22, 24; [v] 

306, 307; [w] 157, 308 
Wagner [vagneir] Wj r p. 163 




wagon [vago] 22; w 307 
Wagram [vagram] am 132; 1^307 
Walker [valkeir] W, p. 119 lvi 
Wallon [val5] W p. 119 lvi 
Walpole [valpol] W p. 119 lvi 
Walter Scott [valter skot] W 307 
warrant [vara] w p. 119 lvi 
Warwick [varvik] W 306 
Washington [vazegto] [wajintan] 

17 307; p. 162 Lxv 
Waterloo [vaterlu] W 306 
water-proof [vater pruf] w 307 
Watteau [vato] Tf p. 119 lvi 
Weber [vebeir] IF 307; r p. 163 


Weimar [vemair] W p. 119 lvi 
Wellington [velegto] W p. 119 


Weser [vezeir] r p. 104 l; w p. 

119 LVI 

wh [w] 157, 309, 329 

Whig [wig] Wh 309 

whiskey [wiske] [wiski] wh 157, 

whist [wist] wh 157, 309, 329; t 

Wiesbaden [visbaden] W p, 119 


wigwam [wigwam] w 308 
Winkelmann [vckelman] W p. 

119 LVI 

Wisigoth [vizigo] W 307 
Wissenbourg [visebuir] W p. 119 


wolfram [volfram] w p. 119 lvi 
Worms [vorms] w p. 119 lvi 
Wixrtemberg [vyrtabeir] g 205 


X [iks] [ks9] [gza] 22, 24; 41; [ks] 
[k] [gz] [s] [z] 267, 280, 310- 
315, 317, 372; silent 315 

xaintrailles [setraij] x 313 

zanthe [gza:t] x 312 

Xanthus [gzaty:s] x 312 

Xantippe [gzatip] X 312 

Xavier [gzavje] X 3l2 

X^nophon [gzenafon] X 312 

Xerxds [gzerseis] x 267, 312 

y [igrek] [i] 22, 24; [i] 94, 96; 383; 

[j] 152-154; i+i [j] 125, 159, 

224; between vowels =i+i 154 
-ya [ja] 152 
yacht [jak(t)] [jot] 371^ y p. 60 

-yen [je] 136, 162 
yeux [J0] y 4, 154, p. 60 xxm; 

-ym [e] 135 
-jrmn [imn] 140 
-yn [e] 135 
Yolande [joldid] y 154 
yole [jol] y 154, p. 60 xxin 

z [zed] [za] 4; 22, 24; [s] 267; [z] 
316; final [z] [s] 318, 319, 357- 

Zacharie [zakari] ch p. 73 xxxui 



zadig [zadig] g 206 
zdbre [zebr] z p. 122 Lvm 
Me [ze(!)l] z 4, 316 
Zenith [zenit] th 299 
z^ro [zero] o 99; 2 316 
zest [zest] t 297, 299 

zigzag [zigza(:)g] g 206; 2 p. 122 

zinc [z8:k] [ze:g] c 179, p. 70 xxx, 

p. 163 Lxvi 
zone [zo:n] o 14^ 111, p. 39 x; 2 316 
Zurich [z3rrik] ch p. 73 xxxin 

Besides Nyrop's Manuel pkoniHquef mentioned in the Index under 
the letter H, the following useful books bearing on the subject here 
treated were received during the preparation of the present work: 

DuMViLLE, Benj. EUmenta of French pranundatian and diction, 

London (Dent & Sons), 1912. 
ScHOLLE and Smith. Elementary phonetics: English, French, Ger^ 

man; 2d edition. London (Blackie & Son), 1907. 

■ 0.